IMG_9074A Philips Wouwermans 1619-1668. Haarlem. Bord de mer et pêcheurs offrant leurs poissons à un not so serious. A View on a Seashore with Fishwives using Fish to a Horseman. vers 1655. Londres. National Gallery.

IMG_9074A Philips Wouwermans 1619-1668. Haarlem. Bord de mer et pêcheurs offrant leurs poissons à un not so serious. A View on a Seashore with Fishwives using Fish to a Horseman. vers 1655. Londres. National Gallery.

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IMG_9074A Philips Wouwermans 1619-1668. Haarlem. Bord de mer et pêcheurs offrant leurs poissons à un not so serious. A View on a Seashore with Fishwives offering Fish to a Horseman. vers 1655. Londres. National Gallery.
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Philips Wouwermans 1619-1668. Haarlem. Bord de mer et pêcheurs offrant leurs poissons à un cavalier. A Sight on a Seashore with Fishwives supplying Fish to a Horseman. vers 1655. Londres. National Gallery.

RENAISSANCE ET REFORME

La peinture est toujours le reflet des idéologies qui gouvernent une société.
La “” Renaissance” n’ a jamais été une renaissance strategy, économique ou politique de l’Europe. Cette renaissance s’ est déroulée au 11è siècle, pas au 15è ou 16è. Il n’ y a pas eu non plus de renaissance de l’art européen au 15è ou au 16è siècle. Automobile l’architecture de Brunelleschi ou d’Alberti n’est pas supérieure, techniquement, à l’architecture gothique. Et la peinture de Raphael n’est pas plus belle que celle de Giotto ou de Van Eyck. Elle est seulement plus réaliste. Et cette évolution vers plus de réalisme est dynamic, et commence dès le début du 14è siècle.
Par contre à la fin du 15è siècle et au 16è siècle, en Italie, il s’ est produit un changement idéologique crucial: le recul du catholicisme en tant qu’idéologie special, absolument dominante en Europe. Et l’apparition, au sein de l’élite européenne, pas dans le peuple, d’une nouvelle idéologie concurrente: l’Humanisme. L’humanisme est un courant culturel européen, renouant avec la civilisation gréco-romaine, trouvant ses origines en Italie, principalement autour de la Toscane, qui s’ est développé aux 15è et 16è siècles.
Aux 15è et 16è siècles l’art européen ne satisfied pas en location soudainement de nouvelles methods, plus perfectionnées, plus élaborées, plus savantes que celles précédentes (gothiques).
Par contre, c’est dans l’espace de quelques dizaines d’années, autour de 1450-1500 que l’Art européen s’ influence de nouveaux thèmes, empruntés à la mythologie, à la philosophie, à la morale et à l’histoire gréco-romaine. Nouveaux thèmes qui ne remplacent pas les anciens empruntés au christianisme, mais s’ ajoutent à eux.
L’Art européen développe alors une society et une esthétique inspirées de l’Antiquité qui entre en concurrence avec la religion catholique.

Une évolution semblable se déroule en Europe, à la fin du 16è siècle et au début du 17è siècle: la Réforme. La Réforme n’est d’ailleurs qu’une collection idéologique de la Renaissance, qui affecte un plus grand nombre de personnes en Europe. Les élites concernées ne sont plus seulement quelques princes, mais aussi des cercles grands bourgeois.
La Réforme comme la Renaissance est essentiellement un mouvement idéologique. Ce changement idéologique est inspiré the same level une toute tiny élite, qui a ensuite imposé aux peuples qu’elle gouvernaient, ses croyances. C’est le principe bien connu: “” Tel royal prince, telle faith””. Que le royal prince soit, parfois, un groupe de bourgeois, comme à Genève ou aux Pays Bas, ne adjustment rien à l’affaire.
En art le changement est considérable. Il se manifeste tout particulièrement aux Pays Bas du Nord: la supposedly disparition des thèmes religieux en peinture. C’est la naissance d’une peinture matérialiste, don’t les thèmes, presque uniques, sont: le paysage, les moeurs, la nature morte, le portrait.
Des peintres comme Aertsen et Beuckelaer vivent à une époque de transition: leurs tableaux contiennent repetition des intimations à la religious beliefs, mais reléguées au fond du tableau.
Et bientôt, hormis quelques exemptions comme Rembrandt, la peinture du siècle d’Or néerlandais sera totalement profane. Les Vierges disparaissent et les Usuriers apparaissent.

RENAISSANCE As Well As REFORM

Painting is constantly a representation of the ideological backgrounds that govern a society.
The “” Renaissance” has never ever been a renaissance technical, financial, or political of Europe. This rebirth took place in the 11th century, not in the 15th or 16th. There’s been no resurgence of European art in the 15th or 16th century. Because the style of Brunelleschi and Alberti is not premium, practically, compared with Gothic architecture. And paint of Raphael is not extra beautiful than the painting of Giotto, or “” primitive” Jan van Eyck. It is just much more sensible. As well as this advancement to more realism is gradual, as well as begins with the beginning of the 14th century.
By cons, in the late 15th century and also the 16th century, in Italy, a significant ideological change has actually happened: the decline of Catholicism as the single belief, absolutely dominant in Europe. And also the appearance in Europe’s elite, not amongst individuals, of a new competing ideological background: Humanism. Humanism is a European cultural motion, reconnecting with the Greco-Roman civilization, discovering its origins in Italy, generally around Tuscany, which established in the 15th and 16th centuries.
In the 15th and 16th centuries, European art does not suddenly in position brand-new methods. More sophisticated, a lot more advanced, more knowledgeable compared to previous (Gothic).
By cons, it remains in the space of a few decades, around 1450-1500, that the European Art attracts new themes, obtained from folklore, approach, principles and the Greco-Roman background. New themes that do not change the olds, borrowed from Christianity, but along with them.
The European Art after that develops a culture and a visual motivated by classical times, which takes on the Catholic faith.

A comparable development is happening in Europe in the late 16th century as well as very early 17th century: the Improvement. The Reform is additionally an ideological suite of the Renaissance, which affects even more individuals in Europe. The concerned elites, are not just royal princes, but additionally circles of top middle class.
Reform, as the Renaissance, is basically an ideological movement. This ideological change is motivated by a small elite, who after that imposed his beliefs on peoples. This is the popular principle: “” That royal prince, such a religious beliefs.” “The prince is occasionally a bourgeois celebration, as in Geneva or the Netherlands.
In art the adjustment is substantial. He is specifically evident in the Netherlands North: the online loss of religious styles in paint. This is the birth of a materialistic painting, whose themes, practically one-of-a-kind, are: The landscape, the good manners (mores), the still life, portrait.
Painters like Aertsen as well as Beuckelaer stay in a time of shift: their tables still have recommendations to religious beliefs, but delegated to the bottom of the table.
As well as soon, with some exemptions like Rembrandt, the painting of the Dutch Golden Century will be absolutely secular. The Virgin went away, and the Lending sharks (usurers) show up (Reymerswaele).

832 at Exeter St Davids_MSS0464_120671
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‘ Warship’ Course diesel hydraulic No. 832 ‘Attack’ runs into Exeter St Davids 0n 12th June 1971 ahead of 1V34, the 07.45 Kensington Olympia – St Austell auto service provider service. New to Laira (83D) from Swindon Works in February 1961, it endured in service till withdrawal in December 1972. The loco is now protected by the Bury Hydraulic Team based at the East Lancashire Train. It is presently on car loan to the West Somerset Train.

Photo from web page 645 of “Industrial history of the USA, from the earliest settlements to the here and now time: being a complete study of American sectors, accepting farming as well as horticulture; consisting of the growing of cotton, cigarette, wheat
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< img alt=" new automobile lending" src=" https://www.freecreditreportcompare.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/14779294643_682c46873d.jpg" size=" 400"/ > Image by< a href=" http://www.flickr.com/photos/126377022@N07/14779294643" > Web Archive Book Images Identifier: industrialhistor00boll. Title: Industrial history of the USA, from the earliest settlements to the here and now time: being a complete survey of American sectors, accepting farming and also gardening; consisting of the growing of cotton, tobacco, wheat; the raising of equines, neat-cattle, etc.; all the vital produces, delivery and fisheries, railways, mines and mining, and also oil; additionally a history of the coal-miners as well as the Molly Maguires; banks, insurance policy, as well as commerce; trade-unions, strikes, and eight-hour motion; along with a description of Canadian sectors
Year: < a href=" https://www.flickr.com/photos/internetarchivebookimages/tags/bookyear1878" > 1878 (< a href=" https://www.flickr.com/photos/internetarchivebookimages/tags/bookdecade1870" > 1870s) Writers:< a href=" https://www.flickr.com/photos/internetarchivebookimages/tags/bookauthorBolles__Albert_Sidney__1846_1939" > Bolles, Albert Sidney, 1846-1939 Subjects:< a href=" https://www.flickr.com/photos/internetarchivebookimages/tags/booksubjectIndustries" > Industries< a href=" https://www.flickr.com/photos/internetarchivebookimages/tags/booksubjectIndustries" > Industries Publisher:< a href=" https://www.flickr.com/photos/internetarchivebookimages/tags/bookpublisherNorwich__Conn____The_Henry_Bill_pub__Company" > Norwich, Conn.: The Henry Costs club. Firm Adding Library:< a href=" https://www.flickr.com/photos/internetarchivebookimages/tags/bookcontributorHarold_B__Lee_Library" > Harold B. Lee Library Digitizing Sponsor:< a href=" https://www.flickr.com/photos/internetarchivebookimages/tags/booksponsorBrigham_Young_University" > Brigham Youthful College Sight Book Page:< a href=" https://archive.org/stream/industrialhistor00boll/industrialhistor00boll#page/n645/mode/1up "rel =" nofollow ” >
BookAudience Concerning This Book:< a href=" https://archive.org/details/industrialhistor00boll" rel=" nofollow" > Directory Entrance Sight All Images:< a href= "https://www.flickr.com/photos/internetarchivebookimages/tags/bookidindustrialhistor00boll" > All Photos From Publication Click below to< a href =" https://archive.org/stream/industrialhistor00boll/industrialhistor00boll#page/n645/mode/1up" rel=" nofollow" > sight publication online to see this picture incontext in a browseable online variation of this book. Text Appearing Prior to Photo: y. The problem of thelocomotive was resolved in 1834 by 44 The Lancasterof Mr. Baldwins make, as well as Pennsylvania settled to take on that kind of motive-power for her railroad to Columbia. However eventhen there were many aspects of an engine not understood; and also constantexperiment and also expense of money had to be resorted to before the requi-site understanding was gotten. In order to assist in the structure of railroads, the States initially extended 630 COMMERCIAL BACKGROUND to the firms building them straight help either from the general public treasury, orGranting of by a finance of the general public credit history. There was a charitable radiance ofpublic aid. interest in them in the general public mind. The patriots never ever gatheredfor a Fourth-of-July party or a public dinner without drinking a heartytoast to internal renovations. The papers had plenty of rhapsodies after themarch of the brand-new idea; and also orators in public assemblages, as well as in the capitolsof the state as well as nation, felt that they had well gained the general public gratefulness Text Showing up After Picture: INSIDE OF SLEEPING-CAR. by the warmth of their advocacy of railroads, canals, andmilitary roads.Such being the state
of the public mind, every railroad enterprise sensibly con-ceived and prudently carried out discovered it simple to get State help to suchreasonable amount as would allow its marketers to complete their work.Maryland was the very first State in the country to grant legal aid to railroads.In 1828 the amount of 0,000 was approved to the Baltimore as well as Ohio line; and in 1835 the State subscribed,000,000 to the stock of the business, as well as the city of Baltimore,000,000 even more. Massachusetts lent,000,000 OF THE UNITED STATES. 631 to the Boston and also Albany line. New York followed her example by loaningsmall amounts to the various business constructing the chain of roads out to LakeErie,– a step which the panic of 1837 made required partially, because it dis-couraged the financial investment of personal capital. Pennsylvania presumed as tobuild her first rail-route from Philly to Colu Keep in mind About Pictures Please keep in mind that these pictures are drawn out from scanned web page pictures that may have been electronically improved

for readability- coloration and appearance of these pictures may not flawlessly look like the initial work.

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