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A Clockwork Orange (1971) Stanley Kubrick, filming locations
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A Clockwork Orange (1971) Stanley Kubrick, filming locations
In future Britain, charismatic delinquent Alex DeLarge is jailed and volunteers for an experimental aversion therapy developed by the government in an effort to solve society’s crime problem – but not all goes according to plan.
Director: Stanley Kubrick.
Writers: Stanley Kubrick (screenplay), Anthony Burgess (novel)
Stars: Malcolm McDowell, Patrick Magee, Michael Bates.
Set vaguely in the north of England, judging by the accents, A Clockwork Orange was made almost entirely on location around London and the Home Counties (the southeastern counties surrounding the capital), with notoriously travel-phobic director Stanley Kubrick choosing locations from architectural guides.
For many years, Kubrick’s refusal to allow the film to be shown in the UK gave his blackly comic version of Anthony Burgess’ novel about free will and control an undeserved reputation as a fearsome video nasty.
Virtually the only purpose-built set, the ‘Korova Milk Bar’, was constructed in a factory just off Borehamwood High Street near to the MGM Studios (where 2001: A Space Odyssey had been shot).
The grim housing estate of Alex (Malcolm McDowell) is part of the unspeakable concrete disaster that is Thamesmead South, a vast, dismal, windswept collection of tower blocks connected by intimidating walkways. The exterior of his glum home is the Tavy Bridge Centre.
The benighted subway, where the Droogs attack the old tramp, can be found over in West London. It’s a tough call – choosing between the four near-identical subways leading down beneath the traffic island dominated by the huge circular advertising installation on Trinity Road, Wandsworth, deserted, unswept and extremely unnerving. I’m finally convinced that it’s the southern underpass, between Trinity Road and Swandon Way.
The ‘Flat Block Marina’ is Thamesmead’s artificially created Southmere Lake. Alex reasserts his dominance over fellow Droogs here by dumping Dim in the water and slicing his outstretched hand at Binsey Walk on the Lake’s western shore overlooked by the tower blocks of Yarnton Way.
More futuristic cityscapes (subsequently cut from the film) filmed in the sixties concrete shopping centre of Friar’s Square in Aylesbury, Buckinghamshire. Another urban disaster, the centre was closed down in 1990 and drastically remodelled as a much more friendly redbrick indoor mall.
The derelict casino in which the two gangs clash was on Taggs Island near Hampton Court. It was demolished shortly after filming.
The interior of Alex’s apartment in ‘Municipal Flat Block 18A, Linear North’ is a flat in the village of Elstree – not far from the Borehamwood location. Kubrick, ever the perfectionist, moved out the couple who lived here and spent £5,000 on redecoration. With filming over and the flat restored to its original state, they returned only to be moved out again so two close-ups could be shot.
‘Woodmere Health Farm’, home of Miss Weathers, the cat lady (Miriam Karlin), is Shenley Lodge, Rectory Lane, Shenley, in the Hertfordshire countryside.
Also in Hertfordshire is the interior used for ‘Home’, Patrick Magee’s futuristic pad and site of the notorious ‘Singin’ in the Rain’ rape of Adrienne Corri (when the two met in Hollywood, Gene Kelly allegedly snubbed Kubrick for the use of this number in the scene), why is Skybreak, tucked invisibly away in the tiny village of Warren Radlett, Hertfordshire. The exterior was a modernistic house in Oxfordshire.
Fast sex to fast food: the très Sixties chrome and glass Chelsea Drugstore, which stood on the Kings Road at the northwest corner of Royal Avenue, became record shop, where Alex picks up two girls for a spot of high speed ‘in and out’. The shop closed in the Seventies and is now a branch of McDonalds.
The bizarre ‘Duke of New York’ pub was the Old Leather Bottle, 76 Stonegrove, Edgware. It became The Bottle and Dragon, before being closed down in October 2002 and converted into flats.
The ‘Ludovico Medical Facility’, where Alex undergoes the gross aversion therapy, is the campus of Brunel University in Uxbridge, Greater London. The giant overhanging concrete monstrosity is the Lecture Centre in the middle of campus, opposite which Alex is received into the Art Centre. The campus is on Kingston Lane off Hillingdon Hill about a mile south of Uxbridge (tube: Uxbridge).
The newly defenceless Alex meets an earlier victim on the Chelsea Embankment at Oakley Street, Chelsea, SW3, and it’s here, under Albert Bridge that the tramps take their revenge.
A Clockwork Orange 1971 ( FILMING LOCATION ) Stanley Kubrick
The snake, Basil, was introduced into the film by Stanley Kubrick when he found out Malcolm McDowell had a fear of reptiles.
Stanley Kubrick had his assistant destroy all unused footage.
According to Malcolm McDowell (on the commentary track from the 2007 DVD release), the sped-up sex scene was originally filmed as an unbroken take lasting 28 minutes.
When Malcolm McDowell met Gene Kelly at a party several years later, the older star turned and walked away in disgust. Kelly was deeply upset about the way his signature from Singin’ in the Rain (1952) had been portrayed in A Clockwork Orange (1971).
Stanley Kubrick’s first cut (before hiring several assistant editors) ran almost four hours.
Alex performing "Singing in the Rain" as he attacks the writer and his wife was not scripted. Stanley Kubrick spent four days experimenting with this scene, finding it too conventional. Eventually he approached Malcolm McDowell and asked him if he could dance. They tried the scene again, this time with McDowell dancing and singing the only song he could remember. Kubrick was so amused that he swiftly bought the rights to "Singing in the Rain" for ,000.
The doctor standing over Alex as he is being forced to watch violent films was a real doctor, ensuring that Malcolm McDowell’s eyes didn’t dry up.
Malcolm McDowell’s eyes were anesthetized for the torture scenes so that he would film for periods of time without too much discomfort. Nevertheless his corneas got repeatedly scratched by the metal lid locks.
Before filming the scene where he had to carry Patrick Magee’s wheelchair up the stairs, professional bodybuilder David Prowse went up to Stanley Kubrick and asked if he could make sure that (due to the difficulty of the task) he got the scene in as few takes as possible, saying, "You’re not exactly known as ‘one-take-Kubrick’, are you?" The rest of the crew was horrified at such a famous director being talked to like this, but Kubrick just laughed and promised to do his best. The scene was filmed in only three takes, an incredibly small amount for a perfectionist like Kubrick. Even so, Prowse was near exhaustion after the repeated takes of him carrying Frank and his wheelchair down the stairs.
During the filming of the Ludovico scene, star Malcolm McDowell scratched one of his corneas and was temporarily blinded. He suffered cracked ribs during filming of the humiliation stage show.
Although he is playing a 15-year-old (17 in the latter half), Malcolm McDowell was actually 27 at the time of filming.
In the scene after Alex talks with the priest about Ludovico therapy, we see the prisoners marching in a circle around the exercise yard, recreating an 1890 painting by Vincent van Gogh, "Prisoners Exercising (after Gustave Doré)."
Before the rape scene was filmed, Adrienne Corri walked up to Malcolm McDowell and said, "Well, Malcolm, today you’re going to find out I’m a real redhead".
The final scene was done after 74 takes.
In the police station scene when Mr Deltoid (Aubrey Morris) spits in Alex’s face, it is actually Steven Berkoff doing the spitting. After several takes, Morris complained to Stanley Kubrick that he had run out of saliva, and Berkoff volunteered his services until Kubrick’s cameras captured the perfect ‘spit-shot’.
The first movie to make use of Dolby sound, it used Dolby noise reduction on all pre-mixes and masters, but a conventional optical sound track on release prints.
Contrary to popular claims, this was never banned in the UK. It originally received an "X" rating in 1971 and was withdrawn from distribution in 1973 by Stanley Kubrick himself. One of Kubrick’s reasons for withdrawing the movie in the UK was that, according to his wife Christiane Kubrick, he and his family received several death threats because of the film. In the 1980s and 1990s, British fans who wanted to see this movie would have to order it from video stores in other countries, usually France. In 1993 London’s popular Scala Film Club showed this movie without permission. At Kubrick’s insistence, Warner Brothers sued and won, causing the Scala to close in near bankruptcy. In 2000, the year after Kubrick’s death, the film was released again throughout Great Britain and received an "18" rating.
Anthony Burgess was raised a strict Roman Catholic and originally wrote his novel as a parable about Christian free will and forgiveness. His take on it was that to be a true Christian, one had to forgive the most horrifying of acts, something Burgess knew only too well, having seen his wife be assaulted and beaten by soldiers during World War II. This attack resulted in a miscarriage and a lifetime of gynecological troubles for his wife.
Malcolm McDowell chose to play Alex speaking in his normal Northern English accent instead of a Cockney accent. McDowell felt his softer accent would strike an interesting contrast with Alex’s menacing personality and also help him stand out amongst his friends.
The two copycat crimes that prompted Stanley Kubrick to have the film withdrawn in the United Kingdom were the rape of a Dutch girl in Lancashire in 1973 at the hands of men singing "Singin’ in the Rain" and the beating of a 16 year old boy who had beaten a younger child whilst wearing Alex’s uniform of white overalls, a black bowler hat and combat boots.
The Korova milk bar at the start was the only set built for the film.
The doorbell at the Alexander residence, "Home," plays the first four notes of Ludwig van Beethoven’s "Fifth Symphony" (but in a different key).
It is often claimed that Malcolm McDowell nearly drowned when his breathing apparatus failed during filming of the waterboarding scene. This is not true. Daily records indicate that the scene was filmed in repeated takes with no stoppage from equipment failure. McDowell has never reported a near drowning, while he does report many similar close calls in other scenes.
The language spoken by Alex and his droogs is author Anthony Burgess’s invention, "Nadsat": a mix of English, Russian and slang. Stanley Kubrick was afraid that they had used too much of it, and that the movie would not be accessible. The original edition of the novel suffered from similar criticisms, and a Nadsat glossary appendix was added to the second and subsequent editions.
The film was unavailable for public viewing in the UK from 1973 until 2000, the year after Stanley Kubrick’s death. British video stores were so inundated with requests for the movie that some took to putting up signs that read: ‘No, we do not have A Clockwork Orange (1971).’
While recording narration, Malcolm McDowell would often feel the need to stretch his legs. So to satisfy McDowell and quite possibly get better narration from him, Stanley Kubrick and McDowell would play table tennis (a sport featured in Kubrick’s own Lolita (1962)), and although they played many games, Kubrick never beat a rather skilled McDowell at table tennis. McDowell was later irritated to find that his salary had been docked for the hours spent playing the game. McDowell often kept Kubrick highly amused by his ability to belch on command (as illustrated at various points of the movie). They would play chess as well, and with Kubrick being the excellent chess player he was, McDowell never managed to beat him at Chess, something that was a regular thing with many actors in Kubrick’s films. He would regularly beat George C. Scott at Chess while making Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (1964) , and also Jack Nicholson and Shelley Duvall on The Shining (1980).
The Car used by Alex and the droogs was the "Adams Probe 16," one of three ever made.
Korova Milk Bar is named after the Russian word for cow. Moloko (written on the wall) means milk. The bar’s sculptures were based on the work of sculptor Allen Jones. Stanley Kubrick had the milk dispensers emptied, washed and refilled every hour, as the milk curdled under the studio lights. A painting on the wall reappears in Kubrick’s The Shining (1980).
This film was shot almost entirely on real locations as opposed to sets and was lit almost entirely with a Lowell Kit, a staple for film students, perhaps as a reaction against the huge apparatus needed for Stanley Kubrick’s previous film, 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968).
Anthony Burgess originally sold the movie rights to Mick Jagger for 0 when he needed quick cash. Jagger intended to make it with The Rolling Stones as the droogs, but then re-sold the rights for a much larger amount. Ken Russell was then nominated to direct because his style was considered well-suited for the material. He would have cast Oliver Reed as Alex. Tinto Brass was another possible director. At some point, someone suggested rewriting the droogs to be girls in miniskirts or old-age pensioners. Tim Curry and Jeremy Irons turned down the role of Alex. Stanley Kubrick once said "If Malcolm McDowell hadn’t been available I probably wouldn’t have made the film." Author Anthony Burgess initially distrusted Kubrick as a director, but was happy with the results. He felt the film later made the book, one of his least favorite books he had written, overshadow his other work.
One of the first films to employ radio mikes to record the sound. No post synching was required.
Rated #2 of the 25 most controversial movies of all time by Entertainment Weekly, 16 June 2006. Rated by Premiere as one of "The 25 Most Dangerous Movies." Rated as the #70 Greatest Movie of All Time by the American Film Institute, 2007. Rated #4 out of 10 by the American Film Institute’s "Sci-Fi" list, June 2008.
As he would go on to do in Barry Lyndon (1975) (to Oscar-winning effect), director of photography John Alcott lit most of the film using only natural light.
When Alex is being drowned, there is a barely perceptible micro-cut in which Malcolm McDowell was able to use the oxygen mask that was hidden in the water. The bath was muddied by using Bovril, a beef extract.
Patrick Magee kept asking Malcolm McDowell if Stanley Kubrick was all right with his performance as he felt that he was being far too over the top. Magee said that he "felt like he was taking a dump," so overwrought was his performance. McDowell assured him that this was exactly what Kubrick was after.
The first line of the novel is "What’s it going to be then, eh?" and this line is repeated frequently throughout the book. Another recurring phrase is "dressed in the heighth [sic] of [insert adjective here] fashion," which is how Alex describes every single set of clothes that he or anyone else is wearing. The movie omits all but one occurrence of each phrase. Prison Chaplain Godfrey Quigley is introduced with the line "What’s it going to be, eh?" In the next scene Alex imagines himself as a first-century executioner "dressed in the height of Roman fashion."
Malcolm McDowell is actually urinating in the toilet scene early in the film, when he goes home and prepares for bed. He drank a lot of coffee before filming the shot.
Stanley Kubrick’s first solo screenplay.
Stanley Kubrick handled the advertising campaign, including posters, commercials, the trailer, etc.
According to author Anthony Burgess, the title of the book (and the movie) came from East London slang, deriving from the phrase, "as queer as a clockwork orange." No independent references are known, however, and it is thought that Burgess invented the phrase himself.
Filming the rape scene was so difficult for the actress originally cast in the role. She quit and the part was recast to Adrienne Corri, who was said to have been furious with Stanley Kubrick for the scores of takes he required for this infamous scene, feeling it should have been done swiftly. Malcolm McDowell, however, has stated that Corri was very "game" about the brief but difficult role throughout filming.
One of only two movies rated X on its original release (the other being Midnight Cowboy (1969)) to be nominated for Best Picture at the Academy Awards.
Unusually for a film of this period, all the credits are at the end.
The film was released just over a year after principal photography began, the fastest film shot, edited and released by Stanley Kubrick.
Of the 11 adaptations that Stanley Kubrick worked on in his career, this is the least modified from its source material.
Alexander, Peter, and Dimitri (which can be shortened to Dim) were common names of Russian kings and princes of the Empire of the Tsars (1462-1917). George (Gyorgi in Russian) was their patron saint.
One of the highest grossing films of 1971.
Because of the limited budget, various techniques had to be used such as dolly shots on wheelchairs, sound recorded live on set, the use of natural light and some scenes in handheld cameras. However, at that time the new camera zoom control was first used in the picture.
When Malcolm McDowell recorded his voiceover material, it was on a simple Nagra tape recorder operated by Stanley Kubrick himself. Unusually, he did not have to dub a single one of his other lines in the film, owing to the director’s use of then-advanced wireless microphones.
Malcolm McDowell found the strange language easy to deal with as he was used to playing William Shakespeare’s plays with the Royal Shakespeare Company.
The futuristic turntable that appeared in the movie is a Transcriptors Hydraulic Reference turntable. ‘Stanley Kubrick’ found this turntable when visiting neighbouring Borehamwood company J.A. Michell Engineering, who made the spacecraft models for 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968). When shortly after Transcriptors moved to Ireland, J.A. Michell Engineering continued the production of the Hydraulic Reference turntable, as well as other new models. In 2005 Michell Engineering launched the limited-edition ‘Odyssey’ turntable.
Terry Southern recommended the novel to Stanley Kubrick when they were working on the screenplay to Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (1964).
Stanley Kubrick said in an interview that he considered the Prison Chaplain (Godfrey Quigley) to be the most sympathetic and morally admirable character in the film.
In the music shop scene there is a list of Top Ten music bands up on the wall. One of the bands listed is Heaven 17, which one of the girls mentions to Alex. This name was used by a real band in the 1980s.
After Malcolm McDowell’s cornea was scratched during the filming of the Ludovico treatment scene, he insisted to Stanley Kubrick that the extreme closeup of his eye in lid-locks be postponed until the last day of production.
Fashion designer and publisher of fetish magazine AtomAge John Sutcliffe, with artist Allen Jones, designed some explicit waitresses’ uniforms for the film which were ultimately unused. The sexualised Korova Milkbar sculptures were inspired – but not created – by Jones, who had been asked by Stanley Kubrick to contribute to the film. Jones refused as there would only be a credit, not a fee, for this work.
It is said that Stanley Kubrick made this movie because of the failure of Waterloo (1970). After he completed 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968), he had planned to film a movie about Napoléon Bonaparte’s life. After many years of research, he sent location scouts to various Eastern European locations, and even had an agreement with the Yugoslav army to supply troops for the vast battle scenes. However, after "Waterloo" tanked, Kubrick’s financial backers pulled out. He thus decided to adapt the American version of "Clockwork", which had been given to him by Terry Southern (co-writer of Dr. Strangelove or: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Bomb (1964)).
The title was translated into Serbo-Croatian as "The Orange From Hell" ("Paklena Naranca" – Croatian, "Paklena Pomorandza" – Serbian). This comes from the term for clockwork bombs – "Paklena Masina" – "Machine from hell." The Italian title was Arancia Meccanica, and the French title was Une orange mecanique. Anthony Burgess felt that these translations were misleading as they suggested a hand grenade, whereas his title meant a natural creature transformed into a machine.
Stanley Kubrick asked Pink Floyd if he could use their "Atom Heart Mother Suite" in the soundtrack. However, because Kubrick wanted unlimited license to determine what portions or edits of the song he used, the band turned him down. When Alex is in the record store, we can see the soundtrack of Kubrick’s own movie 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) on a lower shelf with "Atom Heart Mother" above it (look for the cow in the field). Other records visible in the shop are Tim Buckley’s "Lorca" (1970), on the Island shelf when Alex enters the shop. "Atom Heart Mother" is visible on this shelf as well as behind the counter. Also on this shelf is Rare Bird’s "As Your Mind Flies By." Two records to the left of the "2001" in front of the counter is Crosby Stills Nash & Young’s "Deja Vu" (1970). To the right of "2001" is "The Transfiguration Of Blind Joe Death" by John Fahey. Between The Beatles "Magical Mystery Tour" and "Atom Heart Mother" on the wall behind the counter is Neil Young’s "After The Goldrush" (1970). The first Chicago album "The Chicago Transit Authority" (1969) can also be seen. The blonde girl with the lollipop can be seen looking at a Mungo Jerry album, "In the Summertime" (1970).
Billy Russell was cast as the Librarian (Crystallography expert), but became ill in January 1971 during production. He died in December of the same year. This character was removed from the film, with some of his lines transferred to the Tramp (Paul Farrell).
Wendy Carlos’s (born Walter) synthesized score features the first ever use of a vocoder. The two pieces featuring Carlos’s custom-built vocoder, "Timesteps" (an original composition, heard during the Ludovico sequence) and Beethoven’s "Ode To Joy" from his Ninth Symphony (heard in the record shop) were recorded long before the film was made. The vocoder, according to Carlos, was a development from an earlier, unsuccessful voice synthesis method she’d used on her 1969 album "The Well-Tempered Synthesizer", and she’d implored synthesizer inventor Robert Moog to come up with something better using standard Moog Synthesizer modules. "Timesteps" and Beethoven’s Ninth were recorded as test/demonstrations of the new device, and she brought them to "A Clockwork Orange" when Kubrick hired her to score the film.
Most of the early scenes were filmed on the then under construction Thamesmead New Town project in South East London, Stage One. The flat used in the scene was the show home for the first block completed. Viewers will notice the area around the lake and beyond was under construction at the time and had two more years of building ahead. The scenes on Stage One are still present.
The tape that Alex removes from his stereo in order to play Ludwig van Beethoven bears the name of fictitious artist Goggly Gogol, mentioned later by one of the girls in the music store.
The book’s writer, Anthony Burgess, lived for a time in Malaysia during WWII. After returning to London his wife was assaulted by four American GIs during the blackout, inspiring this story. Burgess claimed that "clockwork orange" was a Cockney phrase, but most philologists agree that he made it up. The Malay word for man is "orang," as in "orangutan" (man of the jungle), and a clockwork orang would be a clockwork man. However, a UK slang expression for a gambling device is a "clockwork fruit" or "fruit machine," due to the depictions on its dials. The anthropomorphic look of a "fruit machine" (thus, its name "one-armed bandit" in the USA for its roughly man-sized shape and "arm" giving it a humanoid appearance) may well have given rise to the term "clockwork orange" in Burgess’ fertile mind as Alex, through conditioning, is turned into a robotic clockwork man, which a fruit machine resembles. Gambling also is a game of chance, and Alex literally is gambling with his soul. Dr. Brodsky tells Alex to take his chance and be free in a fortnight, as long as a vacation in Blackpool, the most popular slot machine resort in Britain.
Malcolm McDowell based aspects of his performance as Alex on the mannerisms and vocal tics of the British comedian Eric Morecambe, particularly during the dinner scene with Patrick Magee and David Prowse.
The first film to use Dolby noise reduction in the mixing of the soundtrack.
In the music shop scene where Alex asks the shopkeeper about an order he’d placed, there is a record cover clearly visible at the front that says 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968), Stanley Kubrick’s previous film.
Stanley Kubrick was afraid theatre owners would edit the movie. So every week, the reels would be exchanged for a clean, inspected copy.
The large yellow book in the tray on the prison governor’s desk is actually a "Wisden Cricketers’ Almanack."
A year after the film’s release, composer Walter Carlos became Wendy Carlos via a sex-change operation.
First cinema film of Pat Roach, in the non-speaking role of Korova Milkbar bouncer.
The film prominently features a sculpture by Dutch artist Herman Makkink (the phallic-shaped "Rocking Machine") and nine paintings and a sculpture (called "Christ Unlimited") by his brother Cornelis Makkink, all of which had been featured in Tinto Brass’ film Dropout (1970) a year before.
The song "I Want to Marry a Lighthouse Keeper" by Erika Eigen is heard playing on the radio when Alex returns home after being released. However, the second verse is not the same as that on the soundtrack album.
Both Stanley Kubrick and Malcolm McDowell regretted making this film. Kubrick found out that this film was causing gangs to form in the UK and the US, and even tried to stop the film’s distribution. This caused confusion, because he use to defend the original cut of the film being played in theaters. McDowell saw the film and was so disgusted by the character he created, he swore to never do anything like his character in this film again.
In the book, the girl whom Billy Boy’s gang is raping, as well as Marty and Sonietta (the girls Alex picks up) are described as being approximately 10 years old, and Alex rapes the two girls while they are drunk and drugged. Stanley Kubrick explained that in addition to ruling the scenes too distasteful to film, using adult actors to play the "teenage" gang members would have made Alex seem like a pedophile (rather than also being underage himself).
Despite the controversy, and the unsettling content, this film is on the America’s Film Institution’s list of the 100 greatest movies of all time.
This film is rated #1 in Watch Mojo’s Top 10: Most controversial movies
At the beginning of the rape scene (at around 10 mins), Mrs. Alexander is seated in the infamous Retreat Pod by Roger Dean, best known for his designs for the covers of Yes albums.
Author Anthony Burgess originally wrote the book with only 176 pages. The publisher, William Heinemann told Anthony that 172 pages was too short to make it into a novel. So, Anthony wrote another chapter at the end of the book that’s 24 pages longer. Stanley did not put in the last 24 pages at the end of the movie out of respect.
Anthony Burgess has expressed sorrow and bemusement at A Clockwork Orange being his most famous book. This is because he wanted the book to do well due to its own merit as opposed to the film.
Malcolm McDowell claimed that for the scene in which Mr. Deltoid spits on Alex, Aubrey Morris eventually protested having to repeat the action of spitting in McDowell’s face over many takes (as usual for Stanley Kubrick’s direction). At that point Steven Berkoff, who was present in the scene, cheerfully volunteered to do the spitting, and it is his take that was used in the film.
Alex’s prison number is 655321 (Six, double five, three, two, one), truncated from the book’s 6655321. The combination to Alex’s bedroom door is 17-34-89. When the Dim and Georgie as police are dragging Alex between them, their numbers are 665 and 667, implying that Alex is 666.
The book never tells us Alex’s last name. He nicknames himself Alexander the Large while raping the music-loving girls. Malcolm McDowell ad libbed the name "DeLarge," a pun on "the Large," in "Scene 15," registry into prison, which is original to Stanley Kubrick and not in the novel. A continuity error occurs when a caption in "Scene 31," hospital, perhaps filmed earlier, gives Alex’s last name as Burgess after Anthony Burgess. His full name is given as Alex Burgess in a number of the newspaper articles seen after his (coerced) suicide attempt.
In adapting the Anthony Burgess, book, minor incidents and characters were omitted or conflated. Some of their dialogue was reassigned to other characters, including a nameless court official’s line "I hope to God it’ll torture you to madness," reassigned to PR Deltoid. Characters not in the film include a librarian harmed by Alex who gets revenge 2 years later, prison friends (including a kindly abortionist who helps fellow prisoners injured in brawls) and prison enemies (including a man who dies of a heart attack after Alex strikes him in self-defense). A more drastic change is a scene of Alex drugging and raping two 10-year-old girls from the record shop, filmed as a consensual encounter with girls his own age. The film omits the 21st chapter of the book, which wasn’t in the US edition. In this, Alex (no longer ‘cured’) has recruited a new gang and continues his mayhem. Later, he runs into Pete, who now has a job and a family. Alex, having grown older and bored with mayhem, chooses to follow suit. He decides it is more challenging and pleasurable to build and create rather than destroy, and that he would like to build a future for himself. Stanley Kubrick only discovered this additional chapter when the screenplay was "virtually finished," and never gave any serious consideration to using it, as he felt it was inconsistent with the style and tone of the rest of the novel. It is often erroneously reported that he was unaware of the final chapter during the making of the film.
In the novel: It was not a hobo who Alex and his droogies beat up, it is a librarian. The revenge sequence for both the hobo and librarian is very similar.
Miss Weathers the cat woman was weak and helpless in the novel. She was made strong and proud in the film so she could hold her own against Alex’ attack, therefore the audience won’t lose all sympathy for him when he kills her. Miss Weathers uses a bust of Ludwig van Beethoven, Alex’s favorite composer, as a weapon against him, but he soon gets the upper hand and clobbers her. To spare us the violence of her demise, Kubrick cuts to a montage of paintings hanging in the same room.
The ending between the film and novel are Vastly different. The theme in the film is dark and evil as Alex goes back to his old ultra violent ways. As in the novel, the movie ending is indeed in it, but it is not the last chapter. The ending leave off Alex genuinely not wanting to be a menace to society and get a wife and live like a good civilian.
Many phallic references: snake crawling between the legs of the woman in the poster, the popsicles held by the girls in the record store, the tip of Alex’s walking stick, the object used by Alex to kill the woman.
When Alex returns home from prison one of the smaller headlines in the newspaper his father is reading says: "Marty Feldman’s Wife Banned."
In the novel, Georgie and Dim don’t beat Alex as police men; the beating is carried out by Dim along with Billy Boy, their former rival gang leader.
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That Was the Year That Was – 1992
Image by brizzle born and bred
1992 In Technology The first Nicotine patch is introduced to help stop smoking and DNA Fingerprinting is Invented. The continuing Balkan War for the next 3 years between Muslims, Serbs and Croats prompting UN intervention. In The UK Rioting breaks out in Cities including Bristol and in France Euro Disney opens. In the US Bill Clinton becomes president and the largest Mall in America Minnesota’s Mall of America is constructed spanning 78 acres.
The Conservative Party are re-elected for a fourth successive term
9 April – General Election: The Conservative Party are re-elected for a fourth successive term, in their first election under John Major’s leadership. With the government’s victory in the election confirmed, John Major assures the public that he will lead the country out of recession that has blighted it for nearly two years. 11 April – Publication of The Sun newspaper’s iconic front page headline ‘It’s The Sun Wot Won It’, as the tabloid newspaper claims it won the general election for the Conservatives with its anti-Kinnock front page headline on election day. 13 April – Neil Kinnock resigns as leader of the Labour Party following the defeat of his party in the General Election. he had led the party for eight-and-a-half years since October 1983, and was the longest serving opposition leader in British political history.
Diana: Her True Story
7 June – A controversial new biography of Diana, Princess of Wales, Diana: Her True Story, written by Andrew Morton, is published, revealing that she has made five suicide attempts following her discovery that The Prince of Wales had resumed an affair with his previous girlfriend Mrs Parker-Bowles shortly after Prince William’s birth in 1982.
The late Queen Elizabeth, the Queen Mother, reacted with "utter abhorrence" to Diana, Princess of Wales’s decision to "wash the dirty linen in public" by disclosing details of the breakdown of her marriage.
An official biography published today describes how Queen Elizabeth was "deeply shocked" when it emerged that Princess Diana had collaborated with Andrew Morton on the book Diana: Her True Story, which caused a sensation when it was published in 1992. She was also dismayed by the Prince of Wales’s decision to discuss his private life with the broadcaster Jonathan Dimbleby for a TV programme in which he admitted he had been unfaithful. Queen Elizabeth revealed her thoughts about her grandson’s divorce in a series of previously unpublished interviews with Sir Eric Anderson, the former Provost of Eton College, which were made available to the biographer William Shawcross.
"It is always a mistake to talk about your marriage," she told Mr Anderson, who spent a total of 20 hours interviewing her. Details of Queen Elizabeth’s thoughts on the Royal divorce are contained in Queen Elizabeth the Queen Mother: The Official Biography, which was commissioned by the Queen.
In 1992, Andrew Morton’s book disclosed that the Princess of Wales had attempted suicide on at least five occasions in the 1980s, suffered from bulimia and felt rejected both by Prince Charles and other members of the Royal family, including the Queen.
At the time of its publication, it was rumoured that the Princess herself had helped Mr Morton with the book, and after her death in 1997 Mr Morton confirmed that the Princess had indeed been the main source, and had even checked the proofs of the book for accuracy.
In 1995 the Princess recorded a Panorama interview in which she talked about the Prince of Wales’s affair with the then Camilla Parker Bowles, saying: "There were three of us in this marriage, so it was a bit crowded."
Punch ends 150 years of satire
The editors of Punch, Britain’s oldest satirical magazine, announce that it will be discontinued due to massive losses. It has been in circulation since 1841.
After Years of reports of the imminent demise of Punch had their moment of truth when United Newspapers, owner of the magazine, said it would close on April 8 1992 after 151 years. Staff were told that United had had enough of low sales, disappointing advertising revenue, and losses running at up to £2 million a year. Unless a buyer can be found, what was once Britain’s leading humorous magazine but which became the butt of the lampooners will publish only two more issues.
The old joke, "Punch is not as funny as it used to be – but then again it never was", drew little laughs as it folded.
Four years later the Egyptian businessman Mohamed al Fayed brought it back to life. He funded new exposés on the likes of Peter Mandelson, the architect of New Labour, and the media mogul Rupert Murdoch. But eventually it was costing £40,000 per issue to produce with subscriptions at only 6,000 and Mr Al Fayed closed the title again in 2002. A website still exists for the magazine, reported to have at one time refused articles by Charles Dickens, with many hoping it could make a comeback and regain its cutting-edge image.
Bring back Eldorado
The soap, which cost British taxpayers £10m – with £2m alone being blown on the huge set in the town of Coín in Malaga – only ran for one year before being axed by incoming director general Alan Yentob in 1993. The ‘sunshine soap’, which aired three times-a-week and was based around the lives of ex-pats living in the Costa Del Sol, only ran for 156 episodes from July 6 1992 until July 9 1993. It had been blasted by critics for it ‘amateurish acting’ and ‘very unconvincing storylines’ and is now a byword for a TV show which flops. But BBC staff have urged the new director general George Entwistle to ‘consider’ bringing the soap back to our screens – saying it will help brink a ‘chink of sunlight’ into recession-hit Britain.
The show started with an audience of 8m, dipping to 3.5m, but stabilising at 5m by the time it was axed – which is ‘not bad’ in today’s viewing figures.
The set in Spain once used by the BBC’s soap opera flop Eldorado is now a ghost town. The collection of deserted whitewashed buildings has been preserved by the heat and the dry mountain air in a pine forest 10 miles north-east of Marbella. The purpose-built site provided the backdrop to the doomed 1992 serial, which lasted just 156 episodes before being axed despite costing licence payers more than £10 million. Much of the money was spent on creating the set, which was supposed to replicate the sunshine and simplicity of life in Australian soaps such as Home and Away and Neighbours.
Fifteen years after it was created, the set lies empty except for the former dressing rooms which are rented out to holidaymakers. The 18 apartments and three villas are empty and the once-alluring crystal blue swimming pool has turned green and is used by ducks. Apart from graffiti and beer cans left by local teenagers who hang around the area, the set looks the same as it did when new BBC1 controller Alan Yentob axed it in July 1993. Facades, including the front of what is supposed to be a traditional Spanish church, appear just as new as they did in 1992.
The site was briefly used as a holiday camp but that suffered the same fate as the programme, which was based on the lives of British ex-pats in Spain. Eldorado remains the biggest British television flop and became a byword for failure following its year on the airwaves. It was designed to replace Terry Wogan’s chat show, Wogan, and producers hoped its sex-and-Sangria cheeriness would appeal to viewers fed up with the drab grittiness of EastEnders and the early-1990s recession.
However, the use of mostly untrained actors, the mixture of Spanish and English dialogue, persistent sound problems and appalling reviews sank the programme for good.
It ended as implausibly as it began, with one of the main characters, Marcus Tandy, played by Jesse Birdsall, escaping an attempt on his life with his car being blown up, and sailing off into the distance on a boat, with his girlfriend Pilar.
It has emerged that the set of another abandoned soap, Brookside, is also lying abandoned. The Merseyside cul-de-sac, known to millions of viewers as Brookside Close, was refurbished by developers after the programme ended in 2003 but has failed to attract interest from buyers who are now offering the entire site for £2 million.
Whatever happened to Antonia de Sancha – the kiss-and-tell lover who brought down David Mellor?
No one could blame Antonia de Sancha for being a little peeved. There she is, sitting outside her favourite restaurant in west London, when a passing photographer captures a not particularly flattering image of her. Said image is then published and compared unfavourably with those of the past, in an apparent indictment of the human ageing process.
In fact, de Sancha takes her sudden and random re-emergence into the spotlight with bemused good grace. “What is this all about?” she asks, managing a wry smile. “What am I supposed to have done?”
Nothing, really. The picture has merely made people curious about what has happened in the 20 years since she made a brief, memorable foray on to the public stage, sowing an image in the mind that time cannot wither: David Mellor, the Secretary of State for National Heritage, cavorting with her in a Chelsea FC strip. Behind his wife’s back, obviously.
No matter that the actress’s description of her affair with Mellor was flawed from a factual point of view, it was enough to hole his career below the waterline. A sometimes abrasive and arrogant character, he was the first in a long line of Tory politicians to fall victim to weakness for the flesh during the John Major era. Tim Yeo, Hartley Booth, the Earl of Caithness, Piers Merchant… the tabloid scalps multiplied as the 1990s progressed, undoing Major’s “Back to Basics” morality drive and undermining his government.
For a few weeks in 1992, de Sancha was hot property, managed to perfection by Max Clifford, then king of kiss-and-tell PR. She earned £35,000 from her disclosures, but there was a cost to her theatrical career. Now, she spends much of her time with friends in a small Spanish restaurant on the Portobello Road, apparently underemployed.
January – Statistics show that economic growth returned during the final quarter of 1991 after five successive quarters of contraction.
9 January – Liberal Democrat leader Paddy Ashdown proposes a £3billion package which would create 400,000 jobs in 12 months.
Alison Halford, Britain’s most senior policewoman, is suspended from duty for a second time following a police authority meeting.
10 January – The first full week of 1992 sees some 4,000 jobs lost across Britain, as the nation’s recession continues. Almost 20% of those job cuts have been by GEC, Britain’s leading telecommunications manufacturer, where 750 redundancies are announced today.
14 January – The Bank of Credit and Commerce International goes into liquidation.
17 January – In a Provisional Irish Republican Army (IRA) bomb attack near Omagh, seven construction workers are killed and seven others injured. This is the highest number of casualties in an IRA attack since 1988.
The first MORI poll of 1992 shows the Conservatives three points ahead of Labour on 42%, while the Liberal Democrats have their best showing yet with 16% of the vote.
18 January – John Major announces that the general election will be held on 9 April.
29 January – The Department of Health reveals that AIDS cases among heterosexuals increased by 50% between 1990 and 1991.
30 January – John Major agrees a weapons control deal with new Russian premier Boris Yeltsin at 10 Downing Street.
2 February – Neil Kinnock, Labour leader, denies reports that he had a "Kremlin connection" during the 1980s.
6 February – The Queen celebrates her Ruby Jubilee.
7 February – Signature of the Maastricht Treaty.
8 February–23 February – Great Britain and Northern Ireland compete at the Winter Olympics in Albertville, France, but do not win any medals.
9 February – Prime Minister John Major speaks of his hopes that the recession will soon be over as the economy is now showing signs of recovery.
15 February – Neil Kinnock, Labour Party leader, speaks of his belief that the Conservative government’s failure to halt the current recession will win his party the forthcoming general election.
18 February – David Stevens, head of community relations, blames the recession for the recent rise in crime across Britain – most of all in deprived areas.
20 February – Hopes of an end to the recession are dashed by government figures which reveal that GDP fell by 0.3% in the final quarter of 1991.
23 February – The London Business School predicts an economic growth rate of 1.2% for this year, sparking hopes that the recession is nearing its
March – Toyota launches the TMUK-built Carina E at the Geneva Motor Show.
6 March – Parliament passes the Further and Higher Education Act, allowing polytechnics to become new universities.
11 March – John Major announces that the election will be held on 9 April.
Shadow Chancellor John Smith condemns the recent Budget as a "missed opportunity" by the Conservatives, saying that they did "nothing" for jobs, training, skills, construction or economic recovery.
13 March – The first ecumenical church in Britain, the Christ the Cornerstone Church in Milton Keynes is opened.
17 March – Shadow Chancellor John Smith announces that there will be no tax reductions this year if Labour win the election.
19 March – Buckingham Palace announces that Duke and Duchess of York are to separate after six years of marriage.
Unemployment has reached 2,647,300 – 9.4% of the British workforce, the highest level since late 1987.
24 March – Election campaigning becomes dominated by the "War of Jennifer’s Ear".
The editors of Punch, Britain’s oldest satirical magazine, announce that it will be discontinued due to massive losses. It has been in circulation since 1841.
26 March – Television entertainer Roy Castle (59), who currently presents Record Breakers, announces that he is suffering from lung cancer.
27 March – During the 1992 General Election campaign, Conservative MP Edwina Currie famously pours a glass of orange juice over Labour’s Peter Snape shortly after an edition of the Midlands based debate show Central Weekend has finished airing. Speaking about the incident later, Currie said "I just looked at my orange juice, and looked at this man from which this stream of abuse was emanating, and thought ‘I know how to shut you up.’ ".
28 March – Amanda Normansell wins the third series of Stars in Their Eyes, performing as Patsy Cline.
29 March – John Spencer, 8th Earl Spencer and father of Princess Diana, dies suddenly from pneumonia at the age of 68.
April – Statistics show that the first quarter of this year saw the economy grow for the second quarter running, the sequel to five successive quarters of detraction, though the growth was still too narrow for the recession to be declared over.
Launch of the music video channel The Box.
1 April – The latest opinion polls show a narrow lead for Labour, which would force a hung parliament in the election next week.
4 April – Party Politics becomes the tallest horse to win the Grand National.
5 April – At his pre-election speech, Neil Kinnock promises a strong economic recovery if he leads the Labour party to election victory on Thursday.
6 April – Women’s Royal Army Corps disbanded, its members being fully absorbed into the regular British Army.
7 April – The final MORI poll before the general election shows Labour one point ahead of the Conservatives on 39%, while the Liberal Democrats continue to enjoy a surge in popularity with 20% of the vote. Most opinion polls show a similar situation, hinting at either a narrow Labour majority or a hung parliament.
9 April – General Election: The Conservative Party are re-elected for a fourth successive term, in their first election under John Major’s leadership. Their majority is reduced to 21 seats but they have attracted more than 14,000,000 votes – the highest number of votes ever attracted in a general election. Notable retirements from parliament at this election include Margaret Thatcher (Conservative prime minister for over eleven years until her resignation seventeen months ago) and the former Labour Party leader Michael Foot.
10 April – Provisional Irish Republican Army detonates two bombs at the Baltic Exchange in central London, killing three.
With the government’s victory in the election confirmed, John Major assures the public that he will lead the country out of recession that has blighted it for nearly two years.
11 April – Publication of The Sun newspaper’s iconic front page headline ‘It’s The Sun Wot Won It’, as the tabloid newspaper claims it won the general election for the Conservatives with its anti-Kinnock front page headline on election day.
13 April – Neil Kinnock resigns as leader of the Labour Party following the defeat of his party in the General Election. he had led the party for eight-and-a-half years since October 1983, and was the longest serving opposition leader in British political history.
The Princess Royal announces her divorce from Capt Mark Phillips after 18 years of marriage, having separated in 1989.
14 April – 10 April – ITV airs the first episode of Heartbeat, a long running police drama set in North Yorkshire during the 1960s.
16 April – Unemployment has now risen 23 months in succession, but the March rise in unemployment was the smallest monthly rise so far.
17–20 April – Lost Gardens of Heligan in Cornwall first opened to the public.
27 April – Betty Boothroyd, 62-year-old Labour MP for West Bromwich West in the West Midlands, is elected as Speaker of the House of Commons, the first woman to hold the position.
5 May – UEFA awards the 1996 European Football Championships to England.
6 May – John Major promises British voters improved services and more money to spend.
12 May – Plans are unveiled for a fifth terminal at Heathrow Airport, which is now the busiest airport in the world.
May – Twenty-two "Maastricht Rebels" vote against the government on the second reading of the European Communities (Amendment) Bill.
17 May – Nigel Mansell gains the 26th Grand Prix win of his racing career at Imola, San Marino. He is now the most successful British driver in Grand Prix races, and the fourth worldwide.
June – Cones Hotline introduced enabling members of the public to complain about traffic cones being deployed on a road for no apparent reason.
7 June – A controversial new biography of Diana, Princess of Wales, Diana: Her True Story, written by Andrew Morton, is published, revealing that she has made five suicide attempts following her discovery that The Prince of Wales had resumed an affair with his previous girlfriend Mrs Parker-Bowles shortly after Prince William’s birth in 1982.
9–10 June – Episodes 1450–1454 of Australian soap Neighbours are heavily censored by the BBC because they contain an incest storyline between the characters Glen Donnelly and Lucy Robinson, who had not realised they were half-siblings when they began a relationship. Scenes involving the story are cut from Episode 1450, aired on 9 June, while Episodes 1451–1454 are edited together into one episode, which is transmitted the following day. The scenes were shown uncut in repeats aired by another channel some years later.
17 June – Almost 2,700,000 people are now out of work as unemployment continues to rise.
25 June – GDP is reported to have fallen by 0.5% in the first quarter of this year as the recession continues.
30 June – Margaret Thatcher takes her place in the House of Lords as Baroness Thatcher, nineteen months after resigning as Prime Minister.
July – Statistics show that the economy contracted during the second quarter of this year.
2 July – The IRA admits to murdering three men whose bodies were found by the army at various locations around Armagh last night. The men are believed to have been informers employed by MI5.
6 July – BBC1 launches the ill fated Eldorado, a soap about a group of ex-pats living in Spain. The series is axed the following year.
10 July – One of the first major signs of economic recovery is shown as inflation falls from 4.3% to 3.9%.
17 July – John Smith is elected leader of the Labour Party.
Official opening of Manchester Metrolink, the first new-generation light rail system with street running in the British Isles.
21 July – British Airways announces a takeover of USAir.
23 July – Three months after losing the general election, Labour finish four points ahead of the Conservatives in a MORI poll, with 43% of the vote.
25 July–9 August – Great Britain and Northern Ireland compete at the Olympics in Barcelona and win 5 gold, 3 silver and 12 bronze medals.
27 July – Alan Shearer becomes Britain’s most expensive footballer in a £3.6 million transfer from Southampton to Blackburn Rovers. Shearer, who turns 22 next month, was a member of England’s Euro 92 national squad, having scored on his debut in a friendly international against France earlier this year.
6 August – Lord Hope, the Lord President of the Court of Session, Scotland’s most senior judge, permits the televising of appeals in both criminal and civil cases, the first time that cameras have been allowed into courts in the United Kingdom.
20 August – Intimate photographs of the Duchess of York and a Texan businessman, John Bryan, are published in the Daily Mirror.
27 August – Hugh McKiben (aged 19) becomes the 3,000th victim of the sectarian violence in Northern Ireland which began in 1969.
September – The former polytechnics re-open as universities.
5 September – Italian supercar manufacturer Ferrari announces that its Formula One division will be designing and manufacturing cars in Britain.
13 September – Nigel Mansell announces his retirement from Formula One racing.
16 September – "Black Wednesday" sees the government suspending Britain’s membership of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism following a wave of speculation against the Pound.
17 September – There is more bad news for the economy as unemployment is at a five-year high of 2,845,508, and experts warn that it will soon hit 3,000,000 for the first time since early 1987.
18 September – The latest MORI poll shows the Labour Party four points ahead of the Conservatives at 43%, following the events of Black Wednesday two days earlier.
24 September – David Mellor resigns as Heritage Minister amid tabloid press speculation that he had been conducting an adulterous affair with actress Antonia de Sancha.
30 September – The Royal Mint introduces a new 10-pence coin which is lighter and smaller than the previous coin.
October – First Cochrane Centre opens.
Statistics show a return to economic growth for the third quarter of this year.
3 October – Comedian and television presenter Leslie Crowther sustains serious head injuries after his Rolls Royce veers out of control and crashes on the M5 near Cheltenham. He subsequently undergoes surgery to remove a blood clot on his brain.
9 October – Two suspected IRA bombs explode in London, but there are no injuries.
13 October – The government announces the closure of a third of Britain’s deep coal mines, with the loss of 31,000 jobs.
14 October – The England football team begins its qualification campaign for the 1994 FIFA World Cup with a 1-1 draw against Norway at Wembley Stadium.
15 October – The value of the pound sterling is reported to have dipped further as the recession deepens.
16 October – The government attempts to tackle the recession by cutting the base interest rate to 8% – the lowest since June 1988.
19 October – John Major announces that only ten deep coal mines will be closed.
25 October – Around 100,000 people protest in London against the government’s pit closure plans.
26 October – British Steel announces a 20% production cut as a result in falling demand from its worldwide customer base.
30 October – IRA terrorists force a taxi driver to drive to Downing Street at gunpoint and once there they detonate a bomb, but there are no injuries.
11 November – The Church of England votes to allow women to become priests.
12 November – British Telecom reports a £1.03 billion profit for the half year ending 30 September – a fall of 36.2% on the previous half year figure, as a result of the thousands of redundancies it has made this year due to the recession.
Unemployment has continued to climb and is now approaching 2,900,000. It has risen every month since June 1990, when it was below 1,700,000. The current level has not been seen since mid-1987.
16 November – Hoxne Hoard discovered by metal detectorist Eric Lawes in Suffolk.
19 November – The High Court rules that doctors can disconnect feeding tubes from Tony Bland, a 21-year-old man who has been in a coma since the Hillsborough disaster on 15 April 1989. Mr Bland, of Liverpool, suffered massive brain damage in the disaster which claimed the lives of 95 people and doctors treating him say that there is no reasonable possibility that he could recover consciousness and in his current condition would be unlikely to survive more than five years.
20 November – Fire breaks out in Windsor Castle, badly damaging the castle and causing over £50 million worth of damage.
24 November – The Queen describes this year as an Annus Horribilis (horrible year) due to various scandals damaging the image of the Royal Family, as well as the Windsor Castle fire.
26 November – The Queen is to be taxed from next year, marking the end of almost 60 tax-free years for the British monarchy.
Pepper v Hart, a landmark case, is decided in the House of Lords on the use of legislative history in statutory interpretation, establishing the principle that when primary legislation is ambiguous then, under certain circumstances, the courts may refer to statements made during its passage through Parliament in an attempt to interpret its intended meaning, an action previously regarded as a breach of parliamentary privilege.
29 November – Ethnic minorities now account for more than 3,000,000 (over 5%) of the British population.
1 December – The first episode of the children’s series The Animals of Farthing Wood.
3 December – 1992 Manchester bombing: 65 people are injured by an IRA bomb in Manchester city centre but there are no fatalities.
9 December – The separation of Charles, Prince of Wales and Diana, Princess of Wales is announced following months of speculation about their marriage, but there are no plans for a divorce and prime minister John Major announces that Diana could still become Queen.
11 December – The last MORI poll of 1992 shows Labour thirteen points ahead of the Conservatives on 47%, just three months after several polls had shown the latter in the lead. Black Wednesday, which has damaged much of the government’s reputation for monetary excellence, is largely blamed for the fall in Conservative support.
12 December – Marriage of Anne, Princess Royal, and Timothy Laurence.
16 December – Four people are injured by IRA bombs in Oxford Street, London.
Japanese carmaker Toyota opens a factory at Burnaston, near Derby, which produces the Carina family saloon.
17 December – The national unemployment level has risen to more than 2,900,000, with the unemployment rate in the south-east of England now above 10% for the first time.
Jonathan Zito is stabbed to death by Christopher Clunis, a partially treated schizophrenic patient.
23 December – The Queen’s Royal Christmas Message is leaked in The Sun newspaper, 48 hours ahead of its traditional Christmas Day broadcast on television.
31 December – The ORACLE teletext service is discontinued on ITV and Channel 4 to be replaced by a new service operated by the Teletext Ltd. consortium. It had been launched on ITV in 1974 and used by Channel 4 since its inception in 1982.
The economy has grown in the final quarter of this year – the second successive quarter of economic growth – but the recovery is still too weak for the end of the recession to be declared.
6 January – Goodbye Cruel World (1992)
7 January – Joshua Jones (1992)
8 January – Fiddley Foodle Bird (1992)
10 January – Grace & Favour (1992–1993)
12 January – As Time Goes By (1992–2005)
27 February – Us Girls (1992–1993)
25 June – 999 (1992–2003)
6 July – Eldorado (1992–1993)
17 September – Noddy’s Toyland Adventures (1992–1999)
29 September – Funnybones (1992)
12 October – Good Morning with Anne and Nick (1992–1996)
12 November – Absolutely Fabulous (1992–1996, 2001–2004, 2011–present)
3 January – The Good Guys (1992–1993)
25 January – The Cloning of Joanna May (1992)
18 February – Men Behaving Badly (1992–1998)
9 March – Junglies (1992–1993)
9 April – White Bear’s Secret (1992)
10 April – Heartbeat (1992–2010)
26 July – TV Squash (1992)
30 July – Me, You and Him (1992)
5 September – What’s Up Doc? (1992–1995)
10 October – Gladiators (1992–2000, 2008–2009)
20 November – In Bed with Medinner (1992–1999)
6 December – A Touch of Frost (1992–2010)
24-25 December – Merry Christmas, Mr. Bean (1992)
7 January – Games Master (1992–1998)
8 February – TV Heaven
11 September – Terry and Julian
28 September – The Big Breakfast (1992–2002)
Charts Number-one singles
"Bohemian Rhapsody /
"These Are the Days of Our Lives" – Queen
"Goodnight Girl" – Wet Wet Wet
"Stay" – Shakespear’s Sister
"Deeply Dippy" – Right Said Fred
"Please Don’t Go" – K.W.S.
"Abba-esque" – Erasure
"Ain’t No Doubt" – Jimmy Nail
"Rhythm Is a Dancer" – Snap!
"Ebeneezer Goode" – The Shamen
"Sleeping Satellite" – Tasmin Archer
"End of the Road" – Boyz II Men
"Would I Lie to You?" – Charles and Eddie
"I Will Always Love You" – Whitney Houston
Some cool free annual credit report images:
Image from page 105 of “Eighth Annual Report December 5th, 1905” (1905)
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Title: Eighth Annual Report December 5th, 1905
Year: 1905 (1900s)
Subjects: National Farm School (Doylestown, Pa.)–Annual reports.
Publisher: Farm School, Bucks Co., Pa.: National Farm School
Contributing Library: Delaware Valley College, Joseph Krauskopf Memorial Library
Digitizing Sponsor: Lyrasis Members and Sloan Foundation
Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.
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ther—that is, theres a lead pencil of LlAUll ITICIIW^ FOR EVEFtY XJSE. Do you know whats best for yours? Dixons Pencil Guide will tell you.COPY FREE. JOSEPH DIXON CRUCIBLE COMPANY, Philadelphia Branch 1020 Arch Street. Main Office and Factory, Jersey City, N, J. Insure your Dwellings and Furniture Against Fire, Lightning, and Windstorm in the ESTABI<ISHED 5< Over ,000,000 paid in losses. 1 • 1 J. 1 T n ESTABI<ISHED 50 YEARS. Agricultural Insurance Co. OF WATERTOWN, N. J. Assets, ,691,926. COST. r Brick dwellings, I3.00 per thousand for 5 years. FIRE AND LIGHTNING. Furniture |8.oo per thousand 5 years.WINDSTORM. I3.00 per thousand for 5 years. ^ ^^^JUnJg^er^^^^ 422 Walnut St., Philadelphia, Pa. Once Grown Always Grown The Maule motto for more than25 years. My new SEED BOOK FOR 1906 Cost over |5o,ooo to publish. If you have a garden you can have a copyfor the asking. Send a postal for it to WM. HENRY MAULE, Philadelphia, Pa. Stanton H. Hackett 242 South Second Street
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THE INTEGRITY Title Insurance, Trust and Safe Deposit Co. S. W. Corner Fourth and Green Streets, PHILADELPHIA. Capital Stock, Full Paid = 0,000.00Surplus and Undivided Profits 675,000.00Deposits = = = 3,500,000.00 BANKING DEPARTMENT Receives money on deposit, subject to check on sight, allowing 2 per cent, interest and 3 per cent,in Saving Fund Department, on tvifo weeks notice. Rents boxes for safe keeping of valuables,inburglar and fire-proof vaults, guarded by latest improved time locks, for .00 and upwards.lyetters of Credit and International Cheques for Travelers issued, available everywhere. TITLE AND REAL ESTATE DEPARTMENTExamines and insures titles to real estate. Collects rents, dividends, interest, etc Money loanedon mortgage and mortgages for sale. Attends to all details pertaining to buying, selling andconveying of real estate. IRUST DEPARTMENTTransacts all Trust Company business and acts in the capacity of executor, administrator, guard-ian or Trustee, taking entire
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The Remnant (Main)
Picture by (vhmh)
Log May 14, 2999, Keith Holland reporting:
All of us woke as much as bombs that early morning on that terrible day…..We had heard about the war zones using mutants, but we’d never ever thought they might attain ny now labeled as Colony 13. We were therefore incorrect…..After scrambling for many my required gear we lay out for key underground bunker complex under the today, wrecked NYU pupil center. Along the way I tried my better to save your self as many individuals as I could, but i possibly could just save 4 that time…..We are actually enduring in the bunker while wanting to save your self as many individuals once we can, waiting around for the war to finish…..
We have been The Remnant….
A great level of credit with this goes to my pal Mike Rutherford. He assisted me considerably which will make this as effective as it could be with harsh critique and exemplary advice!
Additionally plenty of motivation originated from Keith Goldman.
Various good yearly credit history gov photos I found:
JAXPORT Welcomes Disney
Image by JAXPORT
Disney products is transported through TraPac Container Terminal
Gov. Scott lauds go on to bring Florida cargo in through state seaport
Jacksonville, FL, June 19, 2012 – The Jacksonville Port Authority (JAXPORT), Mitsui O.S.K. Lines (MOL) and TraPac announced these days that Walt Disney Parks and Resorts has begun importing a lot of the merchandise headed to its Central Florida parks through JAXPORT’s TraPac Container Terminal at Dames Point, a move that underscores the port’s developing attractiveness to shippers while also encouraging statewide attempts to move Florida cargo through Florida seaports.
The move in addition reflects the significance of MOL’s financial investment in JAXPORT and commitment to Jacksonville. The Tokyo-based delivery company exposed its 0 million, state-of-the-art TraPac Container Terminal at Dames part of 2009. TraPac is the U.S. terminal operating arm of MOL.
Florida Governor Rick Scott and Lt. Governor Jennifer Carroll joined up with Jacksonville Mayor Alvin Brown, JAXPORT CEO Paul Anderson, Florida Chamber of Commerce President and CEO Mark Wilson and MOL (America) Vice President Dennis Sheehan in inviting unique guests from Walt Disney Parks and Resorts, U.S., Senior vice-president and Chief Financial Officer Anthony Connelly, and shock guest Mickey Mouse to your TraPac docks for statement.
This is actually the first-time items headed to buy at Walt Disney World Resort in Central Florida can come through Jacksonville. The move reflects the efficiencies and value effectiveness of moving cargo through JAXPORT and plays a role in a coordinated drive to bring Florida-bound goods through Florida’s harbors.
“This is really what many of us in Florida wish,” stated JAXPORT CEO Paul Anderson. “We want these products our Florida residents and visitors purchase introduced through our harbors, perhaps not brought by vehicle or train from someplace out-of-state. Step by step, one container at a time, our company is trying to bring the tasks and bucks that can come along with the movement of those products home in which they belong. Shippers, importers and exporters all over globe—and today one of many world’s most beloved brands—are acknowledging that people offer an alternative solution here in Jacksonville which makes great business feeling.”
“A huge part of our commitment to Jacksonville will be share the benefits involving growth in our volumes utilizing the region together with condition,” stated Dennis Sheehan, MOL (America) Vice President. “This is a partnership, along with people doing our component which will make business gains which in turn lead to opportunity for every person.”
“Bringing a majority of our Florida-bound cargo through Jacksonville is a result of the port’s continuous improvement attempts,” said Anthony Connelly, Senior vice-president and Chief Financial Officer for Walt Disney Parks and Resorts, U.S. “This is not only a smart company choice but also enable us to carry on to construct in the positive impact we’ve on Florida’s economy. These days, the economic activity created by Walt Disney Parks and Resorts is the reason 2.5 percent our state’s gross domestic item and for several out of every 50 jobs in Florida.”
“As we continue to work every day to ensure that Florida may be the number 1 state for company, we are seeing progressively research that Florida’s economic climate is headed inside right direction,” Governor Scott said. “Disney’s decision to begin delivery items through JAXPORT is welcome development and we will continue to concentrate on improving Florida’s ports therefore even more companies will choose to work within condition.”
Disney joins an evergrowing range of businesses which may have moved company to make the most of JAXPORT’s efficient services, as they strive to much better offer the developing customer marketplace into the southeast U.S. That record includes: areas going, Michael’s Stores, Haverty’s Furniture, Coach, Bridgestone, PSS World health, Sears, Samsonite, Maxwell home and Unilever.
The Florida Chamber Foundation’s 2010 Trade and Logistics learn unearthed that 53per cent of Asian imports to Florida had been being shipped in through of condition harbors. The report in addition identified above 8 million tons of Asian imports that have been trans-loaded and transported as domestic cargo into Florida.
JAXPORT is an independent company responsible for the development of community seaport services in Jacksonville. JAXPORT is the owner of three cargo facilities and a cruise terminal. Relating to a 2009 research, Jacksonville’s interface produces 65 thousand tasks plus than billion in annual economic effect for the North Florida region.
Picture credit: JAXPORT, Meredith Fordham Hughes
JAXPORT Welcomes Disney
Image by JAXPORT
Disney services and products to-be shipped through TraPac Container Terminal
Gov. Scott lauds proceed to deliver Florida cargo in through condition seaport
Jacksonville, FL, Summer 19, 2012 – The Jacksonville Port Authority (JAXPORT), Mitsui O.S.K. Lines (MOL) and TraPac revealed these days that Walt Disney Parks and Resorts has begun importing a lot of the product headed to its Central Florida parks through JAXPORT’s TraPac Container Terminal at Dames Point, a move that underscores the port’s developing attractiveness to shippers while also promoting statewide efforts to go Florida cargo through Florida seaports.
The move also reflects the importance of MOL’s financial investment in JAXPORT and dedication to Jacksonville. The Tokyo-based shipping company exposed its 0 million, advanced TraPac Container Terminal at Dames part of 2009. TraPac could be the U.S. terminal operating supply of MOL.
Florida Governor Rick Scott and Lt. Governor Jennifer Carroll joined Jacksonville Mayor Alvin Brown, JAXPORT CEO Paul Anderson, Florida Chamber of Commerce President and CEO Mark Wilson and MOL (The united states) vice-president Dennis Sheehan in inviting unique guests from Walt Disney Parks and Resorts, U.S., Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer Anthony Connelly, and shock visitor Mickey Mouse into TraPac docks for announcement.
This is the first-time items headed to buy at Walt Disney World Resort in Central Florida comes through Jacksonville. The move reflects the efficiencies and cost effectiveness of going cargo through JAXPORT and contributes to a coordinated drive to create Florida-bound items through Florida’s ports.
“This is what all of us in Florida wish,” stated JAXPORT CEO Paul Anderson. “We wish the products our Florida citizens and site visitors buy brought in through our ports, perhaps not brought by truck or train from someplace out-of-state. Step by step, one container at any given time, we’re trying to deliver the tasks and dollars that can come along with the motion of these products back where they belong. Shippers, importers and exporters all over globe—and now among the world’s many beloved brands—are recognizing that people provide an alternate here in Jacksonville that makes great business feeling.”
“A huge element of our commitment to Jacksonville is share the benefits of growth in our volumes using region while the condition,” stated Dennis Sheehan, MOL (America) Vice President. “This is a partnership, with all of us doing our component to help make company gains which then lead to window of opportunity for everyone else.”
“Bringing a majority of our Florida-bound cargo through Jacksonville is a direct result of the port’s continuous enhancement efforts,” said Anthony Connelly, Senior vice-president and Chief Financial Officer for Walt Disney Parks and Resorts, U.S. “This is not only an intelligent company decision but will also allow us to continue to construct on the positive effect we’ve on Florida’s economic climate. These days, the economic activity generated by Walt Disney Parks and Resorts makes up 2.5 per cent our state’s gross domestic product as well as multiple out of each and every 50 tasks in Florida.”
“As we still work every day to ensure that Florida may be the #1 condition for business, we are seeing progressively evidence that Florida’s economy is headed when you look at the correct path,” Governor Scott said. “Disney’s choice to start delivery services and products through JAXPORT is welcome development and we will continue to give attention to increasing Florida’s ports so a lot more businesses will decide to do business inside our state.”
Disney joins an increasing selection of businesses which have moved company to make the most of JAXPORT’s efficient services, while they strive to better serve the growing customer market inside southeast U.S. That number includes: areas going, Michael’s Stores, Haverty’s Furniture, Coach, Bridgestone, PSS World Medical, Sears, Samsonite, Maxwell home and Unilever.
The Florida Chamber Foundation’s 2010 Trade and Logistics Study found that 53% of Asian imports to Florida had been becoming shipped in through out of condition harbors. The report additionally identified a lot more than 8 million a lot of Asian imports that were trans-loaded and delivered as domestic cargo into Florida.
JAXPORT is an independent agency in charge of the introduction of community seaport facilities in Jacksonville. JAXPORT has three cargo facilities and a cruise terminal. In accordance with a 2009 study, Jacksonville’s slot makes 65 thousand tasks and more than billion in annual financial impact for North Florida area.
Photo credit: JAXPORT, Meredith Fordham Hughes