Some cool credit history contrast images:
Healthier wheat and grain suffering from Ug99 stem rust in farmer’s area, Kenya
Image by CIMMYT
Wheat afflicted with stem corrosion (Puccinia graminis) into the corner of a farmer’s industry in the Kenyan highlands. The vacant, disease-afflicted spikes into the foreground have been in clear contrast to the healthy, fairly unchanged crop behind. In this number of wheat, the spikes fold over at readiness, whereas the affected spikes have actually dried out without entering this last stage. It is possible the farmer applied a fungicide but failed to spray enough when you look at the place for the industry or perhaps the infection stress ended up being also powerful here.
The fungus resulting in the disease is the virulent Ug99 battle of stem corrosion. This is discovered in Uganda in 1999 and it is today endemic in the area. This has currently triggered extreme losses in epidemics worldwide, as it’s able to get over the weight of well-known wheat varieties. As an element of a worldwide effort, CIMMYT is using the Kenya Agricultural analysis Institute (KARI) to display large number of grain lines at its Njoro study station annually to identify sourced elements of durable resistance and test resistant outlines.
Picture credit: Petr Kosina/CIMMYT.
For more information on stem corrosion, see CIMMYT’s Wheat Doctor: wheatdoctor.cimmyt.org/en/pests-a-diseases/list/122?task=….
For lots more on CIMMYT’s continuous focus on Ug99, see the following e-news tales:
2010, "Planting money for hard times: brand new rust resistant wheat seed on its way to farmers": www.cimmyt.org/newsletter/231-2010/716-planting-for-the-f….
October 2009, "From Cairo to Kabul: Rust resistant grain seed just in time": www.cimmyt.org/newsletter/38-2009/460-from-cairo-to-kabul….
December 2008, "Report from industry: wheat-stem rust opposition testing at Njoro, Kenya": www.cimmyt.org/newsletter/37-2008/110-genetic-resources-p….
December 2006, "Threat degree rising": www.cimmyt.org/newsletter/82-2006/263-threat-level-rising.
September 2005, "The World’s Wheat Crop is Under Threat from New Disease": www.cimmyt.org/newsletter/86-2005/331-the-worlds-wheat-cr….
Persistent Ice on Lake Better
Image by NASA Goddard Photo and Movie
Though the united states is a complete thirty days into astronomical springtime, the fantastic Lakes have now been slow to give up on cold temperatures. As of April 22, 2014, the fantastic Lakes had been 33.9 % ice covered. The lake they call Superior dominated the pack.
In the early afternoon on April 20, 2014, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA’s Aqua satellite captured this natural-color image of Lake Superior, which straddles the United States–Canada border. At that time Aqua passed over, the lake had been 63.5 per cent ice covered, in line with the NOAA Great Lakes Environmental Research Lab (GLERL). Averaged across Lake better, ice was 22.6 centimeters (8.9 ins) dense; it was just as much as two times that width in certain areas.
GLERL specialist George Leshkevich affirmed that ice cover this springtime is significantly above regular. For contrast, Lake better had 3.6 percent ice address on April 20, 2013; in 2012, ice ended up being entirely gone by April 12. In the last cold temperatures that ice address grew so dense on Lake better (2009), it reached 93.7 % on March 2 but ended up being down to 6.7 % by April 21.
Normal liquid temperatures on the Great Lakes have-been increasing in the last 30 to 40 many years and ice address has actually usually already been shrinking. (Lake better ice was down about 79 per cent because the 1970s.) But chilled by persistent polar environment public for the 2013-14 winter season, ice cover reached 88.4 % on February 13 and 92.2 per cent on March 6, 2014, the second greatest degree in four decades of record-keeping.
Air temperatures in Great Lakes area were well below typical for March, and cool structure is being strengthened along the coasts since the water is taking in less sunlight and heating under in typical springtime conditions. The graph below, based on data from Environment Canada, shows the 2014 problems for all of Great Lakes in mid-April when compared to past 33 years.
Lake Superior ice address got up to 95.3 % on March 19. By April 22, it was reported at 59.9 percent; Lake Huron had been almost 30.4 percent. News outlets noted that up to 70 ships have now been copied in Lakes Michigan, Huron, and Erie, waiting for passageway into harbors on Lake better. The U.S. Coast Guard was grouping ships together into small convoys once they move across hair at Sault Ste. Marie, being maximize ice-breaking efficiency also to protect boats from harm.
Superior is the world’s biggest freshwater lake by area (82,100 square kilometers or 31,700 square miles) and the 3rd largest by volume. The seas average 147 meters (483 feet) in depth, as well as the basin is believed to put on about 10% associated with the world’s liquid fresh water.
NASA picture courtesy Jeff Schmaltz LANCE/EOSDIS MODIS Rapid Response Team, GSFC. Caption by Mike Carlowicz.
Find out more: earthobservatory.nasa.gov/IOTD/view.php?id=83541&eocn…
Credit: NASA World Observatory
NASA Goddard Space Flight Center allows NASA’s goal through four clinical endeavors: world Science, Heliophysics, Solar System Exploration, and Astrophysics. Goddard plays a respected part in NASA’s accomplishments by adding powerful scientific understanding to advance the Agency’s mission.
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