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Bay Road residence of the creator of the Boundary Watch paper in Mt Gambier.

Bay Road residence of the creator of the Boundary Watch paper in Mt Gambier.

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Bay Road home of the founder of the Border Watch newspaper in Mt Gambier.
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Brief History of Mt Gambier – the second city of SA after Adelaide (region population nearly 35,000, urban 28,000).
Lieutenant James Grant aboard the Lady Nelson sighted and named Mt Gambier in 1800 after a Lord of the Admiralty. The first white man to traverse the area was Stephen Henty of Portland in 1839 when he sighted the Blue Lake. He returned with cattle and stockmen in 1841. He later claimed that had he known the lake and volcano he had discovered in 1839 was in SA he would have immediately applied for an 1839 Special Survey. But Henty thought he was squatting on land in NSW and he was not an official SA settler so the government ordered him off the land in 1844. Thus the first official white settler of the South East and the Mt Gambier district became Evelyn Sturt, brother to Captain Charles Sturt, who took up an occupational license in March 1844 and a property he named Compton just north of the present city. In April 1844 Governor Grey and a party of assistants including the Assistant Surveyor General Thomas Burr and artist George French Angas explored the South East naming Robe and doing the first surveys. Evelyn Sturt became the first to have an occupational license to squat and the first purchase freehold land near Mt Gambier which he did in 1847- a section of 77 acres when 80 acres was the norm. He left the district in 1854 selling his freehold land to Hastings Cunningham who in 1855 subdivided some of this land thus creating the town of Gambierton. The town lands were adjacent to the site of the first police station selected near what is now Cave Gardens by the government in 1845. A small bush inn also operated at this spot. The first streets were named after early locals such as Evelyn Sturt, Compton, Ferrers and Crouch (built the first general store before the town was created) etc. The town grew quickly because of the mild climate, fertile soils, plentiful water and the influx of settlers from across the border in what was to become the colony of Victoria. Cunningham himself was a great benefactor and donated land for the first school in 1856. In 1861 the town name was changed by act of parliament to Mt Gambier. The Hundred of Mt Gambier (along with three other hundreds) was declared in 1858 and began the closer settlement of the South East.

Unlike other areas of SA the South East was seen as paradise for pastoralists and the optimistic pastoralists flocked to the area with their flocks in 1845. The large runs locked up the land and prevented farmers from settling in the region except for the fertile lands around Mount Gambier. Here small scale farmers had small properties and grew potatoes, hops, and later had dairy cows as well as growing wheat and oats. Land acts in the early 1870s designed to break up the big runs only partially succeeded in the South East where most station owners bought up their lands freehold. It was after 1905 before the big pastoral estates were really broken up for farmers and closer settlement, except for near Mt Gambier. Apart from Evelyn Sturt the other early white settlers of the South East in 1845 were Alexander Cameron at Penola, John Robertson at Struan, William Macintosh and George Ormerod at Naracoorte, the Austin brothers at Yallum Park (later John Riddoch), the Arthur brothers (nephews of Governor Arthur of Van Diemen’s Land) at Mt Schanck( now Mt Schank) and the Leake brothers at Glencoe. In fact in 1845 nineteen leasehold runs were taken up in the South East with a further thirty runs in 1846 and most had several 80 acres sections of freehold land near the main homestead. Most had got to the South East from Casterton and Portland in Victoria as the swamps near the coast were too difficult to traverse except for the country near Robe. Many of the estates were huge. Evelyn Sturt on the Compton/Mt Gambier run had 85 square miles as well as his freehold land; Robertson had 135 square miles at Struan; George Glen (and William Vansittart) of Mayurra had 110 square miles; the SA Company had 159 square miles on the Benara run; the Leake brothers had 194 square miles on Glencoe; Hunter had 56 square miles on Kalangadoo; Neil Black of Noorat Victoria had 45 square miles on Kongorong run and 101 square miles at Port MacDonnell and the Arthur brothers had a huge run at Mt Schanck. By 1851 almost 5,000 square miles of the South East was occupied by Occupational License and most licenses were converted to 14 year leases in that year. A third of all leasehold land in SA was taken up in the South East because of its higher rainfall and suitability for pastoralism and a third of all sheep in the colony were in the South East. When Hundreds were declared in the South East in the late 1850s and early 1860s pastoralists bought up the land. In one case John Riddoch of Yallum Park owned the entire Hundred of Monbulla. Another pastoralist W. Clarke who had purchased Mt Schancke station from the Arthur brothers in 1861 owned SA land valued at £1.25 million when he died in 1874 and he had 120,000 acres freehold in Victoria, 75,000 acres freehold in SA( Mt Schank) and 50,000 acres freehold in each of NSW and Tasmania! Mt Schanck was changed in Schank in 1917 when German place names in SA were changed as Schank without the second “c” is an old English name!

In the 1850s Mt Gambier was a shanty village as the South East was a region of large pastoral estates and little agricultural farming and very low population numbers. It was far from Adelaide and remote and it was only after the Princeland episode in 1862 with the threat of possible secession to a new state that the Adelaide government began to invest in the South East and really encourage settlement there. The Border Watch newspaper was established in 1861, the Mt Gambier Hotel opened in 1862 and the Mt Gambier Council was formed in 1863.By the early 1860s Mt Gambier had almost 1,000 residents making it one of the largest towns in SA after the copper mining centres of Burra, Kadina and Moonta. By the 1881 SA census Mt Gambier had 2,500 residents making it the biggest town outside of Adelaide. In 1865 four iconic historic buildings were erected-the Courthouse, the Gaol, Christ Church Anglican and the Post Office and Telegraph Station. The flourmill which later became the Oat Mill opened in 1867 as wheat farmers had now taken up lands around the Mount. Mt Gambier was growing into a fine prosperous looking town with churches, stores, banks, hotels and fine residences. In the 1870s the rural population increased dramatically with tenant potato farmers on Browne’s Moorak estate and intensive hop growing in several localities such as Yahl and OB Flat and Glenburnie etc. Also in 1876 the first commercial forestry was started at the behest of George Goyder. A tree nursery was established on the edge of Leg of Mutton Lake in 1876 on a site selected by George Goyder himself. A stone cottage for the first nurseryman Charles Beale was constructed and it survived until demolished in 1969 but the nursery closed in 1929. The nursery propagated eucalypts, Oak, Elm, Ash, Sycamore, and North American pines. Pinus radiata was first grown at Leg of Mutton Lake and was being dispersed to other areas by 1878. Pinus canariensis was also grown in the 1880s. Pinus radiata is now the most commonly grown commercial forest tree in SA and Australia. Also in the 1870s the first hospital was erected and Dr Wehl, the town’s doctor for many years was in residence.

In the mid 1880s the first rail line was laid as the railway lines pushed out from Mt Gambier to Naracoorte. The service to Naracoorte began in 1887 and connected on with the line to Bordertown and Adelaide. By 1897 a railway connected Mt Gambier to Millicent and the port at Beachport. The railway line across the border to Heywood and Melbourne was not completed until 1917 as the SA government resisted a line that would take goods and passengers from Mt Gambier to Port Melbourne rather than to Port Adelaide. Mt Gambier railway station used to be a hive of activity with daily trains to Adelaide and an overnight sleeper services several times a week. Passenger trains to Mt Gambier from Adelaide stopped in 1990 after Australian National took over the SA railway network. Freight services stopped in 1995 and the railway line and station was formally closed. The railyards and other buildings were cleared in 2013.

The Buandik Aboriginal People.
The Buandik people are commemorated in a city street but by little else. Yet they were resilient and determined fighters opposed to the white settlement of the South East. Their occupation of the Mt Gambier district stretches back to around 20,000+ years but their dated occupation from archaeological sites goes back to about 11,000 years with their myths and legends including stories about volcanic activity at Mt Gambier. The last volcanic explosions were about 4,000 years ago. Both Mt Schank and Mt Gambier were important places to the Buandik for ceremonies, hunting, access to water and stone implement making. A government report in 1867 noted that the Buandik people in government care were few in number mainly sickly and elderly. The younger people had presumably moved out into the white community. But back in the 1840s the Buandik were a force to be reckoned with. There are no common stories of Aboriginal massacres but white pastoralists certainly retaliated when sheep were stolen. On Mt Schank station the Buandik were so troublesome that shepherds would not venture out to care for sheep alone and the Arthur brothers gave this trouble as their reason for them selling the run in 1845. In 1845 the government established a police station at Mt Gambier, which the Protector of Aboriginals visited, to ensure that pastoralists did not massacre the Buandik.

William Vansittart and Vansittart Park.
Vansittart Park has been a focal point of Mt Gambier since 1884 for activities such as family picnics, political rallies and speeches, bike racing, band rotunda concerts, bowling greens, sport oval, grandstand (1927) and Anzac memorial services. But who was William Vansittart? He was an Anglican reverend from England (Vansittart is a noble and political Anglo-Irish family in the UK) who arrived in SA in 1847 as a young bachelor. He was never licensed as a minister in SA but he developed his passions for making money and horse racing here. He mixed with the elite of Adelaide like Sir Samuel Davenport, the Governor and was a friend of Hurtle Fisher and he was Master of the Hounds. In 1850 he purchased 35 acres at Beaumont where he built Tower House and 80 acres at Mt Gambier. He imported a thoroughbred horse from Hobart called Lucifer. Ironic that a minister of religion would have a horse called Lucifer! His horses raced in Adelaide, Salisbury, Gawler, Brighton and Clare as well as in Mt Gambier and Penola. In 1851 he also took over the 110 square mile 14 year lease of Mayurra run with George Glen of Millicent. In 1852 he returned to England for a short time and on his return he purchased more freehold land bringing his estate to around 800 acres. Not long after in 1854 his horse shied, he was thrown against a tree and died of head injuries but he died intestate with an estate worth over £10,000. Glen bought out his share of Mayurra; the Beaumont house and property was sold in 1867 as were his race horses and his brother Captain Spencer Vansittart eventually inherited the Mt Gambier property. In accordance with William’s wishes 115 acres were set aside to provide income for a scholarship for boarders at St Peters Boys College which happened from 1859. Later in 1883 Spencer Vansittart offered 20 acres to the Mt Gambier Council for a memorial park at the “nominal” sum of £400 which hardly seems “nominal”. The Council raised a loan and purchased the land and the park is still enjoyed by the city’s residents and visitors. Captain Spencer’s widow sold the last package of 300 acres of land in 1912 thus ending the Vansittart links with Mt Gambier. The Vansittart scholarship is still available for boarders from the South East and is operated by a group of College trustees.

Some Historic Buildings in Mt Gambier and a town walk.
Your town walk is basically straight ahead along Penola Road towards the Mount itself which becomes Bay Road( the bay is at Port MacDonnell) once you cross Commercial Street which is the Main Street. There are just a few diversions to the left as you face the Mount. The coach will collect you at the Mount end of the walk near the Old Courthouse.

If you a good walker check out the fine houses in Jardine Street at numbers 1, 7, 9, 11, 12, 17 and 22. They range from cottages to Gothic and turreted mansions including the home of Jens the hotelier. This detour will add another 10 minutes to the walk if you elect to do it.

1.Catholic Covent. Sisters of Mercy setup a convent school in 1880. This wonderful convent was not built until 1908 in local dolomite stone & limestone quoins. Note the fine stone gables with small niches for statuary, the well proportioned arched colonnades and upstairs oriel windows – the projecting bay windows with stone supports. This is one of the finest buildings in Mt Gambier. The convent closed in 1986. Now Auspine.

2.Wesleyan Methodist Church Hall/Sunday School. Across the street is pink dolomite neo-classical style Wesleyan Methodist Sunday School Hall. Hundreds of children attended Sunday School in those days. It opened in 1904. It is now commercial offices. (If you want to walk up Wyatt Street beside the Sunday School and turn right at second street which is at Gray you will see the old two storey Methodist Manse at 101 Gray St. It was built in 1868 and sold 1941. As you turn into Gray Street the Salvation Army Hall is on your left. Allow 10 minutes for this detour before returning to Penola Road).

3.Methodist Church now Liberty Church. A Gothic large church built in 1862 by the Wesleyans. Opened by minister from Portland. Additions made 1877 with new entrance. The old lecture hall and Sunday School was beneath the church. Note the buttress on corners and sides. Became Uniting Church 1977 and closed 1994 when services moved to St Andrews Presbyterian Church. Behind the church (walk through the car park) in Colhurst Place is LLandovery two storey mansion now a B&B. Built 1878 for a flour and oat miller who had his mill in Percy Street.

4.St Paul’s Catholic Church. This impressive Gothic church with huge tower with crenulations was opened in 1884 and will be open today. There are 1966 extensions to the rear of it. The Presbytery is behind the church facing Alexander St. it was built in 1901 when the church was free of building debt. The first thatched bush church was built in another location in 1855. From 1857 the priest was Father Julian Tenison Woods, explorer, academic, horseman etc. A second church opened in 1861 in Sturt St and is now demolished. It closed in 1885 as this church opened. The bells came from Dublin. The church fence and gates built 1936.

5.The Mount Gambier Club. Across the street is the Club. It was built in 1904 for a local distiller as chambers for lease. The wealthy pastoralists of the South East formed an exclusive men only club in 1913 and it has used the upper floor of Engelbrecht’s chambers ever since. They purchased the whole building in 1920. The Club is a beautifully proportioned classical style building with pediments, balustrades, window entablature, and perfect symmetry. Look down the sides and you can see it is made of Mt Gambier limestone blocks.

6.Mt Gambier Caledonian Hall. Next door is the Scots Club. Its prominence signifies the Scottish links of many Gambier residents. The hall was opened in 1914 and opened by the former Prime Minister Sir George Reid, another Scot. It has classical features but is rather ugly and neglected these days. It is now a night club.

7.The Trustees Building. Next to the Caledonian is the Trustee Building erected in 1958. Its blue and bone tiled façade is typical of 1950s architecture yet the rectangular appearance has a slight classical look about it. It is on the SA Heritage Register. Accountants now occupy it.

8.Turn left into Percy Street and go along here beyond KFC for one town block to the next corner for the Oatmills (now a coffee shop and cinemas). Milling and brewing were two of Mt Gambier’s prime 19th century industries. The 4 storey complex here was started in 1867 for Welsh Thomas Williams who eventually had five flour mills. His mill was called Commercial Flourmills. A new owner converted the mill from wheat milling to oat milling. A new oatmill was built in 1901 and operated until 1975 producing Scottish porridge oats. The mill has now been restored with café, shops and cinemas. Return to Penola Rd.

9. Mt Gambier Hotel. No hotel could have a more remarkable origin than the Mt Gambier. An African American John Byng built a weatherboard hotel near here in 1847. The third licensee Alexander Mitchell, another Scot, took it over and moved the hotel to this corner site in 1862 as an impressive two storey hotel which was unusual at that time. The western wing was added in 1883 and balconies affixed in 1902.

10.Cross towards the Mount with the traffic lights then turn left into Commercial Street East.

11.Mt Gambier Town Hall. Marked as the Riddoch Gallery this fine Venetian Gothic style building is impressive with its coloured stone work contrasting well with cement rendered horizontal lines and vertical panels around windows and doors. The upper windows are mullioned with stone divisions between the glass. It was built in 1882 with the clock tower added in 1883 after a donation. The first Council meeting was in 1863 with Dr Wehl as chairman held in a hotel. Later the Council hired a room at the Foresters Hall and then they purchased this site in 1868 with a weatherboard room. This was used until 1882.

12.Mt Gambier old Institute. The Literary Institute was formed in 1862 and a foundation stone laid for a reading room/hall in 1868 by John Riddoch. The single storey institute opened in 1869. The upper floor was added in 1887, so that it would match the new Town Hall. It is built in a similar style- Venetian Romanesque as the windows and rounded and not arched as with a gothic structure.

13.Captain Gardiner Memorial Fountain 1884. The fountain was presented by Captain Robert Gardiner the grandfather of Sir Robert Helpman (his name was originally Helpmann). The fountain was made in Melbourne .Gardiner was also a benefactor of St Andrew’s Presbyterian -he donated the pipe organ in 1885.

14.Jens Hotel. After demolishing an earlier hotel (the 1847 hotel of John Byng) Johannes Jens had the first section of his Jens Hotel built on this corner in 1884. An almost identical eastern wing was erected in 1904 and the Spanish Art Deco section in 1927. Turn right here and go behind the Town hall to the Cave Gardens.

15.Cave Gardens. This spot was an early water supply. A garden was created in 1893 and then improved and reconstructed in 1925. This sink hole has recently been upgraded again and it is lit at night.

16.Post Office. This important communications centre was erected in 1865 as a telegraph office/post office. This is till one of the finest buildings in Mt Gambier and a rare example of the Georgian style for the city. . The single storey side wings were added in 1906 in a sympathetic style. It is still the main city Post Office.

17.Norris Agency Building. This superb Italianate building was completed in 1900 as chambers for businessmen. Owner was Alexander Norris who died in 1917. The façade is pink dolomite with cement quoins and unusual lined decoration work above the windows and door each contained within a triangular classical pediment.

18.Farmers Union Building. Another classical style building built when this style was out of fashion in 1914.Erected for Farmers Union as a large two storey building. It has none of the grace of the Norris building next door. FU was formed in 1888 in Jamestown by Thomas Mitchell, a Scot and others to provide cheap rates for grains, seeds and superphosphate but in the early 1900s they branched into products for dairy farmers and the marketing of milk products. The Mt Gambier district had plenty of dairy farmers. It is now owned by a Japanese company Kirin but it still markets its chocolate milk drinks as Farmers Union. Upper floor has double pilasters (flattened pillars) with top volutes but little other decoration.

19.Savings Bank Building on the corner. The former Savings Bank in Gothic style is unusual for commercial premises in Mt Gambier. It is constructed of weathered local limestone and was built in 1906. Note the different cut stone for the foundations, simulated turrets on the corners and by the door to break the façade appearance and the stone line above the lower window which then divides the façade into equal thirds.

20.Macs Hotel. This hotel was built in 1864 and is largely unchanged except that the upper floor was added in 1881. The first licensee was a Scot named John MacDonald. The double veranda supports are very elegant.

21.Roller flourmill now a painted hardware store. Built 1885 as a steam flourmill in pink dolomite. Note the small 12 paned windows set in much larger indented niches in the walls on the northern wall. (Sturt St.)

22.Christ Church Anglican Church and hall. Dr Browne of Moorak donated half the money for the construction of Christ Church in pink dolomite and with an unusual gabled tower. Church and tower completed in 1866. Adjacent is the Jubilee Hall built in 1915, destroyed by fire in 1951, and rebuilt exactly the same in weathered local limestone blocks with the original foundation stone still in place. It has the single Gothic window in the street facing gable and a crenulated square tower. Adjoining it is the 1869 Sunday School with the narrow double pointed Gothic windows. It was extended in 1892. The lychgate is more recent as a memorial to a regular church goer, Margaret French who died in 1927.

23.The old railway station just visible along the rail lines to your right. The first rail line was to Beachport in 1879 and the second to Naracoorte (and so to Adelaide) in 1887. Portland and Melbourne line opened 1917. A spur line to Glencoe was completed in 1904. First station was erected in 1879. It was demolished for the erection of the current station in 1918 which is similar in design to those in Tailem Bend, Bordertown, Moonta etc. Bluebird rail cars started on the Mt Gambier run in 1953 when the old 3’6” gauge line to Wolseley was converted to 5’3”. The last passenger service to Adelaide finished in 1990 and the station closed for freight in 1995. The railyards were cleared in 2013 and the future of the station is bleak. The rail lines to Beachport and Glencoe closed in 1956/57.

24.The Old Courthouse, 42 Bay Rd. It has a great low wall suitable for sitting on. This well designed Georgian style Courthouse opened in 1865 and the similarly styled side wings were added in 1877. The front veranda, which is not Georgian in style, was added in 1880. In 1975 the Courthouse was granted to the National Trust for a museum. The adjoining new Courthouse opened in 1975 at the same time. Note the “blind” windows to the façade but the same rounded Georgian shaped, 16 paned windows on the sides.

The Blue Lake, Mt Schank and Volcanoes.
The jewel in the crown of Mt Gambier is undoubtedly the volcanic cone, the crater lakes especially the Blue Lake and the surrounding Botanic Gardens and parklands. The Botanic Garden on the north side was approved in 1872 but nothing happened about plantings and care until 1882. The first pleasure road through the saddle between the Blue Lake and the Valley Lake was created in the 1861 as a more direct road to the then newly created international port named Port MacDonnell. That is why the road is called the Bay road. Surveyor General George Goyder explored the lake surrounds himself in 1876 when he selected the site for the government tree nursery. Later the government established the first sawmill on the edge of the crater reserve near Moorak homestead in the early 1920s. The Centenary Tower was initiated in 1900 to celebrate the centenary of Captain Grant sighting Mt Gambier. It took several years to complete and was opened by the Chief Justice of SA Sir Samuel Way in 1907 but it was completed in 1904. The whole complex is a maar geomorphological formation which originated during a volcanic era about 28,000 years ago but in a second phase of volcanic activity 4,000 to 6,000 years ago the cones and lakes of Mt Gambier were created along with the cones of Mt Schank and Mt Burr near Millicent. Mt Gambier was the most recent volcanic explosion in Australia. The crater lakes are: Blue Lake, Valley Lake, Leg of Mutton Lake and Browne’s Lake (dry). The Blue Lake is linked to the aquifers beneath the deep layers of limestone which underlay the entire South East. Blue Lake is about 72 metres deep and some of the water in it is estimated to be about 500 years old but it is mixed with rain runoff each year as well. The Lake provides the water supply for Mt Gambier. Deep in the lake are examples of the oldest living organisms on earth- stromatalites. The lake changes colour from grey to vivid blue each November and reverts in the following April. The change in colour is related to the position of the sun and reflected light from suspended particles in the lake which reflect blue green light rather than brown grey light. Secondly the suspended matter only occurs because the water near the surface rises in temperature in the spring and it is this which causes the particles to precipitate out of the water. The precipitated matter settles on the bottom of the lake ready for a new cycle the following spring. Like the Blue Lake various sink holes in the district have linkages to the underlying aquifer through the layers of limestone too and they include Cave Gardens, Umpherstone, Piccaninni Ponds, etc.

Moorak Station and Tenison Woods College.
Moorak station as originally known as Mount Gambier Station established by George Glen in the 1840s. The leasehold was later taken over by David Power who in turn sold it to Fisher and Rochford who in turn sold the estate as freehold to the Scottish Dr William Browne who had established Booborowie run with his brother in 1843 north of Burra. The Browne brothers dissolved their partnership around 1865 and John went to live at Buckland Park and William took up residence at Moorak. William had purchased Moorak Station in 1862 and built the grand Moorak homestead in impressive Georgian style onto a smaller house there. William died in 1894 and the Moorak Estate passed to his son Colonel Percival Browne who was to disappear on the ill-fated voyage of the new steamer the Waratah in 1909 which disappeared during a storm off Durban, South Africa. Also on that voyage was Mrs. Agnes Hay (nee Gosse) of Mt Breckan Victor Harbor and Linden Park Estate Adelaide and some 200 other poor souls. Around 1909 the Moorak Station was subdivided for closer settlement and in the 1920s the Marist Brothers purchased the homestead with a little land for their and monastery and opened the Marist Brothers Agricultural College for boys in 1931. That college in turn merged with the Mater Christi College in 1972 to become Tenison College. (Mater Christi College had been formed in 1952 by the merger of the St Josephs Convent School (1880) and St Peters Parish School but the primary section of St Peters broke away in 1969 from Mater Christi College and formed a separate St Peters Primary School. This primary school in turn merged with Tenison College in 2001 to form Tenison Woods College!) The College name commemorates the work of Father Julian Tenison Woods who arrived in Mt Gambier in 1857 to work in Penola and Mt Gambier. It was he who encouraged Mary MacKillop to take her vows and establish her Sisters of St Joseph.

Dr Browne’s manager of Moorak Estate in 1868 introduced hops as a viable crop in the South East and large quantities were grown for about 20 years. Other early experimental crops grown included tobacco, cotton and flax. Dr Browne and Moorak were also important in the potato industry. Dr Browne leased around 830 acres to 20 tenants for the express purpose of growing potatoes. He was keen to emulate the British aristocracy although he was a good Scot with being a manorial style landlord with tenant farmers. Potatoes were also grown from the early years at Yahl, OB Flat and Compton near Mt Gambier. The potatoes were carted down to Port MacDonnell and shipped to Adelaide for consumers. As one of the major wool producers of Australia William Browne contributed roughly half of the funds for the erection of Christ Church Anglican in Mt Gambier. The Moorak estate consisted of around 11,000 acres of the most fertile volcanic soil in SA with another 2,000 acres in a nearby property, German Creek near Carpenter’s Rocks. Dr Browne ran Silky Lincolns on Moorak for their wool as Merinos did not fare well on the damp South East pastures. About 2,000 acres was in wheat, about 2,500 acres was tenanted to other farmers and around 4,000 acres were in lucerne, clover, rye and other pasture grasses. William Browne returned to live in England in 1866 so his sons could attend Eton and military training colleges there. He made regular trips to SA about every second year to oversee his many pastoral properties here. When he died in 1894 he left 100,000 acres of freehold land in SA to his children who all resided here as well as leasehold land. He was an extremely wealthy man. Son Percival took control of Moorak. Before Percival’s death Moorak Estate was partly purchased by the SA government in 1904 for closer settlement when they acquired around 1,000 acres. After Percival’s death a further 6,300 acres was acquired for closer settlement and the remainder of the estate was sold to other farmers. The government paid between £10 and £31 per acre for the land. Percival Browne was highly respected in Mt Gambier and a reserve around the Blue Lake is named after him. The fourth of the crater lakes of Mt Gambier is also named Browne’s Lake after the family but it has been dry for decades. In 1900 Colonel Browne planted the ring of English Oaks around what was to become the oval of the Marist Brothers College.

Moorak.
There is a memorial by the station to William Browne as founder of the Coriadale Sheep Stud. The great Moorak woolshed was demolished in 1939. The Union church which opened in 1920 was used by the Methodists and the Anglicans. It is now a private residence. Moorak hall was opened in 1926. New classrooms were added to the Moorak School in 1928 and the first rooms opened in 1913. The cheese factory in Moorak opened in 1913 as a cooperative and was sold to Farmers Union in 1949. They closed the factory in 1979. Most of the cheese produced at Moorak went to the Melbourne market. The first cheese maker at Moorak was trained at Lauterbach’s cheese factory at Woodside. Moorak was one of a circle of settlements around Mt Gambier that had butter/cheese factories. These towns were: Kongorong; Glencoe East; Glencoe West; Suttontown; Glenburnie; Mil Lel; Yahl; OB Flat; Moorak; Mt Schank; and Eight Mile Creek.

Yahl.
In the 1860s this tiny settlement was a tobacco, hop and potato growing district and it persisted with potatoes up until recent times. Today Yahl is little more than a suburban village of Mt Gambier with a Primary school with approx 120 students. The old government school was erected in 1879. It had a Methodist church built in 1880 which operated as a church until 1977 and it had a large butter factory which had opened in 1888. The butter and cheese factory was taken over by the OB Flat cheese factory in 1939 and the two operated in conjunction with each other. The OB Flat cheese factory closed in 1950 and all production moved to Yahl. The factory finally closed in 1971. The township of Yahl also had a General Store and a Salvation Army Hall which was built in 1919.

Sink Holes: Umpherston Gardens and Cave Gardens.
James Umpherston purchased land near Mt Gambier in 1864 which included a large sink hole or collapsed cavern with a lake in the bottom. He was born in Scotland in 1812 and came to SA in the 1850s with his brother William. William purchased his first land at Yahl in 1859. James Umpherston was a civic minded chap being a local councilor, a parliamentarian in Adelaide for two years and President of the Mt Gambier Agricultural and Horticultural Society for 13 years. When he retired from civic life and farming in 1884 he decided to create a garden in his sinkhole. He beautified it and encouraged visitors and even provided a boat in the lake for boat rides. Access was gained by steps and a path carved into the sinkhole walls. However after he died in 1900 the garden was ignored, became overgrown and was largely forgotten in 1949 when the Woods and Forests Department obtained the land for a new sawmill at Mt Gambier. By then the lake had dried up as the water table had fallen over the decades. In 1976 staff, rather than the government, decided to restore the Umpherstone gardens. The cleared out the rubbish that had been dumped in the sinkhole, restored the path access, trimmed the ivy and replanted the hydrangeas and tree ferns. In 1994 the Woos and Forests Department handed over the land around the sinkhole to the City of Mt Gambier. It was added to the SA Heritage Register in 1995.

Mt Gambier. 1927 additions in Jens Hotel Mt Gambier in Art Nouveau Spanish Mission style
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Brief History of Mt Gambier – the second city of SA after Adelaide (region population nearly 35,000, urban 28,000).
Lieutenant James Grant aboard the Lady Nelson sighted and named Mt Gambier in 1800 after a Lord of the Admiralty. The first white man to traverse the area was Stephen Henty of Portland in 1839 when he sighted the Blue Lake. He returned with cattle and stockmen in 1841. He later claimed that had he known the lake and volcano he had discovered in 1839 was in SA he would have immediately applied for an 1839 Special Survey. But Henty thought he was squatting on land in NSW and he was not an official SA settler so the government ordered him off the land in 1844. Thus the first official white settler of the South East and the Mt Gambier district became Evelyn Sturt, brother to Captain Charles Sturt, who took up an occupational license in March 1844 and a property he named Compton just north of the present city. In April 1844 Governor Grey and a party of assistants including the Assistant Surveyor General Thomas Burr and artist George French Angas explored the South East naming Robe and doing the first surveys. Evelyn Sturt became the first to have an occupational license to squat and the first purchase freehold land near Mt Gambier which he did in 1847- a section of 77 acres when 80 acres was the norm. He left the district in 1854 selling his freehold land to Hastings Cunningham who in 1855 subdivided some of this land thus creating the town of Gambierton. The town lands were adjacent to the site of the first police station selected near what is now Cave Gardens by the government in 1845. A small bush inn also operated at this spot. The first streets were named after early locals such as Evelyn Sturt, Compton, Ferrers and Crouch (built the first general store before the town was created) etc. The town grew quickly because of the mild climate, fertile soils, plentiful water and the influx of settlers from across the border in what was to become the colony of Victoria. Cunningham himself was a great benefactor and donated land for the first school in 1856. In 1861 the town name was changed by act of parliament to Mt Gambier. The Hundred of Mt Gambier (along with three other hundreds) was declared in 1858 and began the closer settlement of the South East.

Unlike other areas of SA the South East was seen as paradise for pastoralists and the optimistic pastoralists flocked to the area with their flocks in 1845. The large runs locked up the land and prevented farmers from settling in the region except for the fertile lands around Mount Gambier. Here small scale farmers had small properties and grew potatoes, hops, and later had dairy cows as well as growing wheat and oats. Land acts in the early 1870s designed to break up the big runs only partially succeeded in the South East where most station owners bought up their lands freehold. It was after 1905 before the big pastoral estates were really broken up for farmers and closer settlement, except for near Mt Gambier. Apart from Evelyn Sturt the other early white settlers of the South East in 1845 were Alexander Cameron at Penola, John Robertson at Struan, William Macintosh and George Ormerod at Naracoorte, the Austin brothers at Yallum Park (later John Riddoch), the Arthur brothers (nephews of Governor Arthur of Van Diemen’s Land) at Mt Schanck( now Mt Schank) and the Leake brothers at Glencoe. In fact in 1845 nineteen leasehold runs were taken up in the South East with a further thirty runs in 1846 and most had several 80 acres sections of freehold land near the main homestead. Most had got to the South East from Casterton and Portland in Victoria as the swamps near the coast were too difficult to traverse except for the country near Robe. Many of the estates were huge. Evelyn Sturt on the Compton/Mt Gambier run had 85 square miles as well as his freehold land; Robertson had 135 square miles at Struan; George Glen (and William Vansittart) of Mayurra had 110 square miles; the SA Company had 159 square miles on the Benara run; the Leake brothers had 194 square miles on Glencoe; Hunter had 56 square miles on Kalangadoo; Neil Black of Noorat Victoria had 45 square miles on Kongorong run and 101 square miles at Port MacDonnell and the Arthur brothers had a huge run at Mt Schanck. By 1851 almost 5,000 square miles of the South East was occupied by Occupational License and most licenses were converted to 14 year leases in that year. A third of all leasehold land in SA was taken up in the South East because of its higher rainfall and suitability for pastoralism and a third of all sheep in the colony were in the South East. When Hundreds were declared in the South East in the late 1850s and early 1860s pastoralists bought up the land. In one case John Riddoch of Yallum Park owned the entire Hundred of Monbulla. Another pastoralist W. Clarke who had purchased Mt Schancke station from the Arthur brothers in 1861 owned SA land valued at £1.25 million when he died in 1874 and he had 120,000 acres freehold in Victoria, 75,000 acres freehold in SA( Mt Schank) and 50,000 acres freehold in each of NSW and Tasmania! Mt Schanck was changed in Schank in 1917 when German place names in SA were changed as Schank without the second “c” is an old English name!

In the 1850s Mt Gambier was a shanty village as the South East was a region of large pastoral estates and little agricultural farming and very low population numbers. It was far from Adelaide and remote and it was only after the Princeland episode in 1862 with the threat of possible secession to a new state that the Adelaide government began to invest in the South East and really encourage settlement there. The Border Watch newspaper was established in 1861, the Mt Gambier Hotel opened in 1862 and the Mt Gambier Council was formed in 1863.By the early 1860s Mt Gambier had almost 1,000 residents making it one of the largest towns in SA after the copper mining centres of Burra, Kadina and Moonta. By the 1881 SA census Mt Gambier had 2,500 residents making it the biggest town outside of Adelaide. In 1865 four iconic historic buildings were erected-the Courthouse, the Gaol, Christ Church Anglican and the Post Office and Telegraph Station. The flourmill which later became the Oat Mill opened in 1867 as wheat farmers had now taken up lands around the Mount. Mt Gambier was growing into a fine prosperous looking town with churches, stores, banks, hotels and fine residences. In the 1870s the rural population increased dramatically with tenant potato farmers on Browne’s Moorak estate and intensive hop growing in several localities such as Yahl and OB Flat and Glenburnie etc. Also in 1876 the first commercial forestry was started at the behest of George Goyder. A tree nursery was established on the edge of Leg of Mutton Lake in 1876 on a site selected by George Goyder himself. A stone cottage for the first nurseryman Charles Beale was constructed and it survived until demolished in 1969 but the nursery closed in 1929. The nursery propagated eucalypts, Oak, Elm, Ash, Sycamore, and North American pines. Pinus radiata was first grown at Leg of Mutton Lake and was being dispersed to other areas by 1878. Pinus canariensis was also grown in the 1880s. Pinus radiata is now the most commonly grown commercial forest tree in SA and Australia. Also in the 1870s the first hospital was erected and Dr Wehl, the town’s doctor for many years was in residence.

In the mid 1880s the first rail line was laid as the railway lines pushed out from Mt Gambier to Naracoorte. The service to Naracoorte began in 1887 and connected on with the line to Bordertown and Adelaide. By 1897 a railway connected Mt Gambier to Millicent and the port at Beachport. The railway line across the border to Heywood and Melbourne was not completed until 1917 as the SA government resisted a line that would take goods and passengers from Mt Gambier to Port Melbourne rather than to Port Adelaide. Mt Gambier railway station used to be a hive of activity with daily trains to Adelaide and an overnight sleeper services several times a week. Passenger trains to Mt Gambier from Adelaide stopped in 1990 after Australian National took over the SA railway network. Freight services stopped in 1995 and the railway line and station was formally closed. The railyards and other buildings were cleared in 2013.

The Buandik Aboriginal People.
The Buandik people are commemorated in a city street but by little else. Yet they were resilient and determined fighters opposed to the white settlement of the South East. Their occupation of the Mt Gambier district stretches back to around 20,000+ years but their dated occupation from archaeological sites goes back to about 11,000 years with their myths and legends including stories about volcanic activity at Mt Gambier. The last volcanic explosions were about 4,000 years ago. Both Mt Schank and Mt Gambier were important places to the Buandik for ceremonies, hunting, access to water and stone implement making. A government report in 1867 noted that the Buandik people in government care were few in number mainly sickly and elderly. The younger people had presumably moved out into the white community. But back in the 1840s the Buandik were a force to be reckoned with. There are no common stories of Aboriginal massacres but white pastoralists certainly retaliated when sheep were stolen. On Mt Schank station the Buandik were so troublesome that shepherds would not venture out to care for sheep alone and the Arthur brothers gave this trouble as their reason for them selling the run in 1845. In 1845 the government established a police station at Mt Gambier, which the Protector of Aboriginals visited, to ensure that pastoralists did not massacre the Buandik.

William Vansittart and Vansittart Park.
Vansittart Park has been a focal point of Mt Gambier since 1884 for activities such as family picnics, political rallies and speeches, bike racing, band rotunda concerts, bowling greens, sport oval, grandstand (1927) and Anzac memorial services. But who was William Vansittart? He was an Anglican reverend from England (Vansittart is a noble and political Anglo-Irish family in the UK) who arrived in SA in 1847 as a young bachelor. He was never licensed as a minister in SA but he developed his passions for making money and horse racing here. He mixed with the elite of Adelaide like Sir Samuel Davenport, the Governor and was a friend of Hurtle Fisher and he was Master of the Hounds. In 1850 he purchased 35 acres at Beaumont where he built Tower House and 80 acres at Mt Gambier. He imported a thoroughbred horse from Hobart called Lucifer. Ironic that a minister of religion would have a horse called Lucifer! His horses raced in Adelaide, Salisbury, Gawler, Brighton and Clare as well as in Mt Gambier and Penola. In 1851 he also took over the 110 square mile 14 year lease of Mayurra run with George Glen of Millicent. In 1852 he returned to England for a short time and on his return he purchased more freehold land bringing his estate to around 800 acres. Not long after in 1854 his horse shied, he was thrown against a tree and died of head injuries but he died intestate with an estate worth over £10,000. Glen bought out his share of Mayurra; the Beaumont house and property was sold in 1867 as were his race horses and his brother Captain Spencer Vansittart eventually inherited the Mt Gambier property. In accordance with William’s wishes 115 acres were set aside to provide income for a scholarship for boarders at St Peters Boys College which happened from 1859. Later in 1883 Spencer Vansittart offered 20 acres to the Mt Gambier Council for a memorial park at the “nominal” sum of £400 which hardly seems “nominal”. The Council raised a loan and purchased the land and the park is still enjoyed by the city’s residents and visitors. Captain Spencer’s widow sold the last package of 300 acres of land in 1912 thus ending the Vansittart links with Mt Gambier. The Vansittart scholarship is still available for boarders from the South East and is operated by a group of College trustees.

Some Historic Buildings in Mt Gambier and a town walk.
Your town walk is basically straight ahead along Penola Road towards the Mount itself which becomes Bay Road( the bay is at Port MacDonnell) once you cross Commercial Street which is the Main Street. There are just a few diversions to the left as you face the Mount. The coach will collect you at the Mount end of the walk near the Old Courthouse.

If you a good walker check out the fine houses in Jardine Street at numbers 1, 7, 9, 11, 12, 17 and 22. They range from cottages to Gothic and turreted mansions including the home of Jens the hotelier. This detour will add another 10 minutes to the walk if you elect to do it.

1.Catholic Covent. Sisters of Mercy setup a convent school in 1880. This wonderful convent was not built until 1908 in local dolomite stone & limestone quoins. Note the fine stone gables with small niches for statuary, the well proportioned arched colonnades and upstairs oriel windows – the projecting bay windows with stone supports. This is one of the finest buildings in Mt Gambier. The convent closed in 1986. Now Auspine.

2.Wesleyan Methodist Church Hall/Sunday School. Across the street is pink dolomite neo-classical style Wesleyan Methodist Sunday School Hall. Hundreds of children attended Sunday School in those days. It opened in 1904. It is now commercial offices. (If you want to walk up Wyatt Street beside the Sunday School and turn right at second street which is at Gray you will see the old two storey Methodist Manse at 101 Gray St. It was built in 1868 and sold 1941. As you turn into Gray Street the Salvation Army Hall is on your left. Allow 10 minutes for this detour before returning to Penola Road).

3.Methodist Church now Liberty Church. A Gothic large church built in 1862 by the Wesleyans. Opened by minister from Portland. Additions made 1877 with new entrance. The old lecture hall and Sunday School was beneath the church. Note the buttress on corners and sides. Became Uniting Church 1977 and closed 1994 when services moved to St Andrews Presbyterian Church. Behind the church (walk through the car park) in Colhurst Place is LLandovery two storey mansion now a B&B. Built 1878 for a flour and oat miller who had his mill in Percy Street.

4.St Paul’s Catholic Church. This impressive Gothic church with huge tower with crenulations was opened in 1884 and will be open today. There are 1966 extensions to the rear of it. The Presbytery is behind the church facing Alexander St. it was built in 1901 when the church was free of building debt. The first thatched bush church was built in another location in 1855. From 1857 the priest was Father Julian Tenison Woods, explorer, academic, horseman etc. A second church opened in 1861 in Sturt St and is now demolished. It closed in 1885 as this church opened. The bells came from Dublin. The church fence and gates built 1936.

5.The Mount Gambier Club. Across the street is the Club. It was built in 1904 for a local distiller as chambers for lease. The wealthy pastoralists of the South East formed an exclusive men only club in 1913 and it has used the upper floor of Engelbrecht’s chambers ever since. They purchased the whole building in 1920. The Club is a beautifully proportioned classical style building with pediments, balustrades, window entablature, and perfect symmetry. Look down the sides and you can see it is made of Mt Gambier limestone blocks.

6.Mt Gambier Caledonian Hall. Next door is the Scots Club. Its prominence signifies the Scottish links of many Gambier residents. The hall was opened in 1914 and opened by the former Prime Minister Sir George Reid, another Scot. It has classical features but is rather ugly and neglected these days. It is now a night club.

7.The Trustees Building. Next to the Caledonian is the Trustee Building erected in 1958. Its blue and bone tiled façade is typical of 1950s architecture yet the rectangular appearance has a slight classical look about it. It is on the SA Heritage Register. Accountants now occupy it.

8.Turn left into Percy Street and go along here beyond KFC for one town block to the next corner for the Oatmills (now a coffee shop and cinemas). Milling and brewing were two of Mt Gambier’s prime 19th century industries. The 4 storey complex here was started in 1867 for Welsh Thomas Williams who eventually had five flour mills. His mill was called Commercial Flourmills. A new owner converted the mill from wheat milling to oat milling. A new oatmill was built in 1901 and operated until 1975 producing Scottish porridge oats. The mill has now been restored with café, shops and cinemas. Return to Penola Rd.

9. Mt Gambier Hotel. No hotel could have a more remarkable origin than the Mt Gambier. An African American John Byng built a weatherboard hotel near here in 1847. The third licensee Alexander Mitchell, another Scot, took it over and moved the hotel to this corner site in 1862 as an impressive two storey hotel which was unusual at that time. The western wing was added in 1883 and balconies affixed in 1902.

10.Cross towards the Mount with the traffic lights then turn left into Commercial Street East.

11.Mt Gambier Town Hall. Marked as the Riddoch Gallery this fine Venetian Gothic style building is impressive with its coloured stone work contrasting well with cement rendered horizontal lines and vertical panels around windows and doors. The upper windows are mullioned with stone divisions between the glass. It was built in 1882 with the clock tower added in 1883 after a donation. The first Council meeting was in 1863 with Dr Wehl as chairman held in a hotel. Later the Council hired a room at the Foresters Hall and then they purchased this site in 1868 with a weatherboard room. This was used until 1882.

12.Mt Gambier old Institute. The Literary Institute was formed in 1862 and a foundation stone laid for a reading room/hall in 1868 by John Riddoch. The single storey institute opened in 1869. The upper floor was added in 1887, so that it would match the new Town Hall. It is built in a similar style- Venetian Romanesque as the windows and rounded and not arched as with a gothic structure.

13.Captain Gardiner Memorial Fountain 1884. The fountain was presented by Captain Robert Gardiner the grandfather of Sir Robert Helpman (his name was originally Helpmann). The fountain was made in Melbourne .Gardiner was also a benefactor of St Andrew’s Presbyterian -he donated the pipe organ in 1885.

14.Jens Hotel. After demolishing an earlier hotel (the 1847 hotel of John Byng) Johannes Jens had the first section of his Jens Hotel built on this corner in 1884. An almost identical eastern wing was erected in 1904 and the Spanish Art Deco section in 1927. Turn right here and go behind the Town hall to the Cave Gardens.

15.Cave Gardens. This spot was an early water supply. A garden was created in 1893 and then improved and reconstructed in 1925. This sink hole has recently been upgraded again and it is lit at night.

16.Post Office. This important communications centre was erected in 1865 as a telegraph office/post office. This is till one of the finest buildings in Mt Gambier and a rare example of the Georgian style for the city. . The single storey side wings were added in 1906 in a sympathetic style. It is still the main city Post Office.

17.Norris Agency Building. This superb Italianate building was completed in 1900 as chambers for businessmen. Owner was Alexander Norris who died in 1917. The façade is pink dolomite with cement quoins and unusual lined decoration work above the windows and door each contained within a triangular classical pediment.

18.Farmers Union Building. Another classical style building built when this style was out of fashion in 1914.Erected for Farmers Union as a large two storey building. It has none of the grace of the Norris building next door. FU was formed in 1888 in Jamestown by Thomas Mitchell, a Scot and others to provide cheap rates for grains, seeds and superphosphate but in the early 1900s they branched into products for dairy farmers and the marketing of milk products. The Mt Gambier district had plenty of dairy farmers. It is now owned by a Japanese company Kirin but it still markets its chocolate milk drinks as Farmers Union. Upper floor has double pilasters (flattened pillars) with top volutes but little other decoration.

19.Savings Bank Building on the corner. The former Savings Bank in Gothic style is unusual for commercial premises in Mt Gambier. It is constructed of weathered local limestone and was built in 1906. Note the different cut stone for the foundations, simulated turrets on the corners and by the door to break the façade appearance and the stone line above the lower window which then divides the façade into equal thirds.

20.Macs Hotel. This hotel was built in 1864 and is largely unchanged except that the upper floor was added in 1881. The first licensee was a Scot named John MacDonald. The double veranda supports are very elegant.

21.Roller flourmill now a painted hardware store. Built 1885 as a steam flourmill in pink dolomite. Note the small 12 paned windows set in much larger indented niches in the walls on the northern wall. (Sturt St.)

22.Christ Church Anglican Church and hall. Dr Browne of Moorak donated half the money for the construction of Christ Church in pink dolomite and with an unusual gabled tower. Church and tower completed in 1866. Adjacent is the Jubilee Hall built in 1915, destroyed by fire in 1951, and rebuilt exactly the same in weathered local limestone blocks with the original foundation stone still in place. It has the single Gothic window in the street facing gable and a crenulated square tower. Adjoining it is the 1869 Sunday School with the narrow double pointed Gothic windows. It was extended in 1892. The lychgate is more recent as a memorial to a regular church goer, Margaret French who died in 1927.

23.The old railway station just visible along the rail lines to your right. The first rail line was to Beachport in 1879 and the second to Naracoorte (and so to Adelaide) in 1887. Portland and Melbourne line opened 1917. A spur line to Glencoe was completed in 1904. First station was erected in 1879. It was demolished for the erection of the current station in 1918 which is similar in design to those in Tailem Bend, Bordertown, Moonta etc. Bluebird rail cars started on the Mt Gambier run in 1953 when the old 3’6” gauge line to Wolseley was converted to 5’3”. The last passenger service to Adelaide finished in 1990 and the station closed for freight in 1995. The railyards were cleared in 2013 and the future of the station is bleak. The rail lines to Beachport and Glencoe closed in 1956/57.

24.The Old Courthouse, 42 Bay Rd. It has a great low wall suitable for sitting on. This well designed Georgian style Courthouse opened in 1865 and the similarly styled side wings were added in 1877. The front veranda, which is not Georgian in style, was added in 1880. In 1975 the Courthouse was granted to the National Trust for a museum. The adjoining new Courthouse opened in 1975 at the same time. Note the “blind” windows to the façade but the same rounded Georgian shaped, 16 paned windows on the sides.

The Blue Lake, Mt Schank and Volcanoes.
The jewel in the crown of Mt Gambier is undoubtedly the volcanic cone, the crater lakes especially the Blue Lake and the surrounding Botanic Gardens and parklands. The Botanic Garden on the north side was approved in 1872 but nothing happened about plantings and care until 1882. The first pleasure road through the saddle between the Blue Lake and the Valley Lake was created in the 1861 as a more direct road to the then newly created international port named Port MacDonnell. That is why the road is called the Bay road. Surveyor General George Goyder explored the lake surrounds himself in 1876 when he selected the site for the government tree nursery. Later the government established the first sawmill on the edge of the crater reserve near Moorak homestead in the early 1920s. The Centenary Tower was initiated in 1900 to celebrate the centenary of Captain Grant sighting Mt Gambier. It took several years to complete and was opened by the Chief Justice of SA Sir Samuel Way in 1907 but it was completed in 1904. The whole complex is a maar geomorphological formation which originated during a volcanic era about 28,000 years ago but in a second phase of volcanic activity 4,000 to 6,000 years ago the cones and lakes of Mt Gambier were created along with the cones of Mt Schank and Mt Burr near Millicent. Mt Gambier was the most recent volcanic explosion in Australia. The crater lakes are: Blue Lake, Valley Lake, Leg of Mutton Lake and Browne’s Lake (dry). The Blue Lake is linked to the aquifers beneath the deep layers of limestone which underlay the entire South East. Blue Lake is about 72 metres deep and some of the water in it is estimated to be about 500 years old but it is mixed with rain runoff each year as well. The Lake provides the water supply for Mt Gambier. Deep in the lake are examples of the oldest living organisms on earth- stromatalites. The lake changes colour from grey to vivid blue each November and reverts in the following April. The change in colour is related to the position of the sun and reflected light from suspended particles in the lake which reflect blue green light rather than brown grey light. Secondly the suspended matter only occurs because the water near the surface rises in temperature in the spring and it is this which causes the particles to precipitate out of the water. The precipitated matter settles on the bottom of the lake ready for a new cycle the following spring. Like the Blue Lake various sink holes in the district have linkages to the underlying aquifer through the layers of limestone too and they include Cave Gardens, Umpherstone, Piccaninni Ponds, etc.

Moorak Station and Tenison Woods College.
Moorak station as originally known as Mount Gambier Station established by George Glen in the 1840s. The leasehold was later taken over by David Power who in turn sold it to Fisher and Rochford who in turn sold the estate as freehold to the Scottish Dr William Browne who had established Booborowie run with his brother in 1843 north of Burra. The Browne brothers dissolved their partnership around 1865 and John went to live at Buckland Park and William took up residence at Moorak. William had purchased Moorak Station in 1862 and built the grand Moorak homestead in impressive Georgian style onto a smaller house there. William died in 1894 and the Moorak Estate passed to his son Colonel Percival Browne who was to disappear on the ill-fated voyage of the new steamer the Waratah in 1909 which disappeared during a storm off Durban, South Africa. Also on that voyage was Mrs. Agnes Hay (nee Gosse) of Mt Breckan Victor Harbor and Linden Park Estate Adelaide and some 200 other poor souls. Around 1909 the Moorak Station was subdivided for closer settlement and in the 1920s the Marist Brothers purchased the homestead with a little land for their and monastery and opened the Marist Brothers Agricultural College for boys in 1931. That college in turn merged with the Mater Christi College in 1972 to become Tenison College. (Mater Christi College had been formed in 1952 by the merger of the St Josephs Convent School (1880) and St Peters Parish School but the primary section of St Peters broke away in 1969 from Mater Christi College and formed a separate St Peters Primary School. This primary school in turn merged with Tenison College in 2001 to form Tenison Woods College!) The College name commemorates the work of Father Julian Tenison Woods who arrived in Mt Gambier in 1857 to work in Penola and Mt Gambier. It was he who encouraged Mary MacKillop to take her vows and establish her Sisters of St Joseph.

Dr Browne’s manager of Moorak Estate in 1868 introduced hops as a viable crop in the South East and large quantities were grown for about 20 years. Other early experimental crops grown included tobacco, cotton and flax. Dr Browne and Moorak were also important in the potato industry. Dr Browne leased around 830 acres to 20 tenants for the express purpose of growing potatoes. He was keen to emulate the British aristocracy although he was a good Scot with being a manorial style landlord with tenant farmers. Potatoes were also grown from the early years at Yahl, OB Flat and Compton near Mt Gambier. The potatoes were carted down to Port MacDonnell and shipped to Adelaide for consumers. As one of the major wool producers of Australia William Browne contributed roughly half of the funds for the erection of Christ Church Anglican in Mt Gambier. The Moorak estate consisted of around 11,000 acres of the most fertile volcanic soil in SA with another 2,000 acres in a nearby property, German Creek near Carpenter’s Rocks. Dr Browne ran Silky Lincolns on Moorak for their wool as Merinos did not fare well on the damp South East pastures. About 2,000 acres was in wheat, about 2,500 acres was tenanted to other farmers and around 4,000 acres were in lucerne, clover, rye and other pasture grasses. William Browne returned to live in England in 1866 so his sons could attend Eton and military training colleges there. He made regular trips to SA about every second year to oversee his many pastoral properties here. When he died in 1894 he left 100,000 acres of freehold land in SA to his children who all resided here as well as leasehold land. He was an extremely wealthy man. Son Percival took control of Moorak. Before Percival’s death Moorak Estate was partly purchased by the SA government in 1904 for closer settlement when they acquired around 1,000 acres. After Percival’s death a further 6,300 acres was acquired for closer settlement and the remainder of the estate was sold to other farmers. The government paid between £10 and £31 per acre for the land. Percival Browne was highly respected in Mt Gambier and a reserve around the Blue Lake is named after him. The fourth of the crater lakes of Mt Gambier is also named Browne’s Lake after the family but it has been dry for decades. In 1900 Colonel Browne planted the ring of English Oaks around what was to become the oval of the Marist Brothers College.

Moorak.
There is a memorial by the station to William Browne as founder of the Coriadale Sheep Stud. The great Moorak woolshed was demolished in 1939. The Union church which opened in 1920 was used by the Methodists and the Anglicans. It is now a private residence. Moorak hall was opened in 1926. New classrooms were added to the Moorak School in 1928 and the first rooms opened in 1913. The cheese factory in Moorak opened in 1913 as a cooperative and was sold to Farmers Union in 1949. They closed the factory in 1979. Most of the cheese produced at Moorak went to the Melbourne market. The first cheese maker at Moorak was trained at Lauterbach’s cheese factory at Woodside. Moorak was one of a circle of settlements around Mt Gambier that had butter/cheese factories. These towns were: Kongorong; Glencoe East; Glencoe West; Suttontown; Glenburnie; Mil Lel; Yahl; OB Flat; Moorak; Mt Schank; and Eight Mile Creek.

Yahl.
In the 1860s this tiny settlement was a tobacco, hop and potato growing district and it persisted with potatoes up until recent times. Today Yahl is little more than a suburban village of Mt Gambier with a Primary school with approx 120 students. The old government school was erected in 1879. It had a Methodist church built in 1880 which operated as a church until 1977 and it had a large butter factory which had opened in 1888. The butter and cheese factory was taken over by the OB Flat cheese factory in 1939 and the two operated in conjunction with each other. The OB Flat cheese factory closed in 1950 and all production moved to Yahl. The factory finally closed in 1971. The township of Yahl also had a General Store and a Salvation Army Hall which was built in 1919.

Sink Holes: Umpherston Gardens and Cave Gardens.
James Umpherston purchased land near Mt Gambier in 1864 which included a large sink hole or collapsed cavern with a lake in the bottom. He was born in Scotland in 1812 and came to SA in the 1850s with his brother William. William purchased his first land at Yahl in 1859. James Umpherston was a civic minded chap being a local councilor, a parliamentarian in Adelaide for two years and President of the Mt Gambier Agricultural and Horticultural Society for 13 years. When he retired from civic life and farming in 1884 he decided to create a garden in his sinkhole. He beautified it and encouraged visitors and even provided a boat in the lake for boat rides. Access was gained by steps and a path carved into the sinkhole walls. However after he died in 1900 the garden was ignored, became overgrown and was largely forgotten in 1949 when the Woods and Forests Department obtained the land for a new sawmill at Mt Gambier. By then the lake had dried up as the water table had fallen over the decades. In 1976 staff, rather than the government, decided to restore the Umpherstone gardens. The cleared out the rubbish that had been dumped in the sinkhole, restored the path access, trimmed the ivy and replanted the hydrangeas and tree ferns. In 1994 the Woos and Forests Department handed over the land around the sinkhole to the City of Mt Gambier. It was added to the SA Heritage Register in 1995.

HTT – ATT, CSX & Oil Spills – Perfect Together

HTT – ATT, CSX & Oil Spills – Perfect Together

Check out these consumer loan rates images:

HTT – ATT, CSX & Oil Spills – Perfect Together
consumer loan rates
Image by EX22218 – ON/OFF
(Read the list of Board of Directors Below for a Chuckle)

Reps from CSX, ATT attempting to find a resolution to the "Poltergeist Gates" that have been malfunctioning for close to a decade. There are numerous oil spills visible along these tracks as far as the eye can see. There have been many auto accidents/fatalities on/near this corner. There is one AT&T cell mast to the left of these trucks and at least 4 within a one mile area. This is typical for Jefferson County, Kentucky. Drunk driving, cancer, auto fatalities and suicide rates are skewered yet still rank among the highest in the Nation. Air, water and environmental quality due to lack of local and State Government enforcement is atrocious – this County is still dumping raw sewage into streams, rivers and brooks. There is no oversight or enforcement to local industries or quarries nor is there enforcement of laws in place to protect the environment from further destruction to air and water pollution other than to place a lighted sign over freeways stating "air quality warning". Quarry roadways are not watered down as required, roadways are not swept, maintained, repaired or cleaned, no dust or erosion control measures are practiced, trucks are not correctly tarped and the public’s best interests are not being protected. Yet the medical profession is making a killing. And all they’ll say is, "Welcome to the Ohio Valley".

Corner of LaGrange Road, Factory Lane, Chamberlain Lane,
Louisville, Kentucky 40245

Louisville Kentucky is only #6 in the top ranked "Sinful Cities" in the Nation. We’ve got to do better if we want to be #1! www.trulia.com/blog/trends/sin-cities/ only to be beat out by Toledo, Tampa, Philadelphia, Atlantic City and New Orleans. #pollution #corruption #cancer #crime #plasticsurgery #substanceabuse #alcoholabuse #prescriptiondrugs #medicalmalpractice #suicides #kamikaze #realtors #e.coli #disease #autoimmune #lupus #MS #braintumors #leukemia #EPA #DEP #hazardouswaste #toxicspills #nonresponsive

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CSX Divestitures and Distinuations:

CSX Hotels, Inc.
Greenbrier Hotel Corporation sold to Justice Family Group in 2009
Sea-Land Corporation split into two shipping lines and a terminal operator:
CSX Lines, LLC (Domestic liner, sold and renamed Horizon Lines, Inc.)
Sea-Land Corporation (International liner, sold to the A. P. Moller-Maersk Group in 1999)
CSX World Terminals, LLC (International Terminals business)[7]
SL Services, Inc. (“SLSI”) sold to Dubai Ports International FZE (“DPI”) in 2005[8]
Orange Blossom Investment Company, Ltd sold to Dubai Ports International FZE (“DPI”) in 2005
CSA Acquisition Corp.
Texas Gas Transmission Corporation bought in 1983, sold in 1988 to Transco.[9]
Energy and utilities

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CSX Board of Directors:

Mr. Steven T. Halverson
Steven T. Halverson, 57, has served as a director of CSX since September 2006. Mr. Halverson is the Chief Executive Officer of The Haskell Company, one of the largest design and construction firms in the United States. Prior to joining the Haskell Company in 1999, Mr. Halverson served as a Senior Vice President of M.A. Mortenson, a national construction firm.

Mr. Halverson also serves as a director for PSS World Medical, Inc., Blue Cross Blue Shield of Florida, ACIG Insurance Co., the Florida Counsel of 100 (chair), and the Florida Chamber of Commerce. Mr. Halverson is also a St. John’s University regent.

Through his roles with key organizations in the state of Florida, Mr. Halverson provides broad leadership capabilities to the CSX Board. He also provides insight and perspective on the economy in general and the construction industry in particular.

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Mr. John D. McPherson
John D. McPherson, 65, joined the Board in July 2008. He served as President and Chief Operating Officer of Florida East Coast Railway, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Florida East Coast Industries, Inc., from 1999 until his retirement in 2007. From 1993-1998, Mr. McPherson served as Senior Vice President-Operations, and from 1998-1999, he served as President and Chief Executive Officer of the Illinois Central Railroad. Prior to joining the Illinois Central Railroad, Mr. McPherson served in various capacities at Santa Fe Railroad for 25 years. As a result of his extensive career in the rail industry, Mr. McPherson serves as an expert in railroad operations.

Mr. McPherson currently serves on the board of directors of Las Vegas Railway Express, a start-up passenger railroad which will operate between Los Angeles and Las Vegas. From 1997-2007, Mr. McPherson served as a member of the board of directors of TTX Company, a railcar provider and freight car management services joint venture of North American railroads.

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Mr. David M. Moffet
David M. Moffett served as the Chief Executive Officer and a director of the Federal Home Loan Mortgage Corporation from September 2008 until his retirement in March 2009. He previously served as a Senior Advisor with the Carlyle Group LLC from May 2007 to September 2008, as the Vice Chairman and Chief Financial Officer of U.S. Bancorp from 2001 to 2007, after its merger with Firstar Corporation where he served as Vice Chairman and Chief Financial Officer from 1998 to 2001. Mr. Moffett also served as Chief Financial Officer of StarBanc Corporation, a predecessor to Firstar Corporation, from 1993 to 1998.

In addition to the directorships noted above, Mr. Moffett currently serves as a trustee on the boards of Columbia Fund Series Trust I and Columbia Funds Variable Insurance Trust, overseeing approximately 52 funds within the Columbia Funds mutual fund complex. He also serves as a trustee for the University of Oklahoma Foundation.

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Mr. Timothy T. O’Toole
Timothy T. O’Toole, 56, joined the Board in September 2008. Mr. O’Toole is currently the Chief Executive Officer of FirstGroup, plc, a leading transportation company that primarily provides rail and bus services. FirstGroup, a publicly traded company on the London Stock Exchange, employs approximately 130,000 staff throughout the U.K. and North America and transports some 2.5 billion passengers a year. Mr. O’Toole previously served as the Managing Director of the London Underground from 2003 through April 2009, where he was responsible for operating and rebuilding the Tube, the world’s oldest metropolitan railway. Mr. O’Toole brings to the Board over 25 years of railroad industry experience. He also provides invaluable operational experience in crisis management evidenced by his leadership following a terror attack on the London Underground in 2005.

Previously, he served as President and Chief Executive Officer of Conrail from 1998 to 2001. During his more than 20 years at Conrail, he served in various senior management roles, including Senior Vice President of Law and Government Affairs, Senior Vice President of Finance and Chief Financial Officer, Vice President and Treasurer, and Vice President and General Counsel. Mr. O’Toole also serves as a member of the board of FirstGroup.

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Mr. David M. Ratcliffe
David M. Ratcliffe, 63, has served as a director of CSX since January 2003. Mr. Ratcliffe retired from his position as Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer of Southern Company, one of America’s largest producers of electricity, in December of 2010. He had held that position since 2004. From 1999 until 2004, Mr. Ratcliffe was President and Chief Executive Officer of Georgia Power, Southern Company’s largest subsidiary. Prior to becoming President and Chief Executive Officer of Georgia Power in 1999, Mr. Ratcliffe served as Executive Vice President, Treasurer and Chief Financial Officer.

Mr. Ratcliffe serves on the board of SunTrust Bank. He also serves as a member of the boards of various organizations, including GRA Venture Fund, LLC, Georgia Research Alliance, Children’s Healthcare of Atlanta, Urjanet, a software startup company, and the Centers for Disease Control Foundation. As Chairman, President and Chief Executive Officer of Southern Company, Mr. Ratcliffe participated in a heavily regulated industry with operations in substantial portions of our service territory. Through this experience, he provides expertise in an ever-changing regulatory environment, which includes important public policy matters such as climate change legislation.

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Ms. Donna M. Alvarado
Donna M. Alvarado, 63, has served as a CSX director since September 2006. Ms. Alvarado is the founder and current President of Aguila International, a business-consulting firm.

Previously, Ms. Alvarado served as President and Chief Executive Officer of a global educational publishing company from 1989-1993. She has served on corporate boards in the manufacturing, banking, transportation, and services industries. During the past five years, she has also led state and national workforce policy boards. Ms. Alvarado currently serves on the board of directors of Corrections Corporation of America and as immediate past Chairwoman of the Ohio Board of Regents.

Following executive and legislative staff appointments at the U.S. Department of Defense and in the U.S. Congress, Ms. Alvarado was appointed by President Ronald Reagan to lead the federal agency ACTION, the nation’s premier agency for civic engagement and volunteerism, a position which she held from 1985-1989.

As a result of her experience in the public and private sector, Ms. Alvarado brings to the Board significant workforce planning expertise, as evidenced by her previous high-level government appointments, which is complemented by her role with the Ohio Board of Regents.

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Senator John B. Breaux
Senator John B. Breaux, 68, has served as a director of CSX since shortly after his retirement from the U.S. Senate in 2005. Senator Breaux held numerous leadership positions during his 14 years in the U.S. House of Representatives and 18-year tenure in the U.S. Senate, where he served on the House Public Works and Transportation Committee, the Senate Finance Committee, and the Senate Commerce Committee. Senator Breaux also founded the Centrist Coalition of Senate Democrats and Republicans and served as chairman of the Democratic Leadership Council. He brings extensive public policy and regulatory experience to the CSX Board at a time when Congress is considering additional legislation that could have a material effect on railroad operations.

From 2005 through 2007, Senator Breaux served as Senior Counsel at Patton Boggs LLP. Currently, Senator Breaux is a partner in the Breaux-Lott Leadership Group, a private consulting firm in Washington, DC. In 2010, the Breaux-Lott Leadership Group was purchased by Patton Boggs LLP. He also serves as a director of LHC Group, Inc.

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Ms. Pamela L. Carter
Pamela L. Carter, 62, joined the Board in June 2010. Ms. Carter is President of Cummins Distribution, a division of Cummins, Inc., a designer, manufacturer and marketer of diesel engines and related components and power systems. Ms. Carter joined Cummins in 1997 as Vice President – General Counsel and held various management positions up until her appointment as President of Cummins Distribution in 2008.

Prior to her career with Cummins, Ms. Carter served in various capacities with the State of Indiana and in the private practice of law. Ms. Carter was the first woman and the first African-American to hold the office of Attorney General in Indiana. Ms. Carter also served as Parliamentarian in the Indiana House of Representatives, Deputy Chief-of-Staff to Governor Evan Bayh, Executive Assistant for Health Policy & Human Services and Securities Enforcement Attorney for the Office of the Secretary of State.

Ms. Carter currently serves on the board of directors of Spectra Energy Corporation. She brings strong operational experience to the Board via her career with Cummins, Inc. Her extensive experience in government allows Ms. Carter to provide in-depth knowledge and insight into regulatory and public policy matters.

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Mr. Edward J. Kelly, III
Edward J. Kelly, III, 58, has served as a director of CSX since July 2002. Mr. Kelly is currently Chairman of the Institutional Clients Group at Citigroup, Inc. He has previously served as Vice Chairman, Chief Financial Officer and Head of Global Banking at Citigroup, Inc., as well as Chief Executive Officer of Citi Alternative Investments, an integrated alternative investments platform within Citigroup, Inc.

Mr. Kelly previously served as a Managing Director at The Carlyle Group and Vice Chairman of The PNC Financial Services Group, Inc. following PNC’s acquisition of Mercantile Bankshares Corporation in March 2007. At Mercantile, Mr. Kelly held the offices of Chairman, Chief Executive Officer and President from March 2003 until March 2007, and was Chief Executive Officer and President from March 2001 to March 2003. Before joining Mercantile, Mr. Kelly served as Managing Director and co-head of Investment Banking Client Management at J.P. Morgan Chase and Managing Director and Head of Global Financial Institutions at J.P. Morgan. Previously, Mr. Kelly was a partner at the law firm of Davis Polk & Wardwell, where he specialized in matters related to financial institutions. Early in his career, Mr. Kelly served as a law clerk to Supreme Court Justice William J. Brennan, Jr. and U.S. Court of Appeals Judge Clement F. Haynsworth, Jr.

Mr. Kelly has previously served on the boards of directors for The Hartford Financial Services Group, The Hershey Company and Paris RE Holdings. As an executive in the banking industry, Mr. Kelly provides extensive financial and regulatory experience to the Board. He offers important perspective on global financial markets.

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Mr. Donald J. Shepard
Donald J. Shepard, 65, has served as a director of CSX since January 2003. In 2008, Mr. Shepard retired as Chairman of the Board and Chief Executive Officer of AEGON, N.V., an international life insurance and pension company.

He currently serves as a member of the boards of directors of The PNC Financial Services Group, Inc. ("PNC") and the Travelers Companies, Inc. Mr. Shepard was also a director of Mercantile Bankshares Corporation until 2007, when the company was acquired by PNC. He is also a director of the U.S. Chamber of Commerce. Through his executive positions with AEGON, Mr. Shepard brings financial and risk management expertise to the CSX Board. Through his leadership role with the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, Mr. Shepard also brings significant insight into developing business trends and opportunities.

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Mr. Michael J. Ward
Michael J. Ward is chairman and chief executive officer of CSX Corporation, one of the nation’s premier transportation and logistics companies. Over his 39-year career, Mr. Ward has headed CSX’s operations, coal sales and marketing, and finance departments.

Under Mr. Ward’s leadership, the company continues to achieve record safety performance while providing vital services to customers and posting strong financial results for shareholders.

The company’s commitment to safety and preparing its network for increasing freight demand is demonstrated by its planned 2016 capital investment of .4 billion and its long-term plan to invest approximately 16 to 17 percent of its revenues back into its core business to support growth.

A native of Baltimore, Md., Mr. Ward’s commitment to personal philanthropy and corporate citizenship has been recognized with City Year’s prestigious Lifetime of Idealism Award. He earned a bachelor’s degree from the University of Maryland in 1972, and received a master’s degree in business administration from the Harvard Business School in 1976. Mr. Ward is a member of the Board of Directors of the Association of American Railroads, and also serves on the boards of Ashland Inc., City Year, United Way of Northeast Florida, and Hubbard House. His other business affiliations include The Florida Council of 100 and The Business Roundtable.

CSX, based in Jacksonville, Florida, is a premier transportation company. It provides rail, intermodal and rail-to-truck transload services and solutions to customers across a broad array of markets, including energy, industrial, construction, agricultural, and consumer products. For nearly 190 years, CSX has played a critical role in the nation’s economic expansion and industrial development. Its network connects every major metropolitan area in the eastern United States, where nearly two-thirds of the nation’s population resides. It also links more than 240 short-line railroads and more than 70 ocean, river and lake ports with major population centers and farming towns alike. More information about CSX Corporation and its subsidiaries is available at www.csx.com..

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Mr. J. Steven Whisler
J. Steven Whisler, 57, is the retired Chairman and Chief Executive Officer of Phelps Dodge Corporation, a mining and manufacturing company, where he served in many roles from 1981 until being named Chief Executive Officer in 2000. During his tenure at Phelps Dodge, Mr. Whisler was instrumental in the implementation of its "Zero and Beyond" safety program designed to eliminate workplace injuries and its "Quest for Zero" process-improvement program designed to, among other things, eliminate environmental waste while enhancing product quality.

Mr. Whisler currently serves on the boards of directors of Brunswick Corporation and International Paper Co. He also served as director of US Airways Group, Inc. from 2005 until 2011, and Burlington Northern Santa Fe from 1995 until its acquisition by Berkshire Hathaway in 2010. Through his tenure on the Burlington Northern Santa Fe board of directors and as a former executive in the mining industry, Mr. Whisler brings invaluable railroad knowledge to the CSX Board and a strong understanding of one of the Company’s largest customer bases. Mr. Whisler’s support of safety and environmental programs aligns closely with the Company’s goals.

Mt Gambier. Commercial Flour mills in Mt Gambier built in 1901 to process oats and wheat. Closed in 1975.

Mt Gambier. Commercial Flour mills in Mt Gambier built in 1901 to process oats and wheat. Closed in 1975.

Check out these consumer loan rates images:

Mt Gambier. Commercial Flour mills in Mt Gambier built in 1901 to process oats and wheat. Closed in 1975.
consumer loan rates
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Brief History of Mt Gambier – the second city of SA after Adelaide (region population nearly 35,000, urban 28,000).
Lieutenant James Grant aboard the Lady Nelson sighted and named Mt Gambier in 1800 after a Lord of the Admiralty. The first white man to traverse the area was Stephen Henty of Portland in 1839 when he sighted the Blue Lake. He returned with cattle and stockmen in 1841. He later claimed that had he known the lake and volcano he had discovered in 1839 was in SA he would have immediately applied for an 1839 Special Survey. But Henty thought he was squatting on land in NSW and he was not an official SA settler so the government ordered him off the land in 1844. Thus the first official white settler of the South East and the Mt Gambier district became Evelyn Sturt, brother to Captain Charles Sturt, who took up an occupational license in March 1844 and a property he named Compton just north of the present city. In April 1844 Governor Grey and a party of assistants including the Assistant Surveyor General Thomas Burr and artist George French Angas explored the South East naming Robe and doing the first surveys. Evelyn Sturt became the first to have an occupational license to squat and the first purchase freehold land near Mt Gambier which he did in 1847- a section of 77 acres when 80 acres was the norm. He left the district in 1854 selling his freehold land to Hastings Cunningham who in 1855 subdivided some of this land thus creating the town of Gambierton. The town lands were adjacent to the site of the first police station selected near what is now Cave Gardens by the government in 1845. A small bush inn also operated at this spot. The first streets were named after early locals such as Evelyn Sturt, Compton, Ferrers and Crouch (built the first general store before the town was created) etc. The town grew quickly because of the mild climate, fertile soils, plentiful water and the influx of settlers from across the border in what was to become the colony of Victoria. Cunningham himself was a great benefactor and donated land for the first school in 1856. In 1861 the town name was changed by act of parliament to Mt Gambier. The Hundred of Mt Gambier (along with three other hundreds) was declared in 1858 and began the closer settlement of the South East.

Unlike other areas of SA the South East was seen as paradise for pastoralists and the optimistic pastoralists flocked to the area with their flocks in 1845. The large runs locked up the land and prevented farmers from settling in the region except for the fertile lands around Mount Gambier. Here small scale farmers had small properties and grew potatoes, hops, and later had dairy cows as well as growing wheat and oats. Land acts in the early 1870s designed to break up the big runs only partially succeeded in the South East where most station owners bought up their lands freehold. It was after 1905 before the big pastoral estates were really broken up for farmers and closer settlement, except for near Mt Gambier. Apart from Evelyn Sturt the other early white settlers of the South East in 1845 were Alexander Cameron at Penola, John Robertson at Struan, William Macintosh and George Ormerod at Naracoorte, the Austin brothers at Yallum Park (later John Riddoch), the Arthur brothers (nephews of Governor Arthur of Van Diemen’s Land) at Mt Schanck( now Mt Schank) and the Leake brothers at Glencoe. In fact in 1845 nineteen leasehold runs were taken up in the South East with a further thirty runs in 1846 and most had several 80 acres sections of freehold land near the main homestead. Most had got to the South East from Casterton and Portland in Victoria as the swamps near the coast were too difficult to traverse except for the country near Robe. Many of the estates were huge. Evelyn Sturt on the Compton/Mt Gambier run had 85 square miles as well as his freehold land; Robertson had 135 square miles at Struan; George Glen (and William Vansittart) of Mayurra had 110 square miles; the SA Company had 159 square miles on the Benara run; the Leake brothers had 194 square miles on Glencoe; Hunter had 56 square miles on Kalangadoo; Neil Black of Noorat Victoria had 45 square miles on Kongorong run and 101 square miles at Port MacDonnell and the Arthur brothers had a huge run at Mt Schanck. By 1851 almost 5,000 square miles of the South East was occupied by Occupational License and most licenses were converted to 14 year leases in that year. A third of all leasehold land in SA was taken up in the South East because of its higher rainfall and suitability for pastoralism and a third of all sheep in the colony were in the South East. When Hundreds were declared in the South East in the late 1850s and early 1860s pastoralists bought up the land. In one case John Riddoch of Yallum Park owned the entire Hundred of Monbulla. Another pastoralist W. Clarke who had purchased Mt Schancke station from the Arthur brothers in 1861 owned SA land valued at £1.25 million when he died in 1874 and he had 120,000 acres freehold in Victoria, 75,000 acres freehold in SA( Mt Schank) and 50,000 acres freehold in each of NSW and Tasmania! Mt Schanck was changed in Schank in 1917 when German place names in SA were changed as Schank without the second “c” is an old English name!

In the 1850s Mt Gambier was a shanty village as the South East was a region of large pastoral estates and little agricultural farming and very low population numbers. It was far from Adelaide and remote and it was only after the Princeland episode in 1862 with the threat of possible secession to a new state that the Adelaide government began to invest in the South East and really encourage settlement there. The Border Watch newspaper was established in 1861, the Mt Gambier Hotel opened in 1862 and the Mt Gambier Council was formed in 1863.By the early 1860s Mt Gambier had almost 1,000 residents making it one of the largest towns in SA after the copper mining centres of Burra, Kadina and Moonta. By the 1881 SA census Mt Gambier had 2,500 residents making it the biggest town outside of Adelaide. In 1865 four iconic historic buildings were erected-the Courthouse, the Gaol, Christ Church Anglican and the Post Office and Telegraph Station. The flourmill which later became the Oat Mill opened in 1867 as wheat farmers had now taken up lands around the Mount. Mt Gambier was growing into a fine prosperous looking town with churches, stores, banks, hotels and fine residences. In the 1870s the rural population increased dramatically with tenant potato farmers on Browne’s Moorak estate and intensive hop growing in several localities such as Yahl and OB Flat and Glenburnie etc. Also in 1876 the first commercial forestry was started at the behest of George Goyder. A tree nursery was established on the edge of Leg of Mutton Lake in 1876 on a site selected by George Goyder himself. A stone cottage for the first nurseryman Charles Beale was constructed and it survived until demolished in 1969 but the nursery closed in 1929. The nursery propagated eucalypts, Oak, Elm, Ash, Sycamore, and North American pines. Pinus radiata was first grown at Leg of Mutton Lake and was being dispersed to other areas by 1878. Pinus canariensis was also grown in the 1880s. Pinus radiata is now the most commonly grown commercial forest tree in SA and Australia. Also in the 1870s the first hospital was erected and Dr Wehl, the town’s doctor for many years was in residence.

In the mid 1880s the first rail line was laid as the railway lines pushed out from Mt Gambier to Naracoorte. The service to Naracoorte began in 1887 and connected on with the line to Bordertown and Adelaide. By 1897 a railway connected Mt Gambier to Millicent and the port at Beachport. The railway line across the border to Heywood and Melbourne was not completed until 1917 as the SA government resisted a line that would take goods and passengers from Mt Gambier to Port Melbourne rather than to Port Adelaide. Mt Gambier railway station used to be a hive of activity with daily trains to Adelaide and an overnight sleeper services several times a week. Passenger trains to Mt Gambier from Adelaide stopped in 1990 after Australian National took over the SA railway network. Freight services stopped in 1995 and the railway line and station was formally closed. The railyards and other buildings were cleared in 2013.

The Buandik Aboriginal People.
The Buandik people are commemorated in a city street but by little else. Yet they were resilient and determined fighters opposed to the white settlement of the South East. Their occupation of the Mt Gambier district stretches back to around 20,000+ years but their dated occupation from archaeological sites goes back to about 11,000 years with their myths and legends including stories about volcanic activity at Mt Gambier. The last volcanic explosions were about 4,000 years ago. Both Mt Schank and Mt Gambier were important places to the Buandik for ceremonies, hunting, access to water and stone implement making. A government report in 1867 noted that the Buandik people in government care were few in number mainly sickly and elderly. The younger people had presumably moved out into the white community. But back in the 1840s the Buandik were a force to be reckoned with. There are no common stories of Aboriginal massacres but white pastoralists certainly retaliated when sheep were stolen. On Mt Schank station the Buandik were so troublesome that shepherds would not venture out to care for sheep alone and the Arthur brothers gave this trouble as their reason for them selling the run in 1845. In 1845 the government established a police station at Mt Gambier, which the Protector of Aboriginals visited, to ensure that pastoralists did not massacre the Buandik.

William Vansittart and Vansittart Park.
Vansittart Park has been a focal point of Mt Gambier since 1884 for activities such as family picnics, political rallies and speeches, bike racing, band rotunda concerts, bowling greens, sport oval, grandstand (1927) and Anzac memorial services. But who was William Vansittart? He was an Anglican reverend from England (Vansittart is a noble and political Anglo-Irish family in the UK) who arrived in SA in 1847 as a young bachelor. He was never licensed as a minister in SA but he developed his passions for making money and horse racing here. He mixed with the elite of Adelaide like Sir Samuel Davenport, the Governor and was a friend of Hurtle Fisher and he was Master of the Hounds. In 1850 he purchased 35 acres at Beaumont where he built Tower House and 80 acres at Mt Gambier. He imported a thoroughbred horse from Hobart called Lucifer. Ironic that a minister of religion would have a horse called Lucifer! His horses raced in Adelaide, Salisbury, Gawler, Brighton and Clare as well as in Mt Gambier and Penola. In 1851 he also took over the 110 square mile 14 year lease of Mayurra run with George Glen of Millicent. In 1852 he returned to England for a short time and on his return he purchased more freehold land bringing his estate to around 800 acres. Not long after in 1854 his horse shied, he was thrown against a tree and died of head injuries but he died intestate with an estate worth over £10,000. Glen bought out his share of Mayurra; the Beaumont house and property was sold in 1867 as were his race horses and his brother Captain Spencer Vansittart eventually inherited the Mt Gambier property. In accordance with William’s wishes 115 acres were set aside to provide income for a scholarship for boarders at St Peters Boys College which happened from 1859. Later in 1883 Spencer Vansittart offered 20 acres to the Mt Gambier Council for a memorial park at the “nominal” sum of £400 which hardly seems “nominal”. The Council raised a loan and purchased the land and the park is still enjoyed by the city’s residents and visitors. Captain Spencer’s widow sold the last package of 300 acres of land in 1912 thus ending the Vansittart links with Mt Gambier. The Vansittart scholarship is still available for boarders from the South East and is operated by a group of College trustees.

Some Historic Buildings in Mt Gambier and a town walk.
Your town walk is basically straight ahead along Penola Road towards the Mount itself which becomes Bay Road( the bay is at Port MacDonnell) once you cross Commercial Street which is the Main Street. There are just a few diversions to the left as you face the Mount. The coach will collect you at the Mount end of the walk near the Old Courthouse.

If you a good walker check out the fine houses in Jardine Street at numbers 1, 7, 9, 11, 12, 17 and 22. They range from cottages to Gothic and turreted mansions including the home of Jens the hotelier. This detour will add another 10 minutes to the walk if you elect to do it.

1.Catholic Covent. Sisters of Mercy setup a convent school in 1880. This wonderful convent was not built until 1908 in local dolomite stone & limestone quoins. Note the fine stone gables with small niches for statuary, the well proportioned arched colonnades and upstairs oriel windows – the projecting bay windows with stone supports. This is one of the finest buildings in Mt Gambier. The convent closed in 1986. Now Auspine.

2.Wesleyan Methodist Church Hall/Sunday School. Across the street is pink dolomite neo-classical style Wesleyan Methodist Sunday School Hall. Hundreds of children attended Sunday School in those days. It opened in 1904. It is now commercial offices. (If you want to walk up Wyatt Street beside the Sunday School and turn right at second street which is at Gray you will see the old two storey Methodist Manse at 101 Gray St. It was built in 1868 and sold 1941. As you turn into Gray Street the Salvation Army Hall is on your left. Allow 10 minutes for this detour before returning to Penola Road).

3.Methodist Church now Liberty Church. A Gothic large church built in 1862 by the Wesleyans. Opened by minister from Portland. Additions made 1877 with new entrance. The old lecture hall and Sunday School was beneath the church. Note the buttress on corners and sides. Became Uniting Church 1977 and closed 1994 when services moved to St Andrews Presbyterian Church. Behind the church (walk through the car park) in Colhurst Place is LLandovery two storey mansion now a B&B. Built 1878 for a flour and oat miller who had his mill in Percy Street.

4.St Paul’s Catholic Church. This impressive Gothic church with huge tower with crenulations was opened in 1884 and will be open today. There are 1966 extensions to the rear of it. The Presbytery is behind the church facing Alexander St. it was built in 1901 when the church was free of building debt. The first thatched bush church was built in another location in 1855. From 1857 the priest was Father Julian Tenison Woods, explorer, academic, horseman etc. A second church opened in 1861 in Sturt St and is now demolished. It closed in 1885 as this church opened. The bells came from Dublin. The church fence and gates built 1936.

5.The Mount Gambier Club. Across the street is the Club. It was built in 1904 for a local distiller as chambers for lease. The wealthy pastoralists of the South East formed an exclusive men only club in 1913 and it has used the upper floor of Engelbrecht’s chambers ever since. They purchased the whole building in 1920. The Club is a beautifully proportioned classical style building with pediments, balustrades, window entablature, and perfect symmetry. Look down the sides and you can see it is made of Mt Gambier limestone blocks.

6.Mt Gambier Caledonian Hall. Next door is the Scots Club. Its prominence signifies the Scottish links of many Gambier residents. The hall was opened in 1914 and opened by the former Prime Minister Sir George Reid, another Scot. It has classical features but is rather ugly and neglected these days. It is now a night club.

7.The Trustees Building. Next to the Caledonian is the Trustee Building erected in 1958. Its blue and bone tiled façade is typical of 1950s architecture yet the rectangular appearance has a slight classical look about it. It is on the SA Heritage Register. Accountants now occupy it.

8.Turn left into Percy Street and go along here beyond KFC for one town block to the next corner for the Oatmills (now a coffee shop and cinemas). Milling and brewing were two of Mt Gambier’s prime 19th century industries. The 4 storey complex here was started in 1867 for Welsh Thomas Williams who eventually had five flour mills. His mill was called Commercial Flourmills. A new owner converted the mill from wheat milling to oat milling. A new oatmill was built in 1901 and operated until 1975 producing Scottish porridge oats. The mill has now been restored with café, shops and cinemas. Return to Penola Rd.

9. Mt Gambier Hotel. No hotel could have a more remarkable origin than the Mt Gambier. An African American John Byng built a weatherboard hotel near here in 1847. The third licensee Alexander Mitchell, another Scot, took it over and moved the hotel to this corner site in 1862 as an impressive two storey hotel which was unusual at that time. The western wing was added in 1883 and balconies affixed in 1902.

10.Cross towards the Mount with the traffic lights then turn left into Commercial Street East.

11.Mt Gambier Town Hall. Marked as the Riddoch Gallery this fine Venetian Gothic style building is impressive with its coloured stone work contrasting well with cement rendered horizontal lines and vertical panels around windows and doors. The upper windows are mullioned with stone divisions between the glass. It was built in 1882 with the clock tower added in 1883 after a donation. The first Council meeting was in 1863 with Dr Wehl as chairman held in a hotel. Later the Council hired a room at the Foresters Hall and then they purchased this site in 1868 with a weatherboard room. This was used until 1882.

12.Mt Gambier old Institute. The Literary Institute was formed in 1862 and a foundation stone laid for a reading room/hall in 1868 by John Riddoch. The single storey institute opened in 1869. The upper floor was added in 1887, so that it would match the new Town Hall. It is built in a similar style- Venetian Romanesque as the windows and rounded and not arched as with a gothic structure.

13.Captain Gardiner Memorial Fountain 1884. The fountain was presented by Captain Robert Gardiner the grandfather of Sir Robert Helpman (his name was originally Helpmann). The fountain was made in Melbourne .Gardiner was also a benefactor of St Andrew’s Presbyterian -he donated the pipe organ in 1885.

14.Jens Hotel. After demolishing an earlier hotel (the 1847 hotel of John Byng) Johannes Jens had the first section of his Jens Hotel built on this corner in 1884. An almost identical eastern wing was erected in 1904 and the Spanish Art Deco section in 1927. Turn right here and go behind the Town hall to the Cave Gardens.

15.Cave Gardens. This spot was an early water supply. A garden was created in 1893 and then improved and reconstructed in 1925. This sink hole has recently been upgraded again and it is lit at night.

16.Post Office. This important communications centre was erected in 1865 as a telegraph office/post office. This is till one of the finest buildings in Mt Gambier and a rare example of the Georgian style for the city. . The single storey side wings were added in 1906 in a sympathetic style. It is still the main city Post Office.

17.Norris Agency Building. This superb Italianate building was completed in 1900 as chambers for businessmen. Owner was Alexander Norris who died in 1917. The façade is pink dolomite with cement quoins and unusual lined decoration work above the windows and door each contained within a triangular classical pediment.

18.Farmers Union Building. Another classical style building built when this style was out of fashion in 1914.Erected for Farmers Union as a large two storey building. It has none of the grace of the Norris building next door. FU was formed in 1888 in Jamestown by Thomas Mitchell, a Scot and others to provide cheap rates for grains, seeds and superphosphate but in the early 1900s they branched into products for dairy farmers and the marketing of milk products. The Mt Gambier district had plenty of dairy farmers. It is now owned by a Japanese company Kirin but it still markets its chocolate milk drinks as Farmers Union. Upper floor has double pilasters (flattened pillars) with top volutes but little other decoration.

19.Savings Bank Building on the corner. The former Savings Bank in Gothic style is unusual for commercial premises in Mt Gambier. It is constructed of weathered local limestone and was built in 1906. Note the different cut stone for the foundations, simulated turrets on the corners and by the door to break the façade appearance and the stone line above the lower window which then divides the façade into equal thirds.

20.Macs Hotel. This hotel was built in 1864 and is largely unchanged except that the upper floor was added in 1881. The first licensee was a Scot named John MacDonald. The double veranda supports are very elegant.

21.Roller flourmill now a painted hardware store. Built 1885 as a steam flourmill in pink dolomite. Note the small 12 paned windows set in much larger indented niches in the walls on the northern wall. (Sturt St.)

22.Christ Church Anglican Church and hall. Dr Browne of Moorak donated half the money for the construction of Christ Church in pink dolomite and with an unusual gabled tower. Church and tower completed in 1866. Adjacent is the Jubilee Hall built in 1915, destroyed by fire in 1951, and rebuilt exactly the same in weathered local limestone blocks with the original foundation stone still in place. It has the single Gothic window in the street facing gable and a crenulated square tower. Adjoining it is the 1869 Sunday School with the narrow double pointed Gothic windows. It was extended in 1892. The lychgate is more recent as a memorial to a regular church goer, Margaret French who died in 1927.

23.The old railway station just visible along the rail lines to your right. The first rail line was to Beachport in 1879 and the second to Naracoorte (and so to Adelaide) in 1887. Portland and Melbourne line opened 1917. A spur line to Glencoe was completed in 1904. First station was erected in 1879. It was demolished for the erection of the current station in 1918 which is similar in design to those in Tailem Bend, Bordertown, Moonta etc. Bluebird rail cars started on the Mt Gambier run in 1953 when the old 3’6” gauge line to Wolseley was converted to 5’3”. The last passenger service to Adelaide finished in 1990 and the station closed for freight in 1995. The railyards were cleared in 2013 and the future of the station is bleak. The rail lines to Beachport and Glencoe closed in 1956/57.

24.The Old Courthouse, 42 Bay Rd. It has a great low wall suitable for sitting on. This well designed Georgian style Courthouse opened in 1865 and the similarly styled side wings were added in 1877. The front veranda, which is not Georgian in style, was added in 1880. In 1975 the Courthouse was granted to the National Trust for a museum. The adjoining new Courthouse opened in 1975 at the same time. Note the “blind” windows to the façade but the same rounded Georgian shaped, 16 paned windows on the sides.

The Blue Lake, Mt Schank and Volcanoes.
The jewel in the crown of Mt Gambier is undoubtedly the volcanic cone, the crater lakes especially the Blue Lake and the surrounding Botanic Gardens and parklands. The Botanic Garden on the north side was approved in 1872 but nothing happened about plantings and care until 1882. The first pleasure road through the saddle between the Blue Lake and the Valley Lake was created in the 1861 as a more direct road to the then newly created international port named Port MacDonnell. That is why the road is called the Bay road. Surveyor General George Goyder explored the lake surrounds himself in 1876 when he selected the site for the government tree nursery. Later the government established the first sawmill on the edge of the crater reserve near Moorak homestead in the early 1920s. The Centenary Tower was initiated in 1900 to celebrate the centenary of Captain Grant sighting Mt Gambier. It took several years to complete and was opened by the Chief Justice of SA Sir Samuel Way in 1907 but it was completed in 1904. The whole complex is a maar geomorphological formation which originated during a volcanic era about 28,000 years ago but in a second phase of volcanic activity 4,000 to 6,000 years ago the cones and lakes of Mt Gambier were created along with the cones of Mt Schank and Mt Burr near Millicent. Mt Gambier was the most recent volcanic explosion in Australia. The crater lakes are: Blue Lake, Valley Lake, Leg of Mutton Lake and Browne’s Lake (dry). The Blue Lake is linked to the aquifers beneath the deep layers of limestone which underlay the entire South East. Blue Lake is about 72 metres deep and some of the water in it is estimated to be about 500 years old but it is mixed with rain runoff each year as well. The Lake provides the water supply for Mt Gambier. Deep in the lake are examples of the oldest living organisms on earth- stromatalites. The lake changes colour from grey to vivid blue each November and reverts in the following April. The change in colour is related to the position of the sun and reflected light from suspended particles in the lake which reflect blue green light rather than brown grey light. Secondly the suspended matter only occurs because the water near the surface rises in temperature in the spring and it is this which causes the particles to precipitate out of the water. The precipitated matter settles on the bottom of the lake ready for a new cycle the following spring. Like the Blue Lake various sink holes in the district have linkages to the underlying aquifer through the layers of limestone too and they include Cave Gardens, Umpherstone, Piccaninni Ponds, etc.

Moorak Station and Tenison Woods College.
Moorak station as originally known as Mount Gambier Station established by George Glen in the 1840s. The leasehold was later taken over by David Power who in turn sold it to Fisher and Rochford who in turn sold the estate as freehold to the Scottish Dr William Browne who had established Booborowie run with his brother in 1843 north of Burra. The Browne brothers dissolved their partnership around 1865 and John went to live at Buckland Park and William took up residence at Moorak. William had purchased Moorak Station in 1862 and built the grand Moorak homestead in impressive Georgian style onto a smaller house there. William died in 1894 and the Moorak Estate passed to his son Colonel Percival Browne who was to disappear on the ill-fated voyage of the new steamer the Waratah in 1909 which disappeared during a storm off Durban, South Africa. Also on that voyage was Mrs. Agnes Hay (nee Gosse) of Mt Breckan Victor Harbor and Linden Park Estate Adelaide and some 200 other poor souls. Around 1909 the Moorak Station was subdivided for closer settlement and in the 1920s the Marist Brothers purchased the homestead with a little land for their and monastery and opened the Marist Brothers Agricultural College for boys in 1931. That college in turn merged with the Mater Christi College in 1972 to become Tenison College. (Mater Christi College had been formed in 1952 by the merger of the St Josephs Convent School (1880) and St Peters Parish School but the primary section of St Peters broke away in 1969 from Mater Christi College and formed a separate St Peters Primary School. This primary school in turn merged with Tenison College in 2001 to form Tenison Woods College!) The College name commemorates the work of Father Julian Tenison Woods who arrived in Mt Gambier in 1857 to work in Penola and Mt Gambier. It was he who encouraged Mary MacKillop to take her vows and establish her Sisters of St Joseph.

Dr Browne’s manager of Moorak Estate in 1868 introduced hops as a viable crop in the South East and large quantities were grown for about 20 years. Other early experimental crops grown included tobacco, cotton and flax. Dr Browne and Moorak were also important in the potato industry. Dr Browne leased around 830 acres to 20 tenants for the express purpose of growing potatoes. He was keen to emulate the British aristocracy although he was a good Scot with being a manorial style landlord with tenant farmers. Potatoes were also grown from the early years at Yahl, OB Flat and Compton near Mt Gambier. The potatoes were carted down to Port MacDonnell and shipped to Adelaide for consumers. As one of the major wool producers of Australia William Browne contributed roughly half of the funds for the erection of Christ Church Anglican in Mt Gambier. The Moorak estate consisted of around 11,000 acres of the most fertile volcanic soil in SA with another 2,000 acres in a nearby property, German Creek near Carpenter’s Rocks. Dr Browne ran Silky Lincolns on Moorak for their wool as Merinos did not fare well on the damp South East pastures. About 2,000 acres was in wheat, about 2,500 acres was tenanted to other farmers and around 4,000 acres were in lucerne, clover, rye and other pasture grasses. William Browne returned to live in England in 1866 so his sons could attend Eton and military training colleges there. He made regular trips to SA about every second year to oversee his many pastoral properties here. When he died in 1894 he left 100,000 acres of freehold land in SA to his children who all resided here as well as leasehold land. He was an extremely wealthy man. Son Percival took control of Moorak. Before Percival’s death Moorak Estate was partly purchased by the SA government in 1904 for closer settlement when they acquired around 1,000 acres. After Percival’s death a further 6,300 acres was acquired for closer settlement and the remainder of the estate was sold to other farmers. The government paid between £10 and £31 per acre for the land. Percival Browne was highly respected in Mt Gambier and a reserve around the Blue Lake is named after him. The fourth of the crater lakes of Mt Gambier is also named Browne’s Lake after the family but it has been dry for decades. In 1900 Colonel Browne planted the ring of English Oaks around what was to become the oval of the Marist Brothers College.

Moorak.
There is a memorial by the station to William Browne as founder of the Coriadale Sheep Stud. The great Moorak woolshed was demolished in 1939. The Union church which opened in 1920 was used by the Methodists and the Anglicans. It is now a private residence. Moorak hall was opened in 1926. New classrooms were added to the Moorak School in 1928 and the first rooms opened in 1913. The cheese factory in Moorak opened in 1913 as a cooperative and was sold to Farmers Union in 1949. They closed the factory in 1979. Most of the cheese produced at Moorak went to the Melbourne market. The first cheese maker at Moorak was trained at Lauterbach’s cheese factory at Woodside. Moorak was one of a circle of settlements around Mt Gambier that had butter/cheese factories. These towns were: Kongorong; Glencoe East; Glencoe West; Suttontown; Glenburnie; Mil Lel; Yahl; OB Flat; Moorak; Mt Schank; and Eight Mile Creek.

Yahl.
In the 1860s this tiny settlement was a tobacco, hop and potato growing district and it persisted with potatoes up until recent times. Today Yahl is little more than a suburban village of Mt Gambier with a Primary school with approx 120 students. The old government school was erected in 1879. It had a Methodist church built in 1880 which operated as a church until 1977 and it had a large butter factory which had opened in 1888. The butter and cheese factory was taken over by the OB Flat cheese factory in 1939 and the two operated in conjunction with each other. The OB Flat cheese factory closed in 1950 and all production moved to Yahl. The factory finally closed in 1971. The township of Yahl also had a General Store and a Salvation Army Hall which was built in 1919.

Sink Holes: Umpherston Gardens and Cave Gardens.
James Umpherston purchased land near Mt Gambier in 1864 which included a large sink hole or collapsed cavern with a lake in the bottom. He was born in Scotland in 1812 and came to SA in the 1850s with his brother William. William purchased his first land at Yahl in 1859. James Umpherston was a civic minded chap being a local councilor, a parliamentarian in Adelaide for two years and President of the Mt Gambier Agricultural and Horticultural Society for 13 years. When he retired from civic life and farming in 1884 he decided to create a garden in his sinkhole. He beautified it and encouraged visitors and even provided a boat in the lake for boat rides. Access was gained by steps and a path carved into the sinkhole walls. However after he died in 1900 the garden was ignored, became overgrown and was largely forgotten in 1949 when the Woods and Forests Department obtained the land for a new sawmill at Mt Gambier. By then the lake had dried up as the water table had fallen over the decades. In 1976 staff, rather than the government, decided to restore the Umpherstone gardens. The cleared out the rubbish that had been dumped in the sinkhole, restored the path access, trimmed the ivy and replanted the hydrangeas and tree ferns. In 1994 the Woos and Forests Department handed over the land around the sinkhole to the City of Mt Gambier. It was added to the SA Heritage Register in 1995.

Palin: “John McCain has been the consummate MAVERICK in the Senate “
consumer loan rates
Image by elycefeliz
Barack Obama and Hilary Clinton recognized the urgency and seriousness of the economic problems months ago – and proposed solutions – while McCain failed to recognize the situation and did nothing.

www.nytimes.com/2008/03/26/us/politics/26mortgage.html
McCain Rejects Broad U.S. Aid on Mortgages
Published: March 26, 2008

SANTA ANA, Calif. — Drawing a sharp distinction between himself and the two Democratic presidential candidates, Senator John McCain of Arizona warned Tuesday against vigorous government action to solve the deepening mortgage crisis and the market turmoil it has caused, saying that “it is not the duty of government to bail out and reward those who act irresponsibly, whether they are big banks or small borrowers.”

Mr. McCain’s comments came a day after Senator Hillary Rodham Clinton of New York called for direct federal intervention to help affected homeowners, including a billion fund for states and communities to assist those at risk of foreclosure. Mrs. Clinton’s Democratic opponent, Senator Barack Obama of Illinois, has similarly called for greater federal involvement, including creation of a billion relief package to prevent foreclosures.

As the foreclosure crisis has rippled across the economy, it has thrust itself to the forefront of the presidential race, with Democrats seizing on the issue in urging forceful government steps to alleviate the crisis. Mr. McCain’s remarks Tuesday, to a group of Hispanic businessmen here, signaled a sharpening divide between the two parties’ candidates, with the senator warning against quick, costly government fixes to a crises rooted in the private sector.

. . . Mr. McCain appeared to be trying to confront questions about his dexterity in dealing with the economy, a subject that he has admitted is not his strongest suit. But his remarks drew a quick, pointed rebuke from Mrs. Clinton, who criticized Mr. McCain’s hands-off, market-oriented approach, saying it would lead to “a downward spiral that would cause tremendous economic pain and loss” for Americans.

“It sounds remarkably like Herbert Hoover, and I don’t think that’s good economic policy,” Mrs. Clinton told reporters in Greensburg, Pa. “The government has a number of tools at its disposal. I think that inaction has contributed to the problems we face today, and I believe further inaction would exacerbate those problems.”

. . . Mr. Obama’s plan emphasizes making it easier to convert subprime loans to fixed-rate, 30-year loans, while requiring that borrowers have access to better data on loan costs and requiring greater scrutiny of lenders. On Tuesday, he said, “It’s deeply troubling that John McCain is suggesting that the best way to address the housing crisis is to sit back and watch it happen.”

. . . Overall, the approach Mr. McCain suggested is even more cautious about federal intervention than that of President Bush. The Bush administration is looking to lower down payment requirements, at least temporarily. Mr. McCain said that he opposed reducing the down payment required for mortgages backed by the Federal Housing Administration, a step meant to revitalize slumping housing sales.

The housing crisis has emerged as a dominant topic in the campaign amid a steady drumbeat of worrisome economic data. A survey released Tuesday showed consumer expectations for the future at their lowest levels in more than 30 years, and polls show the economy has increasingly overshadowed issues like the Iraq war.

Mr. McCain spoke at some length about the problems caused by lenders and by Wall Street, which bundled mortgages into securities that were chopped into pieces and resold to investors in the United States and abroad. But he did not call for any kind of legislative or regulatory measures to fix those problems, other than to say that the government should eliminate obstacles to the ability of financial institutions to raise more capital.

Mr. McCain said he favored government intervention only when standing by would produce “catastrophic effects” to the economy.

www.boston.com/news/nation/articles/2008/09/18/amid_turmo…
Amid turmoil, McCain turns to regulation
By Michael Kranish and Farah Stockman
Globe Staff / September 18, 2008
Responding to the turmoil on Wall Street, John McCain said flatly yesterday: "We need strong and effective regulation." But throughout his two-decade Senate career, McCain has cast himself as an outspoken critic of government intervention in the markets, saying that he is "fundamentally a deregulator."

After saying Tuesday that he opposed any more government bailouts, he said yesterday that the government was "forced" to loan billion to rescue insurance giant AIG because so many of its customers were affected. After saying Monday that the "fundamentals of the economy are strong," he seemed to backtrack by saying he was talking about the spirit of workers, not the rising rate of unemployment or the plunging stock market.

"After all the years of tearing down the regulations that govern financial institutions, it rings hollow to claim that he will build them back up," said Elizabeth Warren, professor of bankruptcy law at Harvard Law School. "This economy is the direct consequence of the deregulation that John McCain fought for day after day, year after year, since the mid-1980s."

William K. Black said yesterday that he does not believe McCain ever shed his anti-regulatory views. "He still has ideological blinders on," said Black, who later co-wrote a government report on the lessons learned from theKeating scandal. "He took no meaningful leadership role to try to deal with the recurring problems, and that is why the current crisis not only recurred but has intensified to the point where they have severely damaged the global economy," said Black, now an associate professor of economics and law at the University of Missouri-Kansas City’s law school.

Another analyst said that McCain has waited too long to speak out on stabilizing the US economy. "He has been very slow to recognize the severity," said Desmond Lachman, former managing director and chief emerging market economic strategist at Salomon Smith Barney. "I think it has only been the last two days that it has finally registered that this is a serious problem," said Lachman, who is now a resident fellow at the American Enterprise Institute, a conservative think tank.

ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5iE2JCSH5p9r2GBkQWS9TWAMzmuvQD…
October 23, 2008
"I call on the administration to act now and buy up these mortgages and keep people in their homes," McCain said, then singled out Treasury Secretary Henry Paulson. "And why is the secretary of the Treasury not ordering them to do that?"

Nice Consumer Loan Rates photos

Nice Consumer Loan Rates photos

A few nice consumer loan rates images I found:

Mt Gambier Town Hall and clock built in 1882. Tower 1883.
consumer loan rates
Image by denisbin
Brief History of Mt Gambier – the second city of SA after Adelaide (region population nearly 35,000, urban 28,000).
Lieutenant James Grant aboard the Lady Nelson sighted and named Mt Gambier in 1800 after a Lord of the Admiralty. The first white man to traverse the area was Stephen Henty of Portland in 1839 when he sighted the Blue Lake. He returned with cattle and stockmen in 1841. He later claimed that had he known the lake and volcano he had discovered in 1839 was in SA he would have immediately applied for an 1839 Special Survey. But Henty thought he was squatting on land in NSW and he was not an official SA settler so the government ordered him off the land in 1844. Thus the first official white settler of the South East and the Mt Gambier district became Evelyn Sturt, brother to Captain Charles Sturt, who took up an occupational license in March 1844 and a property he named Compton just north of the present city. In April 1844 Governor Grey and a party of assistants including the Assistant Surveyor General Thomas Burr and artist George French Angas explored the South East naming Robe and doing the first surveys. Evelyn Sturt became the first to have an occupational license to squat and the first purchase freehold land near Mt Gambier which he did in 1847- a section of 77 acres when 80 acres was the norm. He left the district in 1854 selling his freehold land to Hastings Cunningham who in 1855 subdivided some of this land thus creating the town of Gambierton. The town lands were adjacent to the site of the first police station selected near what is now Cave Gardens by the government in 1845. A small bush inn also operated at this spot. The first streets were named after early locals such as Evelyn Sturt, Compton, Ferrers and Crouch (built the first general store before the town was created) etc. The town grew quickly because of the mild climate, fertile soils, plentiful water and the influx of settlers from across the border in what was to become the colony of Victoria. Cunningham himself was a great benefactor and donated land for the first school in 1856. In 1861 the town name was changed by act of parliament to Mt Gambier. The Hundred of Mt Gambier (along with three other hundreds) was declared in 1858 and began the closer settlement of the South East.

Unlike other areas of SA the South East was seen as paradise for pastoralists and the optimistic pastoralists flocked to the area with their flocks in 1845. The large runs locked up the land and prevented farmers from settling in the region except for the fertile lands around Mount Gambier. Here small scale farmers had small properties and grew potatoes, hops, and later had dairy cows as well as growing wheat and oats. Land acts in the early 1870s designed to break up the big runs only partially succeeded in the South East where most station owners bought up their lands freehold. It was after 1905 before the big pastoral estates were really broken up for farmers and closer settlement, except for near Mt Gambier. Apart from Evelyn Sturt the other early white settlers of the South East in 1845 were Alexander Cameron at Penola, John Robertson at Struan, William Macintosh and George Ormerod at Naracoorte, the Austin brothers at Yallum Park (later John Riddoch), the Arthur brothers (nephews of Governor Arthur of Van Diemen’s Land) at Mt Schanck( now Mt Schank) and the Leake brothers at Glencoe. In fact in 1845 nineteen leasehold runs were taken up in the South East with a further thirty runs in 1846 and most had several 80 acres sections of freehold land near the main homestead. Most had got to the South East from Casterton and Portland in Victoria as the swamps near the coast were too difficult to traverse except for the country near Robe. Many of the estates were huge. Evelyn Sturt on the Compton/Mt Gambier run had 85 square miles as well as his freehold land; Robertson had 135 square miles at Struan; George Glen (and William Vansittart) of Mayurra had 110 square miles; the SA Company had 159 square miles on the Benara run; the Leake brothers had 194 square miles on Glencoe; Hunter had 56 square miles on Kalangadoo; Neil Black of Noorat Victoria had 45 square miles on Kongorong run and 101 square miles at Port MacDonnell and the Arthur brothers had a huge run at Mt Schanck. By 1851 almost 5,000 square miles of the South East was occupied by Occupational License and most licenses were converted to 14 year leases in that year. A third of all leasehold land in SA was taken up in the South East because of its higher rainfall and suitability for pastoralism and a third of all sheep in the colony were in the South East. When Hundreds were declared in the South East in the late 1850s and early 1860s pastoralists bought up the land. In one case John Riddoch of Yallum Park owned the entire Hundred of Monbulla. Another pastoralist W. Clarke who had purchased Mt Schancke station from the Arthur brothers in 1861 owned SA land valued at £1.25 million when he died in 1874 and he had 120,000 acres freehold in Victoria, 75,000 acres freehold in SA( Mt Schank) and 50,000 acres freehold in each of NSW and Tasmania! Mt Schanck was changed in Schank in 1917 when German place names in SA were changed as Schank without the second “c” is an old English name!

In the 1850s Mt Gambier was a shanty village as the South East was a region of large pastoral estates and little agricultural farming and very low population numbers. It was far from Adelaide and remote and it was only after the Princeland episode in 1862 with the threat of possible secession to a new state that the Adelaide government began to invest in the South East and really encourage settlement there. The Border Watch newspaper was established in 1861, the Mt Gambier Hotel opened in 1862 and the Mt Gambier Council was formed in 1863.By the early 1860s Mt Gambier had almost 1,000 residents making it one of the largest towns in SA after the copper mining centres of Burra, Kadina and Moonta. By the 1881 SA census Mt Gambier had 2,500 residents making it the biggest town outside of Adelaide. In 1865 four iconic historic buildings were erected-the Courthouse, the Gaol, Christ Church Anglican and the Post Office and Telegraph Station. The flourmill which later became the Oat Mill opened in 1867 as wheat farmers had now taken up lands around the Mount. Mt Gambier was growing into a fine prosperous looking town with churches, stores, banks, hotels and fine residences. In the 1870s the rural population increased dramatically with tenant potato farmers on Browne’s Moorak estate and intensive hop growing in several localities such as Yahl and OB Flat and Glenburnie etc. Also in 1876 the first commercial forestry was started at the behest of George Goyder. A tree nursery was established on the edge of Leg of Mutton Lake in 1876 on a site selected by George Goyder himself. A stone cottage for the first nurseryman Charles Beale was constructed and it survived until demolished in 1969 but the nursery closed in 1929. The nursery propagated eucalypts, Oak, Elm, Ash, Sycamore, and North American pines. Pinus radiata was first grown at Leg of Mutton Lake and was being dispersed to other areas by 1878. Pinus canariensis was also grown in the 1880s. Pinus radiata is now the most commonly grown commercial forest tree in SA and Australia. Also in the 1870s the first hospital was erected and Dr Wehl, the town’s doctor for many years was in residence.

In the mid 1880s the first rail line was laid as the railway lines pushed out from Mt Gambier to Naracoorte. The service to Naracoorte began in 1887 and connected on with the line to Bordertown and Adelaide. By 1897 a railway connected Mt Gambier to Millicent and the port at Beachport. The railway line across the border to Heywood and Melbourne was not completed until 1917 as the SA government resisted a line that would take goods and passengers from Mt Gambier to Port Melbourne rather than to Port Adelaide. Mt Gambier railway station used to be a hive of activity with daily trains to Adelaide and an overnight sleeper services several times a week. Passenger trains to Mt Gambier from Adelaide stopped in 1990 after Australian National took over the SA railway network. Freight services stopped in 1995 and the railway line and station was formally closed. The railyards and other buildings were cleared in 2013.

The Buandik Aboriginal People.
The Buandik people are commemorated in a city street but by little else. Yet they were resilient and determined fighters opposed to the white settlement of the South East. Their occupation of the Mt Gambier district stretches back to around 20,000+ years but their dated occupation from archaeological sites goes back to about 11,000 years with their myths and legends including stories about volcanic activity at Mt Gambier. The last volcanic explosions were about 4,000 years ago. Both Mt Schank and Mt Gambier were important places to the Buandik for ceremonies, hunting, access to water and stone implement making. A government report in 1867 noted that the Buandik people in government care were few in number mainly sickly and elderly. The younger people had presumably moved out into the white community. But back in the 1840s the Buandik were a force to be reckoned with. There are no common stories of Aboriginal massacres but white pastoralists certainly retaliated when sheep were stolen. On Mt Schank station the Buandik were so troublesome that shepherds would not venture out to care for sheep alone and the Arthur brothers gave this trouble as their reason for them selling the run in 1845. In 1845 the government established a police station at Mt Gambier, which the Protector of Aboriginals visited, to ensure that pastoralists did not massacre the Buandik.

William Vansittart and Vansittart Park.
Vansittart Park has been a focal point of Mt Gambier since 1884 for activities such as family picnics, political rallies and speeches, bike racing, band rotunda concerts, bowling greens, sport oval, grandstand (1927) and Anzac memorial services. But who was William Vansittart? He was an Anglican reverend from England (Vansittart is a noble and political Anglo-Irish family in the UK) who arrived in SA in 1847 as a young bachelor. He was never licensed as a minister in SA but he developed his passions for making money and horse racing here. He mixed with the elite of Adelaide like Sir Samuel Davenport, the Governor and was a friend of Hurtle Fisher and he was Master of the Hounds. In 1850 he purchased 35 acres at Beaumont where he built Tower House and 80 acres at Mt Gambier. He imported a thoroughbred horse from Hobart called Lucifer. Ironic that a minister of religion would have a horse called Lucifer! His horses raced in Adelaide, Salisbury, Gawler, Brighton and Clare as well as in Mt Gambier and Penola. In 1851 he also took over the 110 square mile 14 year lease of Mayurra run with George Glen of Millicent. In 1852 he returned to England for a short time and on his return he purchased more freehold land bringing his estate to around 800 acres. Not long after in 1854 his horse shied, he was thrown against a tree and died of head injuries but he died intestate with an estate worth over £10,000. Glen bought out his share of Mayurra; the Beaumont house and property was sold in 1867 as were his race horses and his brother Captain Spencer Vansittart eventually inherited the Mt Gambier property. In accordance with William’s wishes 115 acres were set aside to provide income for a scholarship for boarders at St Peters Boys College which happened from 1859. Later in 1883 Spencer Vansittart offered 20 acres to the Mt Gambier Council for a memorial park at the “nominal” sum of £400 which hardly seems “nominal”. The Council raised a loan and purchased the land and the park is still enjoyed by the city’s residents and visitors. Captain Spencer’s widow sold the last package of 300 acres of land in 1912 thus ending the Vansittart links with Mt Gambier. The Vansittart scholarship is still available for boarders from the South East and is operated by a group of College trustees.

Some Historic Buildings in Mt Gambier and a town walk.
Your town walk is basically straight ahead along Penola Road towards the Mount itself which becomes Bay Road( the bay is at Port MacDonnell) once you cross Commercial Street which is the Main Street. There are just a few diversions to the left as you face the Mount. The coach will collect you at the Mount end of the walk near the Old Courthouse.

If you a good walker check out the fine houses in Jardine Street at numbers 1, 7, 9, 11, 12, 17 and 22. They range from cottages to Gothic and turreted mansions including the home of Jens the hotelier. This detour will add another 10 minutes to the walk if you elect to do it.

1.Catholic Covent. Sisters of Mercy setup a convent school in 1880. This wonderful convent was not built until 1908 in local dolomite stone & limestone quoins. Note the fine stone gables with small niches for statuary, the well proportioned arched colonnades and upstairs oriel windows – the projecting bay windows with stone supports. This is one of the finest buildings in Mt Gambier. The convent closed in 1986. Now Auspine.

2.Wesleyan Methodist Church Hall/Sunday School. Across the street is pink dolomite neo-classical style Wesleyan Methodist Sunday School Hall. Hundreds of children attended Sunday School in those days. It opened in 1904. It is now commercial offices. (If you want to walk up Wyatt Street beside the Sunday School and turn right at second street which is at Gray you will see the old two storey Methodist Manse at 101 Gray St. It was built in 1868 and sold 1941. As you turn into Gray Street the Salvation Army Hall is on your left. Allow 10 minutes for this detour before returning to Penola Road).

3.Methodist Church now Liberty Church. A Gothic large church built in 1862 by the Wesleyans. Opened by minister from Portland. Additions made 1877 with new entrance. The old lecture hall and Sunday School was beneath the church. Note the buttress on corners and sides. Became Uniting Church 1977 and closed 1994 when services moved to St Andrews Presbyterian Church. Behind the church (walk through the car park) in Colhurst Place is LLandovery two storey mansion now a B&B. Built 1878 for a flour and oat miller who had his mill in Percy Street.

4.St Paul’s Catholic Church. This impressive Gothic church with huge tower with crenulations was opened in 1884 and will be open today. There are 1966 extensions to the rear of it. The Presbytery is behind the church facing Alexander St. it was built in 1901 when the church was free of building debt. The first thatched bush church was built in another location in 1855. From 1857 the priest was Father Julian Tenison Woods, explorer, academic, horseman etc. A second church opened in 1861 in Sturt St and is now demolished. It closed in 1885 as this church opened. The bells came from Dublin. The church fence and gates built 1936.

5.The Mount Gambier Club. Across the street is the Club. It was built in 1904 for a local distiller as chambers for lease. The wealthy pastoralists of the South East formed an exclusive men only club in 1913 and it has used the upper floor of Engelbrecht’s chambers ever since. They purchased the whole building in 1920. The Club is a beautifully proportioned classical style building with pediments, balustrades, window entablature, and perfect symmetry. Look down the sides and you can see it is made of Mt Gambier limestone blocks.

6.Mt Gambier Caledonian Hall. Next door is the Scots Club. Its prominence signifies the Scottish links of many Gambier residents. The hall was opened in 1914 and opened by the former Prime Minister Sir George Reid, another Scot. It has classical features but is rather ugly and neglected these days. It is now a night club.

7.The Trustees Building. Next to the Caledonian is the Trustee Building erected in 1958. Its blue and bone tiled façade is typical of 1950s architecture yet the rectangular appearance has a slight classical look about it. It is on the SA Heritage Register. Accountants now occupy it.

8.Turn left into Percy Street and go along here beyond KFC for one town block to the next corner for the Oatmills (now a coffee shop and cinemas). Milling and brewing were two of Mt Gambier’s prime 19th century industries. The 4 storey complex here was started in 1867 for Welsh Thomas Williams who eventually had five flour mills. His mill was called Commercial Flourmills. A new owner converted the mill from wheat milling to oat milling. A new oatmill was built in 1901 and operated until 1975 producing Scottish porridge oats. The mill has now been restored with café, shops and cinemas. Return to Penola Rd.

9. Mt Gambier Hotel. No hotel could have a more remarkable origin than the Mt Gambier. An African American John Byng built a weatherboard hotel near here in 1847. The third licensee Alexander Mitchell, another Scot, took it over and moved the hotel to this corner site in 1862 as an impressive two storey hotel which was unusual at that time. The western wing was added in 1883 and balconies affixed in 1902.

10.Cross towards the Mount with the traffic lights then turn left into Commercial Street East.

11.Mt Gambier Town Hall. Marked as the Riddoch Gallery this fine Venetian Gothic style building is impressive with its coloured stone work contrasting well with cement rendered horizontal lines and vertical panels around windows and doors. The upper windows are mullioned with stone divisions between the glass. It was built in 1882 with the clock tower added in 1883 after a donation. The first Council meeting was in 1863 with Dr Wehl as chairman held in a hotel. Later the Council hired a room at the Foresters Hall and then they purchased this site in 1868 with a weatherboard room. This was used until 1882.

12.Mt Gambier old Institute. The Literary Institute was formed in 1862 and a foundation stone laid for a reading room/hall in 1868 by John Riddoch. The single storey institute opened in 1869. The upper floor was added in 1887, so that it would match the new Town Hall. It is built in a similar style- Venetian Romanesque as the windows and rounded and not arched as with a gothic structure.

13.Captain Gardiner Memorial Fountain 1884. The fountain was presented by Captain Robert Gardiner the grandfather of Sir Robert Helpman (his name was originally Helpmann). The fountain was made in Melbourne .Gardiner was also a benefactor of St Andrew’s Presbyterian -he donated the pipe organ in 1885.

14.Jens Hotel. After demolishing an earlier hotel (the 1847 hotel of John Byng) Johannes Jens had the first section of his Jens Hotel built on this corner in 1884. An almost identical eastern wing was erected in 1904 and the Spanish Art Deco section in 1927. Turn right here and go behind the Town hall to the Cave Gardens.

15.Cave Gardens. This spot was an early water supply. A garden was created in 1893 and then improved and reconstructed in 1925. This sink hole has recently been upgraded again and it is lit at night.

16.Post Office. This important communications centre was erected in 1865 as a telegraph office/post office. This is till one of the finest buildings in Mt Gambier and a rare example of the Georgian style for the city. . The single storey side wings were added in 1906 in a sympathetic style. It is still the main city Post Office.

17.Norris Agency Building. This superb Italianate building was completed in 1900 as chambers for businessmen. Owner was Alexander Norris who died in 1917. The façade is pink dolomite with cement quoins and unusual lined decoration work above the windows and door each contained within a triangular classical pediment.

18.Farmers Union Building. Another classical style building built when this style was out of fashion in 1914.Erected for Farmers Union as a large two storey building. It has none of the grace of the Norris building next door. FU was formed in 1888 in Jamestown by Thomas Mitchell, a Scot and others to provide cheap rates for grains, seeds and superphosphate but in the early 1900s they branched into products for dairy farmers and the marketing of milk products. The Mt Gambier district had plenty of dairy farmers. It is now owned by a Japanese company Kirin but it still markets its chocolate milk drinks as Farmers Union. Upper floor has double pilasters (flattened pillars) with top volutes but little other decoration.

19.Savings Bank Building on the corner. The former Savings Bank in Gothic style is unusual for commercial premises in Mt Gambier. It is constructed of weathered local limestone and was built in 1906. Note the different cut stone for the foundations, simulated turrets on the corners and by the door to break the façade appearance and the stone line above the lower window which then divides the façade into equal thirds.

20.Macs Hotel. This hotel was built in 1864 and is largely unchanged except that the upper floor was added in 1881. The first licensee was a Scot named John MacDonald. The double veranda supports are very elegant.

21.Roller flourmill now a painted hardware store. Built 1885 as a steam flourmill in pink dolomite. Note the small 12 paned windows set in much larger indented niches in the walls on the northern wall. (Sturt St.)

22.Christ Church Anglican Church and hall. Dr Browne of Moorak donated half the money for the construction of Christ Church in pink dolomite and with an unusual gabled tower. Church and tower completed in 1866. Adjacent is the Jubilee Hall built in 1915, destroyed by fire in 1951, and rebuilt exactly the same in weathered local limestone blocks with the original foundation stone still in place. It has the single Gothic window in the street facing gable and a crenulated square tower. Adjoining it is the 1869 Sunday School with the narrow double pointed Gothic windows. It was extended in 1892. The lychgate is more recent as a memorial to a regular church goer, Margaret French who died in 1927.

23.The old railway station just visible along the rail lines to your right. The first rail line was to Beachport in 1879 and the second to Naracoorte (and so to Adelaide) in 1887. Portland and Melbourne line opened 1917. A spur line to Glencoe was completed in 1904. First station was erected in 1879. It was demolished for the erection of the current station in 1918 which is similar in design to those in Tailem Bend, Bordertown, Moonta etc. Bluebird rail cars started on the Mt Gambier run in 1953 when the old 3’6” gauge line to Wolseley was converted to 5’3”. The last passenger service to Adelaide finished in 1990 and the station closed for freight in 1995. The railyards were cleared in 2013 and the future of the station is bleak. The rail lines to Beachport and Glencoe closed in 1956/57.

24.The Old Courthouse, 42 Bay Rd. It has a great low wall suitable for sitting on. This well designed Georgian style Courthouse opened in 1865 and the similarly styled side wings were added in 1877. The front veranda, which is not Georgian in style, was added in 1880. In 1975 the Courthouse was granted to the National Trust for a museum. The adjoining new Courthouse opened in 1975 at the same time. Note the “blind” windows to the façade but the same rounded Georgian shaped, 16 paned windows on the sides.

The Blue Lake, Mt Schank and Volcanoes.
The jewel in the crown of Mt Gambier is undoubtedly the volcanic cone, the crater lakes especially the Blue Lake and the surrounding Botanic Gardens and parklands. The Botanic Garden on the north side was approved in 1872 but nothing happened about plantings and care until 1882. The first pleasure road through the saddle between the Blue Lake and the Valley Lake was created in the 1861 as a more direct road to the then newly created international port named Port MacDonnell. That is why the road is called the Bay road. Surveyor General George Goyder explored the lake surrounds himself in 1876 when he selected the site for the government tree nursery. Later the government established the first sawmill on the edge of the crater reserve near Moorak homestead in the early 1920s. The Centenary Tower was initiated in 1900 to celebrate the centenary of Captain Grant sighting Mt Gambier. It took several years to complete and was opened by the Chief Justice of SA Sir Samuel Way in 1907 but it was completed in 1904. The whole complex is a maar geomorphological formation which originated during a volcanic era about 28,000 years ago but in a second phase of volcanic activity 4,000 to 6,000 years ago the cones and lakes of Mt Gambier were created along with the cones of Mt Schank and Mt Burr near Millicent. Mt Gambier was the most recent volcanic explosion in Australia. The crater lakes are: Blue Lake, Valley Lake, Leg of Mutton Lake and Browne’s Lake (dry). The Blue Lake is linked to the aquifers beneath the deep layers of limestone which underlay the entire South East. Blue Lake is about 72 metres deep and some of the water in it is estimated to be about 500 years old but it is mixed with rain runoff each year as well. The Lake provides the water supply for Mt Gambier. Deep in the lake are examples of the oldest living organisms on earth- stromatalites. The lake changes colour from grey to vivid blue each November and reverts in the following April. The change in colour is related to the position of the sun and reflected light from suspended particles in the lake which reflect blue green light rather than brown grey light. Secondly the suspended matter only occurs because the water near the surface rises in temperature in the spring and it is this which causes the particles to precipitate out of the water. The precipitated matter settles on the bottom of the lake ready for a new cycle the following spring. Like the Blue Lake various sink holes in the district have linkages to the underlying aquifer through the layers of limestone too and they include Cave Gardens, Umpherstone, Piccaninni Ponds, etc.

Moorak Station and Tenison Woods College.
Moorak station as originally known as Mount Gambier Station established by George Glen in the 1840s. The leasehold was later taken over by David Power who in turn sold it to Fisher and Rochford who in turn sold the estate as freehold to the Scottish Dr William Browne who had established Booborowie run with his brother in 1843 north of Burra. The Browne brothers dissolved their partnership around 1865 and John went to live at Buckland Park and William took up residence at Moorak. William had purchased Moorak Station in 1862 and built the grand Moorak homestead in impressive Georgian style onto a smaller house there. William died in 1894 and the Moorak Estate passed to his son Colonel Percival Browne who was to disappear on the ill-fated voyage of the new steamer the Waratah in 1909 which disappeared during a storm off Durban, South Africa. Also on that voyage was Mrs. Agnes Hay (nee Gosse) of Mt Breckan Victor Harbor and Linden Park Estate Adelaide and some 200 other poor souls. Around 1909 the Moorak Station was subdivided for closer settlement and in the 1920s the Marist Brothers purchased the homestead with a little land for their and monastery and opened the Marist Brothers Agricultural College for boys in 1931. That college in turn merged with the Mater Christi College in 1972 to become Tenison College. (Mater Christi College had been formed in 1952 by the merger of the St Josephs Convent School (1880) and St Peters Parish School but the primary section of St Peters broke away in 1969 from Mater Christi College and formed a separate St Peters Primary School. This primary school in turn merged with Tenison College in 2001 to form Tenison Woods College!) The College name commemorates the work of Father Julian Tenison Woods who arrived in Mt Gambier in 1857 to work in Penola and Mt Gambier. It was he who encouraged Mary MacKillop to take her vows and establish her Sisters of St Joseph.

Dr Browne’s manager of Moorak Estate in 1868 introduced hops as a viable crop in the South East and large quantities were grown for about 20 years. Other early experimental crops grown included tobacco, cotton and flax. Dr Browne and Moorak were also important in the potato industry. Dr Browne leased around 830 acres to 20 tenants for the express purpose of growing potatoes. He was keen to emulate the British aristocracy although he was a good Scot with being a manorial style landlord with tenant farmers. Potatoes were also grown from the early years at Yahl, OB Flat and Compton near Mt Gambier. The potatoes were carted down to Port MacDonnell and shipped to Adelaide for consumers. As one of the major wool producers of Australia William Browne contributed roughly half of the funds for the erection of Christ Church Anglican in Mt Gambier. The Moorak estate consisted of around 11,000 acres of the most fertile volcanic soil in SA with another 2,000 acres in a nearby property, German Creek near Carpenter’s Rocks. Dr Browne ran Silky Lincolns on Moorak for their wool as Merinos did not fare well on the damp South East pastures. About 2,000 acres was in wheat, about 2,500 acres was tenanted to other farmers and around 4,000 acres were in lucerne, clover, rye and other pasture grasses. William Browne returned to live in England in 1866 so his sons could attend Eton and military training colleges there. He made regular trips to SA about every second year to oversee his many pastoral properties here. When he died in 1894 he left 100,000 acres of freehold land in SA to his children who all resided here as well as leasehold land. He was an extremely wealthy man. Son Percival took control of Moorak. Before Percival’s death Moorak Estate was partly purchased by the SA government in 1904 for closer settlement when they acquired around 1,000 acres. After Percival’s death a further 6,300 acres was acquired for closer settlement and the remainder of the estate was sold to other farmers. The government paid between £10 and £31 per acre for the land. Percival Browne was highly respected in Mt Gambier and a reserve around the Blue Lake is named after him. The fourth of the crater lakes of Mt Gambier is also named Browne’s Lake after the family but it has been dry for decades. In 1900 Colonel Browne planted the ring of English Oaks around what was to become the oval of the Marist Brothers College.

Moorak.
There is a memorial by the station to William Browne as founder of the Coriadale Sheep Stud. The great Moorak woolshed was demolished in 1939. The Union church which opened in 1920 was used by the Methodists and the Anglicans. It is now a private residence. Moorak hall was opened in 1926. New classrooms were added to the Moorak School in 1928 and the first rooms opened in 1913. The cheese factory in Moorak opened in 1913 as a cooperative and was sold to Farmers Union in 1949. They closed the factory in 1979. Most of the cheese produced at Moorak went to the Melbourne market. The first cheese maker at Moorak was trained at Lauterbach’s cheese factory at Woodside. Moorak was one of a circle of settlements around Mt Gambier that had butter/cheese factories. These towns were: Kongorong; Glencoe East; Glencoe West; Suttontown; Glenburnie; Mil Lel; Yahl; OB Flat; Moorak; Mt Schank; and Eight Mile Creek.

Yahl.
In the 1860s this tiny settlement was a tobacco, hop and potato growing district and it persisted with potatoes up until recent times. Today Yahl is little more than a suburban village of Mt Gambier with a Primary school with approx 120 students. The old government school was erected in 1879. It had a Methodist church built in 1880 which operated as a church until 1977 and it had a large butter factory which had opened in 1888. The butter and cheese factory was taken over by the OB Flat cheese factory in 1939 and the two operated in conjunction with each other. The OB Flat cheese factory closed in 1950 and all production moved to Yahl. The factory finally closed in 1971. The township of Yahl also had a General Store and a Salvation Army Hall which was built in 1919.

Sink Holes: Umpherston Gardens and Cave Gardens.
James Umpherston purchased land near Mt Gambier in 1864 which included a large sink hole or collapsed cavern with a lake in the bottom. He was born in Scotland in 1812 and came to SA in the 1850s with his brother William. William purchased his first land at Yahl in 1859. James Umpherston was a civic minded chap being a local councilor, a parliamentarian in Adelaide for two years and President of the Mt Gambier Agricultural and Horticultural Society for 13 years. When he retired from civic life and farming in 1884 he decided to create a garden in his sinkhole. He beautified it and encouraged visitors and even provided a boat in the lake for boat rides. Access was gained by steps and a path carved into the sinkhole walls. However after he died in 1900 the garden was ignored, became overgrown and was largely forgotten in 1949 when the Woods and Forests Department obtained the land for a new sawmill at Mt Gambier. By then the lake had dried up as the water table had fallen over the decades. In 1976 staff, rather than the government, decided to restore the Umpherstone gardens. The cleared out the rubbish that had been dumped in the sinkhole, restored the path access, trimmed the ivy and replanted the hydrangeas and tree ferns. In 1994 the Woos and Forests Department handed over the land around the sinkhole to the City of Mt Gambier. It was added to the SA Heritage Register in 1995.

Mt Gambier. The oat and wheat flour mill complex in Mt Gambier. First oat mill was 1867. This one erected in 1901. Ceased operations in 1975. Now a cinema, restaurant etc.
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Brief History of Mt Gambier – the second city of SA after Adelaide (region population nearly 35,000, urban 28,000).
Lieutenant James Grant aboard the Lady Nelson sighted and named Mt Gambier in 1800 after a Lord of the Admiralty. The first white man to traverse the area was Stephen Henty of Portland in 1839 when he sighted the Blue Lake. He returned with cattle and stockmen in 1841. He later claimed that had he known the lake and volcano he had discovered in 1839 was in SA he would have immediately applied for an 1839 Special Survey. But Henty thought he was squatting on land in NSW and he was not an official SA settler so the government ordered him off the land in 1844. Thus the first official white settler of the South East and the Mt Gambier district became Evelyn Sturt, brother to Captain Charles Sturt, who took up an occupational license in March 1844 and a property he named Compton just north of the present city. In April 1844 Governor Grey and a party of assistants including the Assistant Surveyor General Thomas Burr and artist George French Angas explored the South East naming Robe and doing the first surveys. Evelyn Sturt became the first to have an occupational license to squat and the first purchase freehold land near Mt Gambier which he did in 1847- a section of 77 acres when 80 acres was the norm. He left the district in 1854 selling his freehold land to Hastings Cunningham who in 1855 subdivided some of this land thus creating the town of Gambierton. The town lands were adjacent to the site of the first police station selected near what is now Cave Gardens by the government in 1845. A small bush inn also operated at this spot. The first streets were named after early locals such as Evelyn Sturt, Compton, Ferrers and Crouch (built the first general store before the town was created) etc. The town grew quickly because of the mild climate, fertile soils, plentiful water and the influx of settlers from across the border in what was to become the colony of Victoria. Cunningham himself was a great benefactor and donated land for the first school in 1856. In 1861 the town name was changed by act of parliament to Mt Gambier. The Hundred of Mt Gambier (along with three other hundreds) was declared in 1858 and began the closer settlement of the South East.

Unlike other areas of SA the South East was seen as paradise for pastoralists and the optimistic pastoralists flocked to the area with their flocks in 1845. The large runs locked up the land and prevented farmers from settling in the region except for the fertile lands around Mount Gambier. Here small scale farmers had small properties and grew potatoes, hops, and later had dairy cows as well as growing wheat and oats. Land acts in the early 1870s designed to break up the big runs only partially succeeded in the South East where most station owners bought up their lands freehold. It was after 1905 before the big pastoral estates were really broken up for farmers and closer settlement, except for near Mt Gambier. Apart from Evelyn Sturt the other early white settlers of the South East in 1845 were Alexander Cameron at Penola, John Robertson at Struan, William Macintosh and George Ormerod at Naracoorte, the Austin brothers at Yallum Park (later John Riddoch), the Arthur brothers (nephews of Governor Arthur of Van Diemen’s Land) at Mt Schanck( now Mt Schank) and the Leake brothers at Glencoe. In fact in 1845 nineteen leasehold runs were taken up in the South East with a further thirty runs in 1846 and most had several 80 acres sections of freehold land near the main homestead. Most had got to the South East from Casterton and Portland in Victoria as the swamps near the coast were too difficult to traverse except for the country near Robe. Many of the estates were huge. Evelyn Sturt on the Compton/Mt Gambier run had 85 square miles as well as his freehold land; Robertson had 135 square miles at Struan; George Glen (and William Vansittart) of Mayurra had 110 square miles; the SA Company had 159 square miles on the Benara run; the Leake brothers had 194 square miles on Glencoe; Hunter had 56 square miles on Kalangadoo; Neil Black of Noorat Victoria had 45 square miles on Kongorong run and 101 square miles at Port MacDonnell and the Arthur brothers had a huge run at Mt Schanck. By 1851 almost 5,000 square miles of the South East was occupied by Occupational License and most licenses were converted to 14 year leases in that year. A third of all leasehold land in SA was taken up in the South East because of its higher rainfall and suitability for pastoralism and a third of all sheep in the colony were in the South East. When Hundreds were declared in the South East in the late 1850s and early 1860s pastoralists bought up the land. In one case John Riddoch of Yallum Park owned the entire Hundred of Monbulla. Another pastoralist W. Clarke who had purchased Mt Schancke station from the Arthur brothers in 1861 owned SA land valued at £1.25 million when he died in 1874 and he had 120,000 acres freehold in Victoria, 75,000 acres freehold in SA( Mt Schank) and 50,000 acres freehold in each of NSW and Tasmania! Mt Schanck was changed in Schank in 1917 when German place names in SA were changed as Schank without the second “c” is an old English name!

In the 1850s Mt Gambier was a shanty village as the South East was a region of large pastoral estates and little agricultural farming and very low population numbers. It was far from Adelaide and remote and it was only after the Princeland episode in 1862 with the threat of possible secession to a new state that the Adelaide government began to invest in the South East and really encourage settlement there. The Border Watch newspaper was established in 1861, the Mt Gambier Hotel opened in 1862 and the Mt Gambier Council was formed in 1863.By the early 1860s Mt Gambier had almost 1,000 residents making it one of the largest towns in SA after the copper mining centres of Burra, Kadina and Moonta. By the 1881 SA census Mt Gambier had 2,500 residents making it the biggest town outside of Adelaide. In 1865 four iconic historic buildings were erected-the Courthouse, the Gaol, Christ Church Anglican and the Post Office and Telegraph Station. The flourmill which later became the Oat Mill opened in 1867 as wheat farmers had now taken up lands around the Mount. Mt Gambier was growing into a fine prosperous looking town with churches, stores, banks, hotels and fine residences. In the 1870s the rural population increased dramatically with tenant potato farmers on Browne’s Moorak estate and intensive hop growing in several localities such as Yahl and OB Flat and Glenburnie etc. Also in 1876 the first commercial forestry was started at the behest of George Goyder. A tree nursery was established on the edge of Leg of Mutton Lake in 1876 on a site selected by George Goyder himself. A stone cottage for the first nurseryman Charles Beale was constructed and it survived until demolished in 1969 but the nursery closed in 1929. The nursery propagated eucalypts, Oak, Elm, Ash, Sycamore, and North American pines. Pinus radiata was first grown at Leg of Mutton Lake and was being dispersed to other areas by 1878. Pinus canariensis was also grown in the 1880s. Pinus radiata is now the most commonly grown commercial forest tree in SA and Australia. Also in the 1870s the first hospital was erected and Dr Wehl, the town’s doctor for many years was in residence.

In the mid 1880s the first rail line was laid as the railway lines pushed out from Mt Gambier to Naracoorte. The service to Naracoorte began in 1887 and connected on with the line to Bordertown and Adelaide. By 1897 a railway connected Mt Gambier to Millicent and the port at Beachport. The railway line across the border to Heywood and Melbourne was not completed until 1917 as the SA government resisted a line that would take goods and passengers from Mt Gambier to Port Melbourne rather than to Port Adelaide. Mt Gambier railway station used to be a hive of activity with daily trains to Adelaide and an overnight sleeper services several times a week. Passenger trains to Mt Gambier from Adelaide stopped in 1990 after Australian National took over the SA railway network. Freight services stopped in 1995 and the railway line and station was formally closed. The railyards and other buildings were cleared in 2013.

The Buandik Aboriginal People.
The Buandik people are commemorated in a city street but by little else. Yet they were resilient and determined fighters opposed to the white settlement of the South East. Their occupation of the Mt Gambier district stretches back to around 20,000+ years but their dated occupation from archaeological sites goes back to about 11,000 years with their myths and legends including stories about volcanic activity at Mt Gambier. The last volcanic explosions were about 4,000 years ago. Both Mt Schank and Mt Gambier were important places to the Buandik for ceremonies, hunting, access to water and stone implement making. A government report in 1867 noted that the Buandik people in government care were few in number mainly sickly and elderly. The younger people had presumably moved out into the white community. But back in the 1840s the Buandik were a force to be reckoned with. There are no common stories of Aboriginal massacres but white pastoralists certainly retaliated when sheep were stolen. On Mt Schank station the Buandik were so troublesome that shepherds would not venture out to care for sheep alone and the Arthur brothers gave this trouble as their reason for them selling the run in 1845. In 1845 the government established a police station at Mt Gambier, which the Protector of Aboriginals visited, to ensure that pastoralists did not massacre the Buandik.

William Vansittart and Vansittart Park.
Vansittart Park has been a focal point of Mt Gambier since 1884 for activities such as family picnics, political rallies and speeches, bike racing, band rotunda concerts, bowling greens, sport oval, grandstand (1927) and Anzac memorial services. But who was William Vansittart? He was an Anglican reverend from England (Vansittart is a noble and political Anglo-Irish family in the UK) who arrived in SA in 1847 as a young bachelor. He was never licensed as a minister in SA but he developed his passions for making money and horse racing here. He mixed with the elite of Adelaide like Sir Samuel Davenport, the Governor and was a friend of Hurtle Fisher and he was Master of the Hounds. In 1850 he purchased 35 acres at Beaumont where he built Tower House and 80 acres at Mt Gambier. He imported a thoroughbred horse from Hobart called Lucifer. Ironic that a minister of religion would have a horse called Lucifer! His horses raced in Adelaide, Salisbury, Gawler, Brighton and Clare as well as in Mt Gambier and Penola. In 1851 he also took over the 110 square mile 14 year lease of Mayurra run with George Glen of Millicent. In 1852 he returned to England for a short time and on his return he purchased more freehold land bringing his estate to around 800 acres. Not long after in 1854 his horse shied, he was thrown against a tree and died of head injuries but he died intestate with an estate worth over £10,000. Glen bought out his share of Mayurra; the Beaumont house and property was sold in 1867 as were his race horses and his brother Captain Spencer Vansittart eventually inherited the Mt Gambier property. In accordance with William’s wishes 115 acres were set aside to provide income for a scholarship for boarders at St Peters Boys College which happened from 1859. Later in 1883 Spencer Vansittart offered 20 acres to the Mt Gambier Council for a memorial park at the “nominal” sum of £400 which hardly seems “nominal”. The Council raised a loan and purchased the land and the park is still enjoyed by the city’s residents and visitors. Captain Spencer’s widow sold the last package of 300 acres of land in 1912 thus ending the Vansittart links with Mt Gambier. The Vansittart scholarship is still available for boarders from the South East and is operated by a group of College trustees.

Some Historic Buildings in Mt Gambier and a town walk.
Your town walk is basically straight ahead along Penola Road towards the Mount itself which becomes Bay Road( the bay is at Port MacDonnell) once you cross Commercial Street which is the Main Street. There are just a few diversions to the left as you face the Mount. The coach will collect you at the Mount end of the walk near the Old Courthouse.

If you a good walker check out the fine houses in Jardine Street at numbers 1, 7, 9, 11, 12, 17 and 22. They range from cottages to Gothic and turreted mansions including the home of Jens the hotelier. This detour will add another 10 minutes to the walk if you elect to do it.

1.Catholic Covent. Sisters of Mercy setup a convent school in 1880. This wonderful convent was not built until 1908 in local dolomite stone & limestone quoins. Note the fine stone gables with small niches for statuary, the well proportioned arched colonnades and upstairs oriel windows – the projecting bay windows with stone supports. This is one of the finest buildings in Mt Gambier. The convent closed in 1986. Now Auspine.

2.Wesleyan Methodist Church Hall/Sunday School. Across the street is pink dolomite neo-classical style Wesleyan Methodist Sunday School Hall. Hundreds of children attended Sunday School in those days. It opened in 1904. It is now commercial offices. (If you want to walk up Wyatt Street beside the Sunday School and turn right at second street which is at Gray you will see the old two storey Methodist Manse at 101 Gray St. It was built in 1868 and sold 1941. As you turn into Gray Street the Salvation Army Hall is on your left. Allow 10 minutes for this detour before returning to Penola Road).

3.Methodist Church now Liberty Church. A Gothic large church built in 1862 by the Wesleyans. Opened by minister from Portland. Additions made 1877 with new entrance. The old lecture hall and Sunday School was beneath the church. Note the buttress on corners and sides. Became Uniting Church 1977 and closed 1994 when services moved to St Andrews Presbyterian Church. Behind the church (walk through the car park) in Colhurst Place is LLandovery two storey mansion now a B&B. Built 1878 for a flour and oat miller who had his mill in Percy Street.

4.St Paul’s Catholic Church. This impressive Gothic church with huge tower with crenulations was opened in 1884 and will be open today. There are 1966 extensions to the rear of it. The Presbytery is behind the church facing Alexander St. it was built in 1901 when the church was free of building debt. The first thatched bush church was built in another location in 1855. From 1857 the priest was Father Julian Tenison Woods, explorer, academic, horseman etc. A second church opened in 1861 in Sturt St and is now demolished. It closed in 1885 as this church opened. The bells came from Dublin. The church fence and gates built 1936.

5.The Mount Gambier Club. Across the street is the Club. It was built in 1904 for a local distiller as chambers for lease. The wealthy pastoralists of the South East formed an exclusive men only club in 1913 and it has used the upper floor of Engelbrecht’s chambers ever since. They purchased the whole building in 1920. The Club is a beautifully proportioned classical style building with pediments, balustrades, window entablature, and perfect symmetry. Look down the sides and you can see it is made of Mt Gambier limestone blocks.

6.Mt Gambier Caledonian Hall. Next door is the Scots Club. Its prominence signifies the Scottish links of many Gambier residents. The hall was opened in 1914 and opened by the former Prime Minister Sir George Reid, another Scot. It has classical features but is rather ugly and neglected these days. It is now a night club.

7.The Trustees Building. Next to the Caledonian is the Trustee Building erected in 1958. Its blue and bone tiled façade is typical of 1950s architecture yet the rectangular appearance has a slight classical look about it. It is on the SA Heritage Register. Accountants now occupy it.

8.Turn left into Percy Street and go along here beyond KFC for one town block to the next corner for the Oatmills (now a coffee shop and cinemas). Milling and brewing were two of Mt Gambier’s prime 19th century industries. The 4 storey complex here was started in 1867 for Welsh Thomas Williams who eventually had five flour mills. His mill was called Commercial Flourmills. A new owner converted the mill from wheat milling to oat milling. A new oatmill was built in 1901 and operated until 1975 producing Scottish porridge oats. The mill has now been restored with café, shops and cinemas. Return to Penola Rd.

9. Mt Gambier Hotel. No hotel could have a more remarkable origin than the Mt Gambier. An African American John Byng built a weatherboard hotel near here in 1847. The third licensee Alexander Mitchell, another Scot, took it over and moved the hotel to this corner site in 1862 as an impressive two storey hotel which was unusual at that time. The western wing was added in 1883 and balconies affixed in 1902.

10.Cross towards the Mount with the traffic lights then turn left into Commercial Street East.

11.Mt Gambier Town Hall. Marked as the Riddoch Gallery this fine Venetian Gothic style building is impressive with its coloured stone work contrasting well with cement rendered horizontal lines and vertical panels around windows and doors. The upper windows are mullioned with stone divisions between the glass. It was built in 1882 with the clock tower added in 1883 after a donation. The first Council meeting was in 1863 with Dr Wehl as chairman held in a hotel. Later the Council hired a room at the Foresters Hall and then they purchased this site in 1868 with a weatherboard room. This was used until 1882.

12.Mt Gambier old Institute. The Literary Institute was formed in 1862 and a foundation stone laid for a reading room/hall in 1868 by John Riddoch. The single storey institute opened in 1869. The upper floor was added in 1887, so that it would match the new Town Hall. It is built in a similar style- Venetian Romanesque as the windows and rounded and not arched as with a gothic structure.

13.Captain Gardiner Memorial Fountain 1884. The fountain was presented by Captain Robert Gardiner the grandfather of Sir Robert Helpman (his name was originally Helpmann). The fountain was made in Melbourne .Gardiner was also a benefactor of St Andrew’s Presbyterian -he donated the pipe organ in 1885.

14.Jens Hotel. After demolishing an earlier hotel (the 1847 hotel of John Byng) Johannes Jens had the first section of his Jens Hotel built on this corner in 1884. An almost identical eastern wing was erected in 1904 and the Spanish Art Deco section in 1927. Turn right here and go behind the Town hall to the Cave Gardens.

15.Cave Gardens. This spot was an early water supply. A garden was created in 1893 and then improved and reconstructed in 1925. This sink hole has recently been upgraded again and it is lit at night.

16.Post Office. This important communications centre was erected in 1865 as a telegraph office/post office. This is till one of the finest buildings in Mt Gambier and a rare example of the Georgian style for the city. . The single storey side wings were added in 1906 in a sympathetic style. It is still the main city Post Office.

17.Norris Agency Building. This superb Italianate building was completed in 1900 as chambers for businessmen. Owner was Alexander Norris who died in 1917. The façade is pink dolomite with cement quoins and unusual lined decoration work above the windows and door each contained within a triangular classical pediment.

18.Farmers Union Building. Another classical style building built when this style was out of fashion in 1914.Erected for Farmers Union as a large two storey building. It has none of the grace of the Norris building next door. FU was formed in 1888 in Jamestown by Thomas Mitchell, a Scot and others to provide cheap rates for grains, seeds and superphosphate but in the early 1900s they branched into products for dairy farmers and the marketing of milk products. The Mt Gambier district had plenty of dairy farmers. It is now owned by a Japanese company Kirin but it still markets its chocolate milk drinks as Farmers Union. Upper floor has double pilasters (flattened pillars) with top volutes but little other decoration.

19.Savings Bank Building on the corner. The former Savings Bank in Gothic style is unusual for commercial premises in Mt Gambier. It is constructed of weathered local limestone and was built in 1906. Note the different cut stone for the foundations, simulated turrets on the corners and by the door to break the façade appearance and the stone line above the lower window which then divides the façade into equal thirds.

20.Macs Hotel. This hotel was built in 1864 and is largely unchanged except that the upper floor was added in 1881. The first licensee was a Scot named John MacDonald. The double veranda supports are very elegant.

21.Roller flourmill now a painted hardware store. Built 1885 as a steam flourmill in pink dolomite. Note the small 12 paned windows set in much larger indented niches in the walls on the northern wall. (Sturt St.)

22.Christ Church Anglican Church and hall. Dr Browne of Moorak donated half the money for the construction of Christ Church in pink dolomite and with an unusual gabled tower. Church and tower completed in 1866. Adjacent is the Jubilee Hall built in 1915, destroyed by fire in 1951, and rebuilt exactly the same in weathered local limestone blocks with the original foundation stone still in place. It has the single Gothic window in the street facing gable and a crenulated square tower. Adjoining it is the 1869 Sunday School with the narrow double pointed Gothic windows. It was extended in 1892. The lychgate is more recent as a memorial to a regular church goer, Margaret French who died in 1927.

23.The old railway station just visible along the rail lines to your right. The first rail line was to Beachport in 1879 and the second to Naracoorte (and so to Adelaide) in 1887. Portland and Melbourne line opened 1917. A spur line to Glencoe was completed in 1904. First station was erected in 1879. It was demolished for the erection of the current station in 1918 which is similar in design to those in Tailem Bend, Bordertown, Moonta etc. Bluebird rail cars started on the Mt Gambier run in 1953 when the old 3’6” gauge line to Wolseley was converted to 5’3”. The last passenger service to Adelaide finished in 1990 and the station closed for freight in 1995. The railyards were cleared in 2013 and the future of the station is bleak. The rail lines to Beachport and Glencoe closed in 1956/57.

24.The Old Courthouse, 42 Bay Rd. It has a great low wall suitable for sitting on. This well designed Georgian style Courthouse opened in 1865 and the similarly styled side wings were added in 1877. The front veranda, which is not Georgian in style, was added in 1880. In 1975 the Courthouse was granted to the National Trust for a museum. The adjoining new Courthouse opened in 1975 at the same time. Note the “blind” windows to the façade but the same rounded Georgian shaped, 16 paned windows on the sides.

The Blue Lake, Mt Schank and Volcanoes.
The jewel in the crown of Mt Gambier is undoubtedly the volcanic cone, the crater lakes especially the Blue Lake and the surrounding Botanic Gardens and parklands. The Botanic Garden on the north side was approved in 1872 but nothing happened about plantings and care until 1882. The first pleasure road through the saddle between the Blue Lake and the Valley Lake was created in the 1861 as a more direct road to the then newly created international port named Port MacDonnell. That is why the road is called the Bay road. Surveyor General George Goyder explored the lake surrounds himself in 1876 when he selected the site for the government tree nursery. Later the government established the first sawmill on the edge of the crater reserve near Moorak homestead in the early 1920s. The Centenary Tower was initiated in 1900 to celebrate the centenary of Captain Grant sighting Mt Gambier. It took several years to complete and was opened by the Chief Justice of SA Sir Samuel Way in 1907 but it was completed in 1904. The whole complex is a maar geomorphological formation which originated during a volcanic era about 28,000 years ago but in a second phase of volcanic activity 4,000 to 6,000 years ago the cones and lakes of Mt Gambier were created along with the cones of Mt Schank and Mt Burr near Millicent. Mt Gambier was the most recent volcanic explosion in Australia. The crater lakes are: Blue Lake, Valley Lake, Leg of Mutton Lake and Browne’s Lake (dry). The Blue Lake is linked to the aquifers beneath the deep layers of limestone which underlay the entire South East. Blue Lake is about 72 metres deep and some of the water in it is estimated to be about 500 years old but it is mixed with rain runoff each year as well. The Lake provides the water supply for Mt Gambier. Deep in the lake are examples of the oldest living organisms on earth- stromatalites. The lake changes colour from grey to vivid blue each November and reverts in the following April. The change in colour is related to the position of the sun and reflected light from suspended particles in the lake which reflect blue green light rather than brown grey light. Secondly the suspended matter only occurs because the water near the surface rises in temperature in the spring and it is this which causes the particles to precipitate out of the water. The precipitated matter settles on the bottom of the lake ready for a new cycle the following spring. Like the Blue Lake various sink holes in the district have linkages to the underlying aquifer through the layers of limestone too and they include Cave Gardens, Umpherstone, Piccaninni Ponds, etc.

Moorak Station and Tenison Woods College.
Moorak station as originally known as Mount Gambier Station established by George Glen in the 1840s. The leasehold was later taken over by David Power who in turn sold it to Fisher and Rochford who in turn sold the estate as freehold to the Scottish Dr William Browne who had established Booborowie run with his brother in 1843 north of Burra. The Browne brothers dissolved their partnership around 1865 and John went to live at Buckland Park and William took up residence at Moorak. William had purchased Moorak Station in 1862 and built the grand Moorak homestead in impressive Georgian style onto a smaller house there. William died in 1894 and the Moorak Estate passed to his son Colonel Percival Browne who was to disappear on the ill-fated voyage of the new steamer the Waratah in 1909 which disappeared during a storm off Durban, South Africa. Also on that voyage was Mrs. Agnes Hay (nee Gosse) of Mt Breckan Victor Harbor and Linden Park Estate Adelaide and some 200 other poor souls. Around 1909 the Moorak Station was subdivided for closer settlement and in the 1920s the Marist Brothers purchased the homestead with a little land for their and monastery and opened the Marist Brothers Agricultural College for boys in 1931. That college in turn merged with the Mater Christi College in 1972 to become Tenison College. (Mater Christi College had been formed in 1952 by the merger of the St Josephs Convent School (1880) and St Peters Parish School but the primary section of St Peters broke away in 1969 from Mater Christi College and formed a separate St Peters Primary School. This primary school in turn merged with Tenison College in 2001 to form Tenison Woods College!) The College name commemorates the work of Father Julian Tenison Woods who arrived in Mt Gambier in 1857 to work in Penola and Mt Gambier. It was he who encouraged Mary MacKillop to take her vows and establish her Sisters of St Joseph.

Dr Browne’s manager of Moorak Estate in 1868 introduced hops as a viable crop in the South East and large quantities were grown for about 20 years. Other early experimental crops grown included tobacco, cotton and flax. Dr Browne and Moorak were also important in the potato industry. Dr Browne leased around 830 acres to 20 tenants for the express purpose of growing potatoes. He was keen to emulate the British aristocracy although he was a good Scot with being a manorial style landlord with tenant farmers. Potatoes were also grown from the early years at Yahl, OB Flat and Compton near Mt Gambier. The potatoes were carted down to Port MacDonnell and shipped to Adelaide for consumers. As one of the major wool producers of Australia William Browne contributed roughly half of the funds for the erection of Christ Church Anglican in Mt Gambier. The Moorak estate consisted of around 11,000 acres of the most fertile volcanic soil in SA with another 2,000 acres in a nearby property, German Creek near Carpenter’s Rocks. Dr Browne ran Silky Lincolns on Moorak for their wool as Merinos did not fare well on the damp South East pastures. About 2,000 acres was in wheat, about 2,500 acres was tenanted to other farmers and around 4,000 acres were in lucerne, clover, rye and other pasture grasses. William Browne returned to live in England in 1866 so his sons could attend Eton and military training colleges there. He made regular trips to SA about every second year to oversee his many pastoral properties here. When he died in 1894 he left 100,000 acres of freehold land in SA to his children who all resided here as well as leasehold land. He was an extremely wealthy man. Son Percival took control of Moorak. Before Percival’s death Moorak Estate was partly purchased by the SA government in 1904 for closer settlement when they acquired around 1,000 acres. After Percival’s death a further 6,300 acres was acquired for closer settlement and the remainder of the estate was sold to other farmers. The government paid between £10 and £31 per acre for the land. Percival Browne was highly respected in Mt Gambier and a reserve around the Blue Lake is named after him. The fourth of the crater lakes of Mt Gambier is also named Browne’s Lake after the family but it has been dry for decades. In 1900 Colonel Browne planted the ring of English Oaks around what was to become the oval of the Marist Brothers College.

Moorak.
There is a memorial by the station to William Browne as founder of the Coriadale Sheep Stud. The great Moorak woolshed was demolished in 1939. The Union church which opened in 1920 was used by the Methodists and the Anglicans. It is now a private residence. Moorak hall was opened in 1926. New classrooms were added to the Moorak School in 1928 and the first rooms opened in 1913. The cheese factory in Moorak opened in 1913 as a cooperative and was sold to Farmers Union in 1949. They closed the factory in 1979. Most of the cheese produced at Moorak went to the Melbourne market. The first cheese maker at Moorak was trained at Lauterbach’s cheese factory at Woodside. Moorak was one of a circle of settlements around Mt Gambier that had butter/cheese factories. These towns were: Kongorong; Glencoe East; Glencoe West; Suttontown; Glenburnie; Mil Lel; Yahl; OB Flat; Moorak; Mt Schank; and Eight Mile Creek.

Yahl.
In the 1860s this tiny settlement was a tobacco, hop and potato growing district and it persisted with potatoes up until recent times. Today Yahl is little more than a suburban village of Mt Gambier with a Primary school with approx 120 students. The old government school was erected in 1879. It had a Methodist church built in 1880 which operated as a church until 1977 and it had a large butter factory which had opened in 1888. The butter and cheese factory was taken over by the OB Flat cheese factory in 1939 and the two operated in conjunction with each other. The OB Flat cheese factory closed in 1950 and all production moved to Yahl. The factory finally closed in 1971. The township of Yahl also had a General Store and a Salvation Army Hall which was built in 1919.

Sink Holes: Umpherston Gardens and Cave Gardens.
James Umpherston purchased land near Mt Gambier in 1864 which included a large sink hole or collapsed cavern with a lake in the bottom. He was born in Scotland in 1812 and came to SA in the 1850s with his brother William. William purchased his first land at Yahl in 1859. James Umpherston was a civic minded chap being a local councilor, a parliamentarian in Adelaide for two years and President of the Mt Gambier Agricultural and Horticultural Society for 13 years. When he retired from civic life and farming in 1884 he decided to create a garden in his sinkhole. He beautified it and encouraged visitors and even provided a boat in the lake for boat rides. Access was gained by steps and a path carved into the sinkhole walls. However after he died in 1900 the garden was ignored, became overgrown and was largely forgotten in 1949 when the Woods and Forests Department obtained the land for a new sawmill at Mt Gambier. By then the lake had dried up as the water table had fallen over the decades. In 1976 staff, rather than the government, decided to restore the Umpherstone gardens. The cleared out the rubbish that had been dumped in the sinkhole, restored the path access, trimmed the ivy and replanted the hydrangeas and tree ferns. In 1994 the Woos and Forests Department handed over the land around the sinkhole to the City of Mt Gambier. It was added to the SA Heritage Register in 1995.

1907 convent building in Mt Gambier.
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Image by denisbin
Brief History of Mt Gambier – the second city of SA after Adelaide (region population nearly 35,000, urban 28,000).
Lieutenant James Grant aboard the Lady Nelson sighted and named Mt Gambier in 1800 after a Lord of the Admiralty. The first white man to traverse the area was Stephen Henty of Portland in 1839 when he sighted the Blue Lake. He returned with cattle and stockmen in 1841. He later claimed that had he known the lake and volcano he had discovered in 1839 was in SA he would have immediately applied for an 1839 Special Survey. But Henty thought he was squatting on land in NSW and he was not an official SA settler so the government ordered him off the land in 1844. Thus the first official white settler of the South East and the Mt Gambier district became Evelyn Sturt, brother to Captain Charles Sturt, who took up an occupational license in March 1844 and a property he named Compton just north of the present city. In April 1844 Governor Grey and a party of assistants including the Assistant Surveyor General Thomas Burr and artist George French Angas explored the South East naming Robe and doing the first surveys. Evelyn Sturt became the first to have an occupational license to squat and the first purchase freehold land near Mt Gambier which he did in 1847- a section of 77 acres when 80 acres was the norm. He left the district in 1854 selling his freehold land to Hastings Cunningham who in 1855 subdivided some of this land thus creating the town of Gambierton. The town lands were adjacent to the site of the first police station selected near what is now Cave Gardens by the government in 1845. A small bush inn also operated at this spot. The first streets were named after early locals such as Evelyn Sturt, Compton, Ferrers and Crouch (built the first general store before the town was created) etc. The town grew quickly because of the mild climate, fertile soils, plentiful water and the influx of settlers from across the border in what was to become the colony of Victoria. Cunningham himself was a great benefactor and donated land for the first school in 1856. In 1861 the town name was changed by act of parliament to Mt Gambier. The Hundred of Mt Gambier (along with three other hundreds) was declared in 1858 and began the closer settlement of the South East.

Unlike other areas of SA the South East was seen as paradise for pastoralists and the optimistic pastoralists flocked to the area with their flocks in 1845. The large runs locked up the land and prevented farmers from settling in the region except for the fertile lands around Mount Gambier. Here small scale farmers had small properties and grew potatoes, hops, and later had dairy cows as well as growing wheat and oats. Land acts in the early 1870s designed to break up the big runs only partially succeeded in the South East where most station owners bought up their lands freehold. It was after 1905 before the big pastoral estates were really broken up for farmers and closer settlement, except for near Mt Gambier. Apart from Evelyn Sturt the other early white settlers of the South East in 1845 were Alexander Cameron at Penola, John Robertson at Struan, William Macintosh and George Ormerod at Naracoorte, the Austin brothers at Yallum Park (later John Riddoch), the Arthur brothers (nephews of Governor Arthur of Van Diemen’s Land) at Mt Schanck( now Mt Schank) and the Leake brothers at Glencoe. In fact in 1845 nineteen leasehold runs were taken up in the South East with a further thirty runs in 1846 and most had several 80 acres sections of freehold land near the main homestead. Most had got to the South East from Casterton and Portland in Victoria as the swamps near the coast were too difficult to traverse except for the country near Robe. Many of the estates were huge. Evelyn Sturt on the Compton/Mt Gambier run had 85 square miles as well as his freehold land; Robertson had 135 square miles at Struan; George Glen (and William Vansittart) of Mayurra had 110 square miles; the SA Company had 159 square miles on the Benara run; the Leake brothers had 194 square miles on Glencoe; Hunter had 56 square miles on Kalangadoo; Neil Black of Noorat Victoria had 45 square miles on Kongorong run and 101 square miles at Port MacDonnell and the Arthur brothers had a huge run at Mt Schanck. By 1851 almost 5,000 square miles of the South East was occupied by Occupational License and most licenses were converted to 14 year leases in that year. A third of all leasehold land in SA was taken up in the South East because of its higher rainfall and suitability for pastoralism and a third of all sheep in the colony were in the South East. When Hundreds were declared in the South East in the late 1850s and early 1860s pastoralists bought up the land. In one case John Riddoch of Yallum Park owned the entire Hundred of Monbulla. Another pastoralist W. Clarke who had purchased Mt Schancke station from the Arthur brothers in 1861 owned SA land valued at £1.25 million when he died in 1874 and he had 120,000 acres freehold in Victoria, 75,000 acres freehold in SA( Mt Schank) and 50,000 acres freehold in each of NSW and Tasmania! Mt Schanck was changed in Schank in 1917 when German place names in SA were changed as Schank without the second “c” is an old English name!

In the 1850s Mt Gambier was a shanty village as the South East was a region of large pastoral estates and little agricultural farming and very low population numbers. It was far from Adelaide and remote and it was only after the Princeland episode in 1862 with the threat of possible secession to a new state that the Adelaide government began to invest in the South East and really encourage settlement there. The Border Watch newspaper was established in 1861, the Mt Gambier Hotel opened in 1862 and the Mt Gambier Council was formed in 1863.By the early 1860s Mt Gambier had almost 1,000 residents making it one of the largest towns in SA after the copper mining centres of Burra, Kadina and Moonta. By the 1881 SA census Mt Gambier had 2,500 residents making it the biggest town outside of Adelaide. In 1865 four iconic historic buildings were erected-the Courthouse, the Gaol, Christ Church Anglican and the Post Office and Telegraph Station. The flourmill which later became the Oat Mill opened in 1867 as wheat farmers had now taken up lands around the Mount. Mt Gambier was growing into a fine prosperous looking town with churches, stores, banks, hotels and fine residences. In the 1870s the rural population increased dramatically with tenant potato farmers on Browne’s Moorak estate and intensive hop growing in several localities such as Yahl and OB Flat and Glenburnie etc. Also in 1876 the first commercial forestry was started at the behest of George Goyder. A tree nursery was established on the edge of Leg of Mutton Lake in 1876 on a site selected by George Goyder himself. A stone cottage for the first nurseryman Charles Beale was constructed and it survived until demolished in 1969 but the nursery closed in 1929. The nursery propagated eucalypts, Oak, Elm, Ash, Sycamore, and North American pines. Pinus radiata was first grown at Leg of Mutton Lake and was being dispersed to other areas by 1878. Pinus canariensis was also grown in the 1880s. Pinus radiata is now the most commonly grown commercial forest tree in SA and Australia. Also in the 1870s the first hospital was erected and Dr Wehl, the town’s doctor for many years was in residence.

In the mid 1880s the first rail line was laid as the railway lines pushed out from Mt Gambier to Naracoorte. The service to Naracoorte began in 1887 and connected on with the line to Bordertown and Adelaide. By 1897 a railway connected Mt Gambier to Millicent and the port at Beachport. The railway line across the border to Heywood and Melbourne was not completed until 1917 as the SA government resisted a line that would take goods and passengers from Mt Gambier to Port Melbourne rather than to Port Adelaide. Mt Gambier railway station used to be a hive of activity with daily trains to Adelaide and an overnight sleeper services several times a week. Passenger trains to Mt Gambier from Adelaide stopped in 1990 after Australian National took over the SA railway network. Freight services stopped in 1995 and the railway line and station was formally closed. The railyards and other buildings were cleared in 2013.

The Buandik Aboriginal People.
The Buandik people are commemorated in a city street but by little else. Yet they were resilient and determined fighters opposed to the white settlement of the South East. Their occupation of the Mt Gambier district stretches back to around 20,000+ years but their dated occupation from archaeological sites goes back to about 11,000 years with their myths and legends including stories about volcanic activity at Mt Gambier. The last volcanic explosions were about 4,000 years ago. Both Mt Schank and Mt Gambier were important places to the Buandik for ceremonies, hunting, access to water and stone implement making. A government report in 1867 noted that the Buandik people in government care were few in number mainly sickly and elderly. The younger people had presumably moved out into the white community. But back in the 1840s the Buandik were a force to be reckoned with. There are no common stories of Aboriginal massacres but white pastoralists certainly retaliated when sheep were stolen. On Mt Schank station the Buandik were so troublesome that shepherds would not venture out to care for sheep alone and the Arthur brothers gave this trouble as their reason for them selling the run in 1845. In 1845 the government established a police station at Mt Gambier, which the Protector of Aboriginals visited, to ensure that pastoralists did not massacre the Buandik.

William Vansittart and Vansittart Park.
Vansittart Park has been a focal point of Mt Gambier since 1884 for activities such as family picnics, political rallies and speeches, bike racing, band rotunda concerts, bowling greens, sport oval, grandstand (1927) and Anzac memorial services. But who was William Vansittart? He was an Anglican reverend from England (Vansittart is a noble and political Anglo-Irish family in the UK) who arrived in SA in 1847 as a young bachelor. He was never licensed as a minister in SA but he developed his passions for making money and horse racing here. He mixed with the elite of Adelaide like Sir Samuel Davenport, the Governor and was a friend of Hurtle Fisher and he was Master of the Hounds. In 1850 he purchased 35 acres at Beaumont where he built Tower House and 80 acres at Mt Gambier. He imported a thoroughbred horse from Hobart called Lucifer. Ironic that a minister of religion would have a horse called Lucifer! His horses raced in Adelaide, Salisbury, Gawler, Brighton and Clare as well as in Mt Gambier and Penola. In 1851 he also took over the 110 square mile 14 year lease of Mayurra run with George Glen of Millicent. In 1852 he returned to England for a short time and on his return he purchased more freehold land bringing his estate to around 800 acres. Not long after in 1854 his horse shied, he was thrown against a tree and died of head injuries but he died intestate with an estate worth over £10,000. Glen bought out his share of Mayurra; the Beaumont house and property was sold in 1867 as were his race horses and his brother Captain Spencer Vansittart eventually inherited the Mt Gambier property. In accordance with William’s wishes 115 acres were set aside to provide income for a scholarship for boarders at St Peters Boys College which happened from 1859. Later in 1883 Spencer Vansittart offered 20 acres to the Mt Gambier Council for a memorial park at the “nominal” sum of £400 which hardly seems “nominal”. The Council raised a loan and purchased the land and the park is still enjoyed by the city’s residents and visitors. Captain Spencer’s widow sold the last package of 300 acres of land in 1912 thus ending the Vansittart links with Mt Gambier. The Vansittart scholarship is still available for boarders from the South East and is operated by a group of College trustees.

Some Historic Buildings in Mt Gambier and a town walk.
Your town walk is basically straight ahead along Penola Road towards the Mount itself which becomes Bay Road( the bay is at Port MacDonnell) once you cross Commercial Street which is the Main Street. There are just a few diversions to the left as you face the Mount. The coach will collect you at the Mount end of the walk near the Old Courthouse.

If you a good walker check out the fine houses in Jardine Street at numbers 1, 7, 9, 11, 12, 17 and 22. They range from cottages to Gothic and turreted mansions including the home of Jens the hotelier. This detour will add another 10 minutes to the walk if you elect to do it.

1.Catholic Covent. Sisters of Mercy setup a convent school in 1880. This wonderful convent was not built until 1908 in local dolomite stone & limestone quoins. Note the fine stone gables with small niches for statuary, the well proportioned arched colonnades and upstairs oriel windows – the projecting bay windows with stone supports. This is one of the finest buildings in Mt Gambier. The convent closed in 1986. Now Auspine.

2.Wesleyan Methodist Church Hall/Sunday School. Across the street is pink dolomite neo-classical style Wesleyan Methodist Sunday School Hall. Hundreds of children attended Sunday School in those days. It opened in 1904. It is now commercial offices. (If you want to walk up Wyatt Street beside the Sunday School and turn right at second street which is at Gray you will see the old two storey Methodist Manse at 101 Gray St. It was built in 1868 and sold 1941. As you turn into Gray Street the Salvation Army Hall is on your left. Allow 10 minutes for this detour before returning to Penola Road).

3.Methodist Church now Liberty Church. A Gothic large church built in 1862 by the Wesleyans. Opened by minister from Portland. Additions made 1877 with new entrance. The old lecture hall and Sunday School was beneath the church. Note the buttress on corners and sides. Became Uniting Church 1977 and closed 1994 when services moved to St Andrews Presbyterian Church. Behind the church (walk through the car park) in Colhurst Place is LLandovery two storey mansion now a B&B. Built 1878 for a flour and oat miller who had his mill in Percy Street.

4.St Paul’s Catholic Church. This impressive Gothic church with huge tower with crenulations was opened in 1884 and will be open today. There are 1966 extensions to the rear of it. The Presbytery is behind the church facing Alexander St. it was built in 1901 when the church was free of building debt. The first thatched bush church was built in another location in 1855. From 1857 the priest was Father Julian Tenison Woods, explorer, academic, horseman etc. A second church opened in 1861 in Sturt St and is now demolished. It closed in 1885 as this church opened. The bells came from Dublin. The church fence and gates built 1936.

5.The Mount Gambier Club. Across the street is the Club. It was built in 1904 for a local distiller as chambers for lease. The wealthy pastoralists of the South East formed an exclusive men only club in 1913 and it has used the upper floor of Engelbrecht’s chambers ever since. They purchased the whole building in 1920. The Club is a beautifully proportioned classical style building with pediments, balustrades, window entablature, and perfect symmetry. Look down the sides and you can see it is made of Mt Gambier limestone blocks.

6.Mt Gambier Caledonian Hall. Next door is the Scots Club. Its prominence signifies the Scottish links of many Gambier residents. The hall was opened in 1914 and opened by the former Prime Minister Sir George Reid, another Scot. It has classical features but is rather ugly and neglected these days. It is now a night club.

7.The Trustees Building. Next to the Caledonian is the Trustee Building erected in 1958. Its blue and bone tiled façade is typical of 1950s architecture yet the rectangular appearance has a slight classical look about it. It is on the SA Heritage Register. Accountants now occupy it.

8.Turn left into Percy Street and go along here beyond KFC for one town block to the next corner for the Oatmills (now a coffee shop and cinemas). Milling and brewing were two of Mt Gambier’s prime 19th century industries. The 4 storey complex here was started in 1867 for Welsh Thomas Williams who eventually had five flour mills. His mill was called Commercial Flourmills. A new owner converted the mill from wheat milling to oat milling. A new oatmill was built in 1901 and operated until 1975 producing Scottish porridge oats. The mill has now been restored with café, shops and cinemas. Return to Penola Rd.

9. Mt Gambier Hotel. No hotel could have a more remarkable origin than the Mt Gambier. An African American John Byng built a weatherboard hotel near here in 1847. The third licensee Alexander Mitchell, another Scot, took it over and moved the hotel to this corner site in 1862 as an impressive two storey hotel which was unusual at that time. The western wing was added in 1883 and balconies affixed in 1902.

10.Cross towards the Mount with the traffic lights then turn left into Commercial Street East.

11.Mt Gambier Town Hall. Marked as the Riddoch Gallery this fine Venetian Gothic style building is impressive with its coloured stone work contrasting well with cement rendered horizontal lines and vertical panels around windows and doors. The upper windows are mullioned with stone divisions between the glass. It was built in 1882 with the clock tower added in 1883 after a donation. The first Council meeting was in 1863 with Dr Wehl as chairman held in a hotel. Later the Council hired a room at the Foresters Hall and then they purchased this site in 1868 with a weatherboard room. This was used until 1882.

12.Mt Gambier old Institute. The Literary Institute was formed in 1862 and a foundation stone laid for a reading room/hall in 1868 by John Riddoch. The single storey institute opened in 1869. The upper floor was added in 1887, so that it would match the new Town Hall. It is built in a similar style- Venetian Romanesque as the windows and rounded and not arched as with a gothic structure.

13.Captain Gardiner Memorial Fountain 1884. The fountain was presented by Captain Robert Gardiner the grandfather of Sir Robert Helpman (his name was originally Helpmann). The fountain was made in Melbourne .Gardiner was also a benefactor of St Andrew’s Presbyterian -he donated the pipe organ in 1885.

14.Jens Hotel. After demolishing an earlier hotel (the 1847 hotel of John Byng) Johannes Jens had the first section of his Jens Hotel built on this corner in 1884. An almost identical eastern wing was erected in 1904 and the Spanish Art Deco section in 1927. Turn right here and go behind the Town hall to the Cave Gardens.

15.Cave Gardens. This spot was an early water supply. A garden was created in 1893 and then improved and reconstructed in 1925. This sink hole has recently been upgraded again and it is lit at night.

16.Post Office. This important communications centre was erected in 1865 as a telegraph office/post office. This is till one of the finest buildings in Mt Gambier and a rare example of the Georgian style for the city. . The single storey side wings were added in 1906 in a sympathetic style. It is still the main city Post Office.

17.Norris Agency Building. This superb Italianate building was completed in 1900 as chambers for businessmen. Owner was Alexander Norris who died in 1917. The façade is pink dolomite with cement quoins and unusual lined decoration work above the windows and door each contained within a triangular classical pediment.

18.Farmers Union Building. Another classical style building built when this style was out of fashion in 1914.Erected for Farmers Union as a large two storey building. It has none of the grace of the Norris building next door. FU was formed in 1888 in Jamestown by Thomas Mitchell, a Scot and others to provide cheap rates for grains, seeds and superphosphate but in the early 1900s they branched into products for dairy farmers and the marketing of milk products. The Mt Gambier district had plenty of dairy farmers. It is now owned by a Japanese company Kirin but it still markets its chocolate milk drinks as Farmers Union. Upper floor has double pilasters (flattened pillars) with top volutes but little other decoration.

19.Savings Bank Building on the corner. The former Savings Bank in Gothic style is unusual for commercial premises in Mt Gambier. It is constructed of weathered local limestone and was built in 1906. Note the different cut stone for the foundations, simulated turrets on the corners and by the door to break the façade appearance and the stone line above the lower window which then divides the façade into equal thirds.

20.Macs Hotel. This hotel was built in 1864 and is largely unchanged except that the upper floor was added in 1881. The first licensee was a Scot named John MacDonald. The double veranda supports are very elegant.

21.Roller flourmill now a painted hardware store. Built 1885 as a steam flourmill in pink dolomite. Note the small 12 paned windows set in much larger indented niches in the walls on the northern wall. (Sturt St.)

22.Christ Church Anglican Church and hall. Dr Browne of Moorak donated half the money for the construction of Christ Church in pink dolomite and with an unusual gabled tower. Church and tower completed in 1866. Adjacent is the Jubilee Hall built in 1915, destroyed by fire in 1951, and rebuilt exactly the same in weathered local limestone blocks with the original foundation stone still in place. It has the single Gothic window in the street facing gable and a crenulated square tower. Adjoining it is the 1869 Sunday School with the narrow double pointed Gothic windows. It was extended in 1892. The lychgate is more recent as a memorial to a regular church goer, Margaret French who died in 1927.

23.The old railway station just visible along the rail lines to your right. The first rail line was to Beachport in 1879 and the second to Naracoorte (and so to Adelaide) in 1887. Portland and Melbourne line opened 1917. A spur line to Glencoe was completed in 1904. First station was erected in 1879. It was demolished for the erection of the current station in 1918 which is similar in design to those in Tailem Bend, Bordertown, Moonta etc. Bluebird rail cars started on the Mt Gambier run in 1953 when the old 3’6” gauge line to Wolseley was converted to 5’3”. The last passenger service to Adelaide finished in 1990 and the station closed for freight in 1995. The railyards were cleared in 2013 and the future of the station is bleak. The rail lines to Beachport and Glencoe closed in 1956/57.

24.The Old Courthouse, 42 Bay Rd. It has a great low wall suitable for sitting on. This well designed Georgian style Courthouse opened in 1865 and the similarly styled side wings were added in 1877. The front veranda, which is not Georgian in style, was added in 1880. In 1975 the Courthouse was granted to the National Trust for a museum. The adjoining new Courthouse opened in 1975 at the same time. Note the “blind” windows to the façade but the same rounded Georgian shaped, 16 paned windows on the sides.

The Blue Lake, Mt Schank and Volcanoes.
The jewel in the crown of Mt Gambier is undoubtedly the volcanic cone, the crater lakes especially the Blue Lake and the surrounding Botanic Gardens and parklands. The Botanic Garden on the north side was approved in 1872 but nothing happened about plantings and care until 1882. The first pleasure road through the saddle between the Blue Lake and the Valley Lake was created in the 1861 as a more direct road to the then newly created international port named Port MacDonnell. That is why the road is called the Bay road. Surveyor General George Goyder explored the lake surrounds himself in 1876 when he selected the site for the government tree nursery. Later the government established the first sawmill on the edge of the crater reserve near Moorak homestead in the early 1920s. The Centenary Tower was initiated in 1900 to celebrate the centenary of Captain Grant sighting Mt Gambier. It took several years to complete and was opened by the Chief Justice of SA Sir Samuel Way in 1907 but it was completed in 1904. The whole complex is a maar geomorphological formation which originated during a volcanic era about 28,000 years ago but in a second phase of volcanic activity 4,000 to 6,000 years ago the cones and lakes of Mt Gambier were created along with the cones of Mt Schank and Mt Burr near Millicent. Mt Gambier was the most recent volcanic explosion in Australia. The crater lakes are: Blue Lake, Valley Lake, Leg of Mutton Lake and Browne’s Lake (dry). The Blue Lake is linked to the aquifers beneath the deep layers of limestone which underlay the entire South East. Blue Lake is about 72 metres deep and some of the water in it is estimated to be about 500 years old but it is mixed with rain runoff each year as well. The Lake provides the water supply for Mt Gambier. Deep in the lake are examples of the oldest living organisms on earth- stromatalites. The lake changes colour from grey to vivid blue each November and reverts in the following April. The change in colour is related to the position of the sun and reflected light from suspended particles in the lake which reflect blue green light rather than brown grey light. Secondly the suspended matter only occurs because the water near the surface rises in temperature in the spring and it is this which causes the particles to precipitate out of the water. The precipitated matter settles on the bottom of the lake ready for a new cycle the following spring. Like the Blue Lake various sink holes in the district have linkages to the underlying aquifer through the layers of limestone too and they include Cave Gardens, Umpherstone, Piccaninni Ponds, etc.

Moorak Station and Tenison Woods College.
Moorak station as originally known as Mount Gambier Station established by George Glen in the 1840s. The leasehold was later taken over by David Power who in turn sold it to Fisher and Rochford who in turn sold the estate as freehold to the Scottish Dr William Browne who had established Booborowie run with his brother in 1843 north of Burra. The Browne brothers dissolved their partnership around 1865 and John went to live at Buckland Park and William took up residence at Moorak. William had purchased Moorak Station in 1862 and built the grand Moorak homestead in impressive Georgian style onto a smaller house there. William died in 1894 and the Moorak Estate passed to his son Colonel Percival Browne who was to disappear on the ill-fated voyage of the new steamer the Waratah in 1909 which disappeared during a storm off Durban, South Africa. Also on that voyage was Mrs. Agnes Hay (nee Gosse) of Mt Breckan Victor Harbor and Linden Park Estate Adelaide and some 200 other poor souls. Around 1909 the Moorak Station was subdivided for closer settlement and in the 1920s the Marist Brothers purchased the homestead with a little land for their and monastery and opened the Marist Brothers Agricultural College for boys in 1931. That college in turn merged with the Mater Christi College in 1972 to become Tenison College. (Mater Christi College had been formed in 1952 by the merger of the St Josephs Convent School (1880) and St Peters Parish School but the primary section of St Peters broke away in 1969 from Mater Christi College and formed a separate St Peters Primary School. This primary school in turn merged with Tenison College in 2001 to form Tenison Woods College!) The College name commemorates the work of Father Julian Tenison Woods who arrived in Mt Gambier in 1857 to work in Penola and Mt Gambier. It was he who encouraged Mary MacKillop to take her vows and establish her Sisters of St Joseph.

Dr Browne’s manager of Moorak Estate in 1868 introduced hops as a viable crop in the South East and large quantities were grown for about 20 years. Other early experimental crops grown included tobacco, cotton and flax. Dr Browne and Moorak were also important in the potato industry. Dr Browne leased around 830 acres to 20 tenants for the express purpose of growing potatoes. He was keen to emulate the British aristocracy although he was a good Scot with being a manorial style landlord with tenant farmers. Potatoes were also grown from the early years at Yahl, OB Flat and Compton near Mt Gambier. The potatoes were carted down to Port MacDonnell and shipped to Adelaide for consumers. As one of the major wool producers of Australia William Browne contributed roughly half of the funds for the erection of Christ Church Anglican in Mt Gambier. The Moorak estate consisted of around 11,000 acres of the most fertile volcanic soil in SA with another 2,000 acres in a nearby property, German Creek near Carpenter’s Rocks. Dr Browne ran Silky Lincolns on Moorak for their wool as Merinos did not fare well on the damp South East pastures. About 2,000 acres was in wheat, about 2,500 acres was tenanted to other farmers and around 4,000 acres were in lucerne, clover, rye and other pasture grasses. William Browne returned to live in England in 1866 so his sons could attend Eton and military training colleges there. He made regular trips to SA about every second year to oversee his many pastoral properties here. When he died in 1894 he left 100,000 acres of freehold land in SA to his children who all resided here as well as leasehold land. He was an extremely wealthy man. Son Percival took control of Moorak. Before Percival’s death Moorak Estate was partly purchased by the SA government in 1904 for closer settlement when they acquired around 1,000 acres. After Percival’s death a further 6,300 acres was acquired for closer settlement and the remainder of the estate was sold to other farmers. The government paid between £10 and £31 per acre for the land. Percival Browne was highly respected in Mt Gambier and a reserve around the Blue Lake is named after him. The fourth of the crater lakes of Mt Gambier is also named Browne’s Lake after the family but it has been dry for decades. In 1900 Colonel Browne planted the ring of English Oaks around what was to become the oval of the Marist Brothers College.

Moorak.
There is a memorial by the station to William Browne as founder of the Coriadale Sheep Stud. The great Moorak woolshed was demolished in 1939. The Union church which opened in 1920 was used by the Methodists and the Anglicans. It is now a private residence. Moorak hall was opened in 1926. New classrooms were added to the Moorak School in 1928 and the first rooms opened in 1913. The cheese factory in Moorak opened in 1913 as a cooperative and was sold to Farmers Union in 1949. They closed the factory in 1979. Most of the cheese produced at Moorak went to the Melbourne market. The first cheese maker at Moorak was trained at Lauterbach’s cheese factory at Woodside. Moorak was one of a circle of settlements around Mt Gambier that had butter/cheese factories. These towns were: Kongorong; Glencoe East; Glencoe West; Suttontown; Glenburnie; Mil Lel; Yahl; OB Flat; Moorak; Mt Schank; and Eight Mile Creek.

Yahl.
In the 1860s this tiny settlement was a tobacco, hop and potato growing district and it persisted with potatoes up until recent times. Today Yahl is little more than a suburban village of Mt Gambier with a Primary school with approx 120 students. The old government school was erected in 1879. It had a Methodist church built in 1880 which operated as a church until 1977 and it had a large butter factory which had opened in 1888. The butter and cheese factory was taken over by the OB Flat cheese factory in 1939 and the two operated in conjunction with each other. The OB Flat cheese factory closed in 1950 and all production moved to Yahl. The factory finally closed in 1971. The township of Yahl also had a General Store and a Salvation Army Hall which was built in 1919.

Sink Holes: Umpherston Gardens and Cave Gardens.
James Umpherston purchased land near Mt Gambier in 1864 which included a large sink hole or collapsed cavern with a lake in the bottom. He was born in Scotland in 1812 and came to SA in the 1850s with his brother William. William purchased his first land at Yahl in 1859. James Umpherston was a civic minded chap being a local councilor, a parliamentarian in Adelaide for two years and President of the Mt Gambier Agricultural and Horticultural Society for 13 years. When he retired from civic life and farming in 1884 he decided to create a garden in his sinkhole. He beautified it and encouraged visitors and even provided a boat in the lake for boat rides. Access was gained by steps and a path carved into the sinkhole walls. However after he died in 1900 the garden was ignored, became overgrown and was largely forgotten in 1949 when the Woods and Forests Department obtained the land for a new sawmill at Mt Gambier. By then the lake had dried up as the water table had fallen over the decades. In 1976 staff, rather than the government, decided to restore the Umpherstone gardens. The cleared out the rubbish that had been dumped in the sinkhole, restored the path access, trimmed the ivy and replanted the hydrangeas and tree ferns. In 1994 the Woos and Forests Department handed over the land around the sinkhole to the City of Mt Gambier. It was added to the SA Heritage Register in 1995.

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Finance Prices, Credit history, Personal Debt, Spending Routines, and Financial Industry Practices (2004).

Finance Prices, Credit history, Personal Debt, Spending Routines, and Financial Industry Practices (2004).

< iframe size= "425 "elevation=" 355" src=" https://www.youtube.com/embed/xhMyKTwu3jQ?rel=0" frameborder =" 0" allowfullscreen > Customer financial obligation can be defined as ‘cash, goods or services given to a private instead of payment. ‘Common forms of customer credit consist of charge card, store cards, electric motor (automobile) finance, individual car loans (installation loans), consumer credit lines, retail loans (retail installation car loans) and home mortgages. This is a wide definition of non-mortgage consumer debt as well as refers the Financial institution of England’s meaning of “Lending to individuals”. Given the size and also nature of the mortgage market, several onlookers categorize home mortgage borrowing as a separate group of personal borrowing, and also consequently household mortgages are omitted from some meanings of customer credit report – such as the one embraced by the Federal Book in the United States.

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Passion and also various other costs are offered in a selection of various means, but under many legislative routines lenders are needed to price quote all required fees in the form of an annual percentage rate (APR). The goal of the APR computation is to promote ‘truth in lending’, to offer prospective consumers a clear procedure of real expense of borrowing as well as to allow a comparison to be made between contending items. The APR is obtained from the pattern of breakthroughs and also payments made throughout the agreement. Optional costs are not consisted of in the APR computation. So if there is a tick box on an application asking if the customer would love to secure settlement insurance coverage, then insurance coverage costs will certainly not be consisted of in the APR computation (Finlay 2009).

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consumer_credit

To be able to offer home customers and also home builders with the funds needed, banks need to compete for down payments. The phenomenon of disintermediation needed to bucks moving from financial savings accounts and also right into straight market instruments such as UNITED STATE Division of Treasury commitments, company safety and securities, and corporate financial obligation. Among the best factors in current years in the activity of down payments was the significant growth of cash market funds whose higher rates of interest brought in customer down payments. [16]
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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Banking_industry
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How to Use Personal Loan EMI Calculator?

< iframe size="425" height="355" src="https://www.youtube.com/embed/eG2YOShhCCg?rel=0" frameborder="0" allowfullscreen >< img alt="Exactly how to Utilize Personal Funding EMI Calculator?" src="https://www.freecreditreportcompare.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/03/default-15.jpg"/ > This video clip outlines Personal finance emi calculator, how to use it as well as just what are the benefits of BankBazaar calculator. Use sliders to alter loan quantity, tenure, interest rate to understand actual EMI that you will pay to clear Individual Car loan existing at http://www.bankbazaar.com/personal-loan-emi-calculator.html

Nice Consumer Loan Rates photos

Nice Consumer Loan Rates photos

A few nice consumer loan rates images I found:

Mt Gambier Christ Church Anglican Hall. Original hall 1915 this one a reconstruction built in 1951. The original hall burnt down.
consumer loan rates
Image by denisbin
Brief History of Mt Gambier – the second city of SA after Adelaide (region population nearly 35,000, urban 28,000).
Lieutenant James Grant aboard the Lady Nelson sighted and named Mt Gambier in 1800 after a Lord of the Admiralty. The first white man to traverse the area was Stephen Henty of Portland in 1839 when he sighted the Blue Lake. He returned with cattle and stockmen in 1841. He later claimed that had he known the lake and volcano he had discovered in 1839 was in SA he would have immediately applied for an 1839 Special Survey. But Henty thought he was squatting on land in NSW and he was not an official SA settler so the government ordered him off the land in 1844. Thus the first official white settler of the South East and the Mt Gambier district became Evelyn Sturt, brother to Captain Charles Sturt, who took up an occupational license in March 1844 and a property he named Compton just north of the present city. In April 1844 Governor Grey and a party of assistants including the Assistant Surveyor General Thomas Burr and artist George French Angas explored the South East naming Robe and doing the first surveys. Evelyn Sturt became the first to have an occupational license to squat and the first purchase freehold land near Mt Gambier which he did in 1847- a section of 77 acres when 80 acres was the norm. He left the district in 1854 selling his freehold land to Hastings Cunningham who in 1855 subdivided some of this land thus creating the town of Gambierton. The town lands were adjacent to the site of the first police station selected near what is now Cave Gardens by the government in 1845. A small bush inn also operated at this spot. The first streets were named after early locals such as Evelyn Sturt, Compton, Ferrers and Crouch (built the first general store before the town was created) etc. The town grew quickly because of the mild climate, fertile soils, plentiful water and the influx of settlers from across the border in what was to become the colony of Victoria. Cunningham himself was a great benefactor and donated land for the first school in 1856. In 1861 the town name was changed by act of parliament to Mt Gambier. The Hundred of Mt Gambier (along with three other hundreds) was declared in 1858 and began the closer settlement of the South East.

Unlike other areas of SA the South East was seen as paradise for pastoralists and the optimistic pastoralists flocked to the area with their flocks in 1845. The large runs locked up the land and prevented farmers from settling in the region except for the fertile lands around Mount Gambier. Here small scale farmers had small properties and grew potatoes, hops, and later had dairy cows as well as growing wheat and oats. Land acts in the early 1870s designed to break up the big runs only partially succeeded in the South East where most station owners bought up their lands freehold. It was after 1905 before the big pastoral estates were really broken up for farmers and closer settlement, except for near Mt Gambier. Apart from Evelyn Sturt the other early white settlers of the South East in 1845 were Alexander Cameron at Penola, John Robertson at Struan, William Macintosh and George Ormerod at Naracoorte, the Austin brothers at Yallum Park (later John Riddoch), the Arthur brothers (nephews of Governor Arthur of Van Diemen’s Land) at Mt Schanck( now Mt Schank) and the Leake brothers at Glencoe. In fact in 1845 nineteen leasehold runs were taken up in the South East with a further thirty runs in 1846 and most had several 80 acres sections of freehold land near the main homestead. Most had got to the South East from Casterton and Portland in Victoria as the swamps near the coast were too difficult to traverse except for the country near Robe. Many of the estates were huge. Evelyn Sturt on the Compton/Mt Gambier run had 85 square miles as well as his freehold land; Robertson had 135 square miles at Struan; George Glen (and William Vansittart) of Mayurra had 110 square miles; the SA Company had 159 square miles on the Benara run; the Leake brothers had 194 square miles on Glencoe; Hunter had 56 square miles on Kalangadoo; Neil Black of Noorat Victoria had 45 square miles on Kongorong run and 101 square miles at Port MacDonnell and the Arthur brothers had a huge run at Mt Schanck. By 1851 almost 5,000 square miles of the South East was occupied by Occupational License and most licenses were converted to 14 year leases in that year. A third of all leasehold land in SA was taken up in the South East because of its higher rainfall and suitability for pastoralism and a third of all sheep in the colony were in the South East. When Hundreds were declared in the South East in the late 1850s and early 1860s pastoralists bought up the land. In one case John Riddoch of Yallum Park owned the entire Hundred of Monbulla. Another pastoralist W. Clarke who had purchased Mt Schancke station from the Arthur brothers in 1861 owned SA land valued at £1.25 million when he died in 1874 and he had 120,000 acres freehold in Victoria, 75,000 acres freehold in SA( Mt Schank) and 50,000 acres freehold in each of NSW and Tasmania! Mt Schanck was changed in Schank in 1917 when German place names in SA were changed as Schank without the second “c” is an old English name!

In the 1850s Mt Gambier was a shanty village as the South East was a region of large pastoral estates and little agricultural farming and very low population numbers. It was far from Adelaide and remote and it was only after the Princeland episode in 1862 with the threat of possible secession to a new state that the Adelaide government began to invest in the South East and really encourage settlement there. The Border Watch newspaper was established in 1861, the Mt Gambier Hotel opened in 1862 and the Mt Gambier Council was formed in 1863.By the early 1860s Mt Gambier had almost 1,000 residents making it one of the largest towns in SA after the copper mining centres of Burra, Kadina and Moonta. By the 1881 SA census Mt Gambier had 2,500 residents making it the biggest town outside of Adelaide. In 1865 four iconic historic buildings were erected-the Courthouse, the Gaol, Christ Church Anglican and the Post Office and Telegraph Station. The flourmill which later became the Oat Mill opened in 1867 as wheat farmers had now taken up lands around the Mount. Mt Gambier was growing into a fine prosperous looking town with churches, stores, banks, hotels and fine residences. In the 1870s the rural population increased dramatically with tenant potato farmers on Browne’s Moorak estate and intensive hop growing in several localities such as Yahl and OB Flat and Glenburnie etc. Also in 1876 the first commercial forestry was started at the behest of George Goyder. A tree nursery was established on the edge of Leg of Mutton Lake in 1876 on a site selected by George Goyder himself. A stone cottage for the first nurseryman Charles Beale was constructed and it survived until demolished in 1969 but the nursery closed in 1929. The nursery propagated eucalypts, Oak, Elm, Ash, Sycamore, and North American pines. Pinus radiata was first grown at Leg of Mutton Lake and was being dispersed to other areas by 1878. Pinus canariensis was also grown in the 1880s. Pinus radiata is now the most commonly grown commercial forest tree in SA and Australia. Also in the 1870s the first hospital was erected and Dr Wehl, the town’s doctor for many years was in residence.

In the mid 1880s the first rail line was laid as the railway lines pushed out from Mt Gambier to Naracoorte. The service to Naracoorte began in 1887 and connected on with the line to Bordertown and Adelaide. By 1897 a railway connected Mt Gambier to Millicent and the port at Beachport. The railway line across the border to Heywood and Melbourne was not completed until 1917 as the SA government resisted a line that would take goods and passengers from Mt Gambier to Port Melbourne rather than to Port Adelaide. Mt Gambier railway station used to be a hive of activity with daily trains to Adelaide and an overnight sleeper services several times a week. Passenger trains to Mt Gambier from Adelaide stopped in 1990 after Australian National took over the SA railway network. Freight services stopped in 1995 and the railway line and station was formally closed. The railyards and other buildings were cleared in 2013.

The Buandik Aboriginal People.
The Buandik people are commemorated in a city street but by little else. Yet they were resilient and determined fighters opposed to the white settlement of the South East. Their occupation of the Mt Gambier district stretches back to around 20,000+ years but their dated occupation from archaeological sites goes back to about 11,000 years with their myths and legends including stories about volcanic activity at Mt Gambier. The last volcanic explosions were about 4,000 years ago. Both Mt Schank and Mt Gambier were important places to the Buandik for ceremonies, hunting, access to water and stone implement making. A government report in 1867 noted that the Buandik people in government care were few in number mainly sickly and elderly. The younger people had presumably moved out into the white community. But back in the 1840s the Buandik were a force to be reckoned with. There are no common stories of Aboriginal massacres but white pastoralists certainly retaliated when sheep were stolen. On Mt Schank station the Buandik were so troublesome that shepherds would not venture out to care for sheep alone and the Arthur brothers gave this trouble as their reason for them selling the run in 1845. In 1845 the government established a police station at Mt Gambier, which the Protector of Aboriginals visited, to ensure that pastoralists did not massacre the Buandik.

William Vansittart and Vansittart Park.
Vansittart Park has been a focal point of Mt Gambier since 1884 for activities such as family picnics, political rallies and speeches, bike racing, band rotunda concerts, bowling greens, sport oval, grandstand (1927) and Anzac memorial services. But who was William Vansittart? He was an Anglican reverend from England (Vansittart is a noble and political Anglo-Irish family in the UK) who arrived in SA in 1847 as a young bachelor. He was never licensed as a minister in SA but he developed his passions for making money and horse racing here. He mixed with the elite of Adelaide like Sir Samuel Davenport, the Governor and was a friend of Hurtle Fisher and he was Master of the Hounds. In 1850 he purchased 35 acres at Beaumont where he built Tower House and 80 acres at Mt Gambier. He imported a thoroughbred horse from Hobart called Lucifer. Ironic that a minister of religion would have a horse called Lucifer! His horses raced in Adelaide, Salisbury, Gawler, Brighton and Clare as well as in Mt Gambier and Penola. In 1851 he also took over the 110 square mile 14 year lease of Mayurra run with George Glen of Millicent. In 1852 he returned to England for a short time and on his return he purchased more freehold land bringing his estate to around 800 acres. Not long after in 1854 his horse shied, he was thrown against a tree and died of head injuries but he died intestate with an estate worth over £10,000. Glen bought out his share of Mayurra; the Beaumont house and property was sold in 1867 as were his race horses and his brother Captain Spencer Vansittart eventually inherited the Mt Gambier property. In accordance with William’s wishes 115 acres were set aside to provide income for a scholarship for boarders at St Peters Boys College which happened from 1859. Later in 1883 Spencer Vansittart offered 20 acres to the Mt Gambier Council for a memorial park at the “nominal” sum of £400 which hardly seems “nominal”. The Council raised a loan and purchased the land and the park is still enjoyed by the city’s residents and visitors. Captain Spencer’s widow sold the last package of 300 acres of land in 1912 thus ending the Vansittart links with Mt Gambier. The Vansittart scholarship is still available for boarders from the South East and is operated by a group of College trustees.

Some Historic Buildings in Mt Gambier and a town walk.
Your town walk is basically straight ahead along Penola Road towards the Mount itself which becomes Bay Road( the bay is at Port MacDonnell) once you cross Commercial Street which is the Main Street. There are just a few diversions to the left as you face the Mount. The coach will collect you at the Mount end of the walk near the Old Courthouse.

If you a good walker check out the fine houses in Jardine Street at numbers 1, 7, 9, 11, 12, 17 and 22. They range from cottages to Gothic and turreted mansions including the home of Jens the hotelier. This detour will add another 10 minutes to the walk if you elect to do it.

1.Catholic Covent. Sisters of Mercy setup a convent school in 1880. This wonderful convent was not built until 1908 in local dolomite stone & limestone quoins. Note the fine stone gables with small niches for statuary, the well proportioned arched colonnades and upstairs oriel windows – the projecting bay windows with stone supports. This is one of the finest buildings in Mt Gambier. The convent closed in 1986. Now Auspine.

2.Wesleyan Methodist Church Hall/Sunday School. Across the street is pink dolomite neo-classical style Wesleyan Methodist Sunday School Hall. Hundreds of children attended Sunday School in those days. It opened in 1904. It is now commercial offices. (If you want to walk up Wyatt Street beside the Sunday School and turn right at second street which is at Gray you will see the old two storey Methodist Manse at 101 Gray St. It was built in 1868 and sold 1941. As you turn into Gray Street the Salvation Army Hall is on your left. Allow 10 minutes for this detour before returning to Penola Road).

3.Methodist Church now Liberty Church. A Gothic large church built in 1862 by the Wesleyans. Opened by minister from Portland. Additions made 1877 with new entrance. The old lecture hall and Sunday School was beneath the church. Note the buttress on corners and sides. Became Uniting Church 1977 and closed 1994 when services moved to St Andrews Presbyterian Church. Behind the church (walk through the car park) in Colhurst Place is LLandovery two storey mansion now a B&B. Built 1878 for a flour and oat miller who had his mill in Percy Street.

4.St Paul’s Catholic Church. This impressive Gothic church with huge tower with crenulations was opened in 1884 and will be open today. There are 1966 extensions to the rear of it. The Presbytery is behind the church facing Alexander St. it was built in 1901 when the church was free of building debt. The first thatched bush church was built in another location in 1855. From 1857 the priest was Father Julian Tenison Woods, explorer, academic, horseman etc. A second church opened in 1861 in Sturt St and is now demolished. It closed in 1885 as this church opened. The bells came from Dublin. The church fence and gates built 1936.

5.The Mount Gambier Club. Across the street is the Club. It was built in 1904 for a local distiller as chambers for lease. The wealthy pastoralists of the South East formed an exclusive men only club in 1913 and it has used the upper floor of Engelbrecht’s chambers ever since. They purchased the whole building in 1920. The Club is a beautifully proportioned classical style building with pediments, balustrades, window entablature, and perfect symmetry. Look down the sides and you can see it is made of Mt Gambier limestone blocks.

6.Mt Gambier Caledonian Hall. Next door is the Scots Club. Its prominence signifies the Scottish links of many Gambier residents. The hall was opened in 1914 and opened by the former Prime Minister Sir George Reid, another Scot. It has classical features but is rather ugly and neglected these days. It is now a night club.

7.The Trustees Building. Next to the Caledonian is the Trustee Building erected in 1958. Its blue and bone tiled façade is typical of 1950s architecture yet the rectangular appearance has a slight classical look about it. It is on the SA Heritage Register. Accountants now occupy it.

8.Turn left into Percy Street and go along here beyond KFC for one town block to the next corner for the Oatmills (now a coffee shop and cinemas). Milling and brewing were two of Mt Gambier’s prime 19th century industries. The 4 storey complex here was started in 1867 for Welsh Thomas Williams who eventually had five flour mills. His mill was called Commercial Flourmills. A new owner converted the mill from wheat milling to oat milling. A new oatmill was built in 1901 and operated until 1975 producing Scottish porridge oats. The mill has now been restored with café, shops and cinemas. Return to Penola Rd.

9. Mt Gambier Hotel. No hotel could have a more remarkable origin than the Mt Gambier. An African American John Byng built a weatherboard hotel near here in 1847. The third licensee Alexander Mitchell, another Scot, took it over and moved the hotel to this corner site in 1862 as an impressive two storey hotel which was unusual at that time. The western wing was added in 1883 and balconies affixed in 1902.

10.Cross towards the Mount with the traffic lights then turn left into Commercial Street East.

11.Mt Gambier Town Hall. Marked as the Riddoch Gallery this fine Venetian Gothic style building is impressive with its coloured stone work contrasting well with cement rendered horizontal lines and vertical panels around windows and doors. The upper windows are mullioned with stone divisions between the glass. It was built in 1882 with the clock tower added in 1883 after a donation. The first Council meeting was in 1863 with Dr Wehl as chairman held in a hotel. Later the Council hired a room at the Foresters Hall and then they purchased this site in 1868 with a weatherboard room. This was used until 1882.

12.Mt Gambier old Institute. The Literary Institute was formed in 1862 and a foundation stone laid for a reading room/hall in 1868 by John Riddoch. The single storey institute opened in 1869. The upper floor was added in 1887, so that it would match the new Town Hall. It is built in a similar style- Venetian Romanesque as the windows and rounded and not arched as with a gothic structure.

13.Captain Gardiner Memorial Fountain 1884. The fountain was presented by Captain Robert Gardiner the grandfather of Sir Robert Helpman (his name was originally Helpmann). The fountain was made in Melbourne .Gardiner was also a benefactor of St Andrew’s Presbyterian -he donated the pipe organ in 1885.

14.Jens Hotel. After demolishing an earlier hotel (the 1847 hotel of John Byng) Johannes Jens had the first section of his Jens Hotel built on this corner in 1884. An almost identical eastern wing was erected in 1904 and the Spanish Art Deco section in 1927. Turn right here and go behind the Town hall to the Cave Gardens.

15.Cave Gardens. This spot was an early water supply. A garden was created in 1893 and then improved and reconstructed in 1925. This sink hole has recently been upgraded again and it is lit at night.

16.Post Office. This important communications centre was erected in 1865 as a telegraph office/post office. This is till one of the finest buildings in Mt Gambier and a rare example of the Georgian style for the city. . The single storey side wings were added in 1906 in a sympathetic style. It is still the main city Post Office.

17.Norris Agency Building. This superb Italianate building was completed in 1900 as chambers for businessmen. Owner was Alexander Norris who died in 1917. The façade is pink dolomite with cement quoins and unusual lined decoration work above the windows and door each contained within a triangular classical pediment.

18.Farmers Union Building. Another classical style building built when this style was out of fashion in 1914.Erected for Farmers Union as a large two storey building. It has none of the grace of the Norris building next door. FU was formed in 1888 in Jamestown by Thomas Mitchell, a Scot and others to provide cheap rates for grains, seeds and superphosphate but in the early 1900s they branched into products for dairy farmers and the marketing of milk products. The Mt Gambier district had plenty of dairy farmers. It is now owned by a Japanese company Kirin but it still markets its chocolate milk drinks as Farmers Union. Upper floor has double pilasters (flattened pillars) with top volutes but little other decoration.

19.Savings Bank Building on the corner. The former Savings Bank in Gothic style is unusual for commercial premises in Mt Gambier. It is constructed of weathered local limestone and was built in 1906. Note the different cut stone for the foundations, simulated turrets on the corners and by the door to break the façade appearance and the stone line above the lower window which then divides the façade into equal thirds.

20.Macs Hotel. This hotel was built in 1864 and is largely unchanged except that the upper floor was added in 1881. The first licensee was a Scot named John MacDonald. The double veranda supports are very elegant.

21.Roller flourmill now a painted hardware store. Built 1885 as a steam flourmill in pink dolomite. Note the small 12 paned windows set in much larger indented niches in the walls on the northern wall. (Sturt St.)

22.Christ Church Anglican Church and hall. Dr Browne of Moorak donated half the money for the construction of Christ Church in pink dolomite and with an unusual gabled tower. Church and tower completed in 1866. Adjacent is the Jubilee Hall built in 1915, destroyed by fire in 1951, and rebuilt exactly the same in weathered local limestone blocks with the original foundation stone still in place. It has the single Gothic window in the street facing gable and a crenulated square tower. Adjoining it is the 1869 Sunday School with the narrow double pointed Gothic windows. It was extended in 1892. The lychgate is more recent as a memorial to a regular church goer, Margaret French who died in 1927.

23.The old railway station just visible along the rail lines to your right. The first rail line was to Beachport in 1879 and the second to Naracoorte (and so to Adelaide) in 1887. Portland and Melbourne line opened 1917. A spur line to Glencoe was completed in 1904. First station was erected in 1879. It was demolished for the erection of the current station in 1918 which is similar in design to those in Tailem Bend, Bordertown, Moonta etc. Bluebird rail cars started on the Mt Gambier run in 1953 when the old 3’6” gauge line to Wolseley was converted to 5’3”. The last passenger service to Adelaide finished in 1990 and the station closed for freight in 1995. The railyards were cleared in 2013 and the future of the station is bleak. The rail lines to Beachport and Glencoe closed in 1956/57.

24.The Old Courthouse, 42 Bay Rd. It has a great low wall suitable for sitting on. This well designed Georgian style Courthouse opened in 1865 and the similarly styled side wings were added in 1877. The front veranda, which is not Georgian in style, was added in 1880. In 1975 the Courthouse was granted to the National Trust for a museum. The adjoining new Courthouse opened in 1975 at the same time. Note the “blind” windows to the façade but the same rounded Georgian shaped, 16 paned windows on the sides.

The Blue Lake, Mt Schank and Volcanoes.
The jewel in the crown of Mt Gambier is undoubtedly the volcanic cone, the crater lakes especially the Blue Lake and the surrounding Botanic Gardens and parklands. The Botanic Garden on the north side was approved in 1872 but nothing happened about plantings and care until 1882. The first pleasure road through the saddle between the Blue Lake and the Valley Lake was created in the 1861 as a more direct road to the then newly created international port named Port MacDonnell. That is why the road is called the Bay road. Surveyor General George Goyder explored the lake surrounds himself in 1876 when he selected the site for the government tree nursery. Later the government established the first sawmill on the edge of the crater reserve near Moorak homestead in the early 1920s. The Centenary Tower was initiated in 1900 to celebrate the centenary of Captain Grant sighting Mt Gambier. It took several years to complete and was opened by the Chief Justice of SA Sir Samuel Way in 1907 but it was completed in 1904. The whole complex is a maar geomorphological formation which originated during a volcanic era about 28,000 years ago but in a second phase of volcanic activity 4,000 to 6,000 years ago the cones and lakes of Mt Gambier were created along with the cones of Mt Schank and Mt Burr near Millicent. Mt Gambier was the most recent volcanic explosion in Australia. The crater lakes are: Blue Lake, Valley Lake, Leg of Mutton Lake and Browne’s Lake (dry). The Blue Lake is linked to the aquifers beneath the deep layers of limestone which underlay the entire South East. Blue Lake is about 72 metres deep and some of the water in it is estimated to be about 500 years old but it is mixed with rain runoff each year as well. The Lake provides the water supply for Mt Gambier. Deep in the lake are examples of the oldest living organisms on earth- stromatalites. The lake changes colour from grey to vivid blue each November and reverts in the following April. The change in colour is related to the position of the sun and reflected light from suspended particles in the lake which reflect blue green light rather than brown grey light. Secondly the suspended matter only occurs because the water near the surface rises in temperature in the spring and it is this which causes the particles to precipitate out of the water. The precipitated matter settles on the bottom of the lake ready for a new cycle the following spring. Like the Blue Lake various sink holes in the district have linkages to the underlying aquifer through the layers of limestone too and they include Cave Gardens, Umpherstone, Piccaninni Ponds, etc.

Moorak Station and Tenison Woods College.
Moorak station as originally known as Mount Gambier Station established by George Glen in the 1840s. The leasehold was later taken over by David Power who in turn sold it to Fisher and Rochford who in turn sold the estate as freehold to the Scottish Dr William Browne who had established Booborowie run with his brother in 1843 north of Burra. The Browne brothers dissolved their partnership around 1865 and John went to live at Buckland Park and William took up residence at Moorak. William had purchased Moorak Station in 1862 and built the grand Moorak homestead in impressive Georgian style onto a smaller house there. William died in 1894 and the Moorak Estate passed to his son Colonel Percival Browne who was to disappear on the ill-fated voyage of the new steamer the Waratah in 1909 which disappeared during a storm off Durban, South Africa. Also on that voyage was Mrs. Agnes Hay (nee Gosse) of Mt Breckan Victor Harbor and Linden Park Estate Adelaide and some 200 other poor souls. Around 1909 the Moorak Station was subdivided for closer settlement and in the 1920s the Marist Brothers purchased the homestead with a little land for their and monastery and opened the Marist Brothers Agricultural College for boys in 1931. That college in turn merged with the Mater Christi College in 1972 to become Tenison College. (Mater Christi College had been formed in 1952 by the merger of the St Josephs Convent School (1880) and St Peters Parish School but the primary section of St Peters broke away in 1969 from Mater Christi College and formed a separate St Peters Primary School. This primary school in turn merged with Tenison College in 2001 to form Tenison Woods College!) The College name commemorates the work of Father Julian Tenison Woods who arrived in Mt Gambier in 1857 to work in Penola and Mt Gambier. It was he who encouraged Mary MacKillop to take her vows and establish her Sisters of St Joseph.

Dr Browne’s manager of Moorak Estate in 1868 introduced hops as a viable crop in the South East and large quantities were grown for about 20 years. Other early experimental crops grown included tobacco, cotton and flax. Dr Browne and Moorak were also important in the potato industry. Dr Browne leased around 830 acres to 20 tenants for the express purpose of growing potatoes. He was keen to emulate the British aristocracy although he was a good Scot with being a manorial style landlord with tenant farmers. Potatoes were also grown from the early years at Yahl, OB Flat and Compton near Mt Gambier. The potatoes were carted down to Port MacDonnell and shipped to Adelaide for consumers. As one of the major wool producers of Australia William Browne contributed roughly half of the funds for the erection of Christ Church Anglican in Mt Gambier. The Moorak estate consisted of around 11,000 acres of the most fertile volcanic soil in SA with another 2,000 acres in a nearby property, German Creek near Carpenter’s Rocks. Dr Browne ran Silky Lincolns on Moorak for their wool as Merinos did not fare well on the damp South East pastures. About 2,000 acres was in wheat, about 2,500 acres was tenanted to other farmers and around 4,000 acres were in lucerne, clover, rye and other pasture grasses. William Browne returned to live in England in 1866 so his sons could attend Eton and military training colleges there. He made regular trips to SA about every second year to oversee his many pastoral properties here. When he died in 1894 he left 100,000 acres of freehold land in SA to his children who all resided here as well as leasehold land. He was an extremely wealthy man. Son Percival took control of Moorak. Before Percival’s death Moorak Estate was partly purchased by the SA government in 1904 for closer settlement when they acquired around 1,000 acres. After Percival’s death a further 6,300 acres was acquired for closer settlement and the remainder of the estate was sold to other farmers. The government paid between £10 and £31 per acre for the land. Percival Browne was highly respected in Mt Gambier and a reserve around the Blue Lake is named after him. The fourth of the crater lakes of Mt Gambier is also named Browne’s Lake after the family but it has been dry for decades. In 1900 Colonel Browne planted the ring of English Oaks around what was to become the oval of the Marist Brothers College.

Moorak.
There is a memorial by the station to William Browne as founder of the Coriadale Sheep Stud. The great Moorak woolshed was demolished in 1939. The Union church which opened in 1920 was used by the Methodists and the Anglicans. It is now a private residence. Moorak hall was opened in 1926. New classrooms were added to the Moorak School in 1928 and the first rooms opened in 1913. The cheese factory in Moorak opened in 1913 as a cooperative and was sold to Farmers Union in 1949. They closed the factory in 1979. Most of the cheese produced at Moorak went to the Melbourne market. The first cheese maker at Moorak was trained at Lauterbach’s cheese factory at Woodside. Moorak was one of a circle of settlements around Mt Gambier that had butter/cheese factories. These towns were: Kongorong; Glencoe East; Glencoe West; Suttontown; Glenburnie; Mil Lel; Yahl; OB Flat; Moorak; Mt Schank; and Eight Mile Creek.

Yahl.
In the 1860s this tiny settlement was a tobacco, hop and potato growing district and it persisted with potatoes up until recent times. Today Yahl is little more than a suburban village of Mt Gambier with a Primary school with approx 120 students. The old government school was erected in 1879. It had a Methodist church built in 1880 which operated as a church until 1977 and it had a large butter factory which had opened in 1888. The butter and cheese factory was taken over by the OB Flat cheese factory in 1939 and the two operated in conjunction with each other. The OB Flat cheese factory closed in 1950 and all production moved to Yahl. The factory finally closed in 1971. The township of Yahl also had a General Store and a Salvation Army Hall which was built in 1919.

Sink Holes: Umpherston Gardens and Cave Gardens.
James Umpherston purchased land near Mt Gambier in 1864 which included a large sink hole or collapsed cavern with a lake in the bottom. He was born in Scotland in 1812 and came to SA in the 1850s with his brother William. William purchased his first land at Yahl in 1859. James Umpherston was a civic minded chap being a local councilor, a parliamentarian in Adelaide for two years and President of the Mt Gambier Agricultural and Horticultural Society for 13 years. When he retired from civic life and farming in 1884 he decided to create a garden in his sinkhole. He beautified it and encouraged visitors and even provided a boat in the lake for boat rides. Access was gained by steps and a path carved into the sinkhole walls. However after he died in 1900 the garden was ignored, became overgrown and was largely forgotten in 1949 when the Woods and Forests Department obtained the land for a new sawmill at Mt Gambier. By then the lake had dried up as the water table had fallen over the decades. In 1976 staff, rather than the government, decided to restore the Umpherstone gardens. The cleared out the rubbish that had been dumped in the sinkhole, restored the path access, trimmed the ivy and replanted the hydrangeas and tree ferns. In 1994 the Woos and Forests Department handed over the land around the sinkhole to the City of Mt Gambier. It was added to the SA Heritage Register in 1995.

The Vikings Pillage Again
consumer loan rates
Image by Observe The Banana
The Vikings are back, now with more payday loan goodness. They don’t have to burn your village, they will just charge 400% interest rates and let you bury yourself.

Payday Loans Equal Very Costly Cash
The High Cost of Payday Loans

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Payday_loan

Grand classical facade of the former Farmers Union building in Mt Gambier. Built in1914 which is late for this style of grand facade.
consumer loan rates
Image by denisbin
Brief History of Mt Gambier – the second city of SA after Adelaide (region population nearly 35,000, urban 28,000).
Lieutenant James Grant aboard the Lady Nelson sighted and named Mt Gambier in 1800 after a Lord of the Admiralty. The first white man to traverse the area was Stephen Henty of Portland in 1839 when he sighted the Blue Lake. He returned with cattle and stockmen in 1841. He later claimed that had he known the lake and volcano he had discovered in 1839 was in SA he would have immediately applied for an 1839 Special Survey. But Henty thought he was squatting on land in NSW and he was not an official SA settler so the government ordered him off the land in 1844. Thus the first official white settler of the South East and the Mt Gambier district became Evelyn Sturt, brother to Captain Charles Sturt, who took up an occupational license in March 1844 and a property he named Compton just north of the present city. In April 1844 Governor Grey and a party of assistants including the Assistant Surveyor General Thomas Burr and artist George French Angas explored the South East naming Robe and doing the first surveys. Evelyn Sturt became the first to have an occupational license to squat and the first purchase freehold land near Mt Gambier which he did in 1847- a section of 77 acres when 80 acres was the norm. He left the district in 1854 selling his freehold land to Hastings Cunningham who in 1855 subdivided some of this land thus creating the town of Gambierton. The town lands were adjacent to the site of the first police station selected near what is now Cave Gardens by the government in 1845. A small bush inn also operated at this spot. The first streets were named after early locals such as Evelyn Sturt, Compton, Ferrers and Crouch (built the first general store before the town was created) etc. The town grew quickly because of the mild climate, fertile soils, plentiful water and the influx of settlers from across the border in what was to become the colony of Victoria. Cunningham himself was a great benefactor and donated land for the first school in 1856. In 1861 the town name was changed by act of parliament to Mt Gambier. The Hundred of Mt Gambier (along with three other hundreds) was declared in 1858 and began the closer settlement of the South East.

Unlike other areas of SA the South East was seen as paradise for pastoralists and the optimistic pastoralists flocked to the area with their flocks in 1845. The large runs locked up the land and prevented farmers from settling in the region except for the fertile lands around Mount Gambier. Here small scale farmers had small properties and grew potatoes, hops, and later had dairy cows as well as growing wheat and oats. Land acts in the early 1870s designed to break up the big runs only partially succeeded in the South East where most station owners bought up their lands freehold. It was after 1905 before the big pastoral estates were really broken up for farmers and closer settlement, except for near Mt Gambier. Apart from Evelyn Sturt the other early white settlers of the South East in 1845 were Alexander Cameron at Penola, John Robertson at Struan, William Macintosh and George Ormerod at Naracoorte, the Austin brothers at Yallum Park (later John Riddoch), the Arthur brothers (nephews of Governor Arthur of Van Diemen’s Land) at Mt Schanck( now Mt Schank) and the Leake brothers at Glencoe. In fact in 1845 nineteen leasehold runs were taken up in the South East with a further thirty runs in 1846 and most had several 80 acres sections of freehold land near the main homestead. Most had got to the South East from Casterton and Portland in Victoria as the swamps near the coast were too difficult to traverse except for the country near Robe. Many of the estates were huge. Evelyn Sturt on the Compton/Mt Gambier run had 85 square miles as well as his freehold land; Robertson had 135 square miles at Struan; George Glen (and William Vansittart) of Mayurra had 110 square miles; the SA Company had 159 square miles on the Benara run; the Leake brothers had 194 square miles on Glencoe; Hunter had 56 square miles on Kalangadoo; Neil Black of Noorat Victoria had 45 square miles on Kongorong run and 101 square miles at Port MacDonnell and the Arthur brothers had a huge run at Mt Schanck. By 1851 almost 5,000 square miles of the South East was occupied by Occupational License and most licenses were converted to 14 year leases in that year. A third of all leasehold land in SA was taken up in the South East because of its higher rainfall and suitability for pastoralism and a third of all sheep in the colony were in the South East. When Hundreds were declared in the South East in the late 1850s and early 1860s pastoralists bought up the land. In one case John Riddoch of Yallum Park owned the entire Hundred of Monbulla. Another pastoralist W. Clarke who had purchased Mt Schancke station from the Arthur brothers in 1861 owned SA land valued at £1.25 million when he died in 1874 and he had 120,000 acres freehold in Victoria, 75,000 acres freehold in SA( Mt Schank) and 50,000 acres freehold in each of NSW and Tasmania! Mt Schanck was changed in Schank in 1917 when German place names in SA were changed as Schank without the second “c” is an old English name!

In the 1850s Mt Gambier was a shanty village as the South East was a region of large pastoral estates and little agricultural farming and very low population numbers. It was far from Adelaide and remote and it was only after the Princeland episode in 1862 with the threat of possible secession to a new state that the Adelaide government began to invest in the South East and really encourage settlement there. The Border Watch newspaper was established in 1861, the Mt Gambier Hotel opened in 1862 and the Mt Gambier Council was formed in 1863.By the early 1860s Mt Gambier had almost 1,000 residents making it one of the largest towns in SA after the copper mining centres of Burra, Kadina and Moonta. By the 1881 SA census Mt Gambier had 2,500 residents making it the biggest town outside of Adelaide. In 1865 four iconic historic buildings were erected-the Courthouse, the Gaol, Christ Church Anglican and the Post Office and Telegraph Station. The flourmill which later became the Oat Mill opened in 1867 as wheat farmers had now taken up lands around the Mount. Mt Gambier was growing into a fine prosperous looking town with churches, stores, banks, hotels and fine residences. In the 1870s the rural population increased dramatically with tenant potato farmers on Browne’s Moorak estate and intensive hop growing in several localities such as Yahl and OB Flat and Glenburnie etc. Also in 1876 the first commercial forestry was started at the behest of George Goyder. A tree nursery was established on the edge of Leg of Mutton Lake in 1876 on a site selected by George Goyder himself. A stone cottage for the first nurseryman Charles Beale was constructed and it survived until demolished in 1969 but the nursery closed in 1929. The nursery propagated eucalypts, Oak, Elm, Ash, Sycamore, and North American pines. Pinus radiata was first grown at Leg of Mutton Lake and was being dispersed to other areas by 1878. Pinus canariensis was also grown in the 1880s. Pinus radiata is now the most commonly grown commercial forest tree in SA and Australia. Also in the 1870s the first hospital was erected and Dr Wehl, the town’s doctor for many years was in residence.

In the mid 1880s the first rail line was laid as the railway lines pushed out from Mt Gambier to Naracoorte. The service to Naracoorte began in 1887 and connected on with the line to Bordertown and Adelaide. By 1897 a railway connected Mt Gambier to Millicent and the port at Beachport. The railway line across the border to Heywood and Melbourne was not completed until 1917 as the SA government resisted a line that would take goods and passengers from Mt Gambier to Port Melbourne rather than to Port Adelaide. Mt Gambier railway station used to be a hive of activity with daily trains to Adelaide and an overnight sleeper services several times a week. Passenger trains to Mt Gambier from Adelaide stopped in 1990 after Australian National took over the SA railway network. Freight services stopped in 1995 and the railway line and station was formally closed. The railyards and other buildings were cleared in 2013.

The Buandik Aboriginal People.
The Buandik people are commemorated in a city street but by little else. Yet they were resilient and determined fighters opposed to the white settlement of the South East. Their occupation of the Mt Gambier district stretches back to around 20,000+ years but their dated occupation from archaeological sites goes back to about 11,000 years with their myths and legends including stories about volcanic activity at Mt Gambier. The last volcanic explosions were about 4,000 years ago. Both Mt Schank and Mt Gambier were important places to the Buandik for ceremonies, hunting, access to water and stone implement making. A government report in 1867 noted that the Buandik people in government care were few in number mainly sickly and elderly. The younger people had presumably moved out into the white community. But back in the 1840s the Buandik were a force to be reckoned with. There are no common stories of Aboriginal massacres but white pastoralists certainly retaliated when sheep were stolen. On Mt Schank station the Buandik were so troublesome that shepherds would not venture out to care for sheep alone and the Arthur brothers gave this trouble as their reason for them selling the run in 1845. In 1845 the government established a police station at Mt Gambier, which the Protector of Aboriginals visited, to ensure that pastoralists did not massacre the Buandik.

William Vansittart and Vansittart Park.
Vansittart Park has been a focal point of Mt Gambier since 1884 for activities such as family picnics, political rallies and speeches, bike racing, band rotunda concerts, bowling greens, sport oval, grandstand (1927) and Anzac memorial services. But who was William Vansittart? He was an Anglican reverend from England (Vansittart is a noble and political Anglo-Irish family in the UK) who arrived in SA in 1847 as a young bachelor. He was never licensed as a minister in SA but he developed his passions for making money and horse racing here. He mixed with the elite of Adelaide like Sir Samuel Davenport, the Governor and was a friend of Hurtle Fisher and he was Master of the Hounds. In 1850 he purchased 35 acres at Beaumont where he built Tower House and 80 acres at Mt Gambier. He imported a thoroughbred horse from Hobart called Lucifer. Ironic that a minister of religion would have a horse called Lucifer! His horses raced in Adelaide, Salisbury, Gawler, Brighton and Clare as well as in Mt Gambier and Penola. In 1851 he also took over the 110 square mile 14 year lease of Mayurra run with George Glen of Millicent. In 1852 he returned to England for a short time and on his return he purchased more freehold land bringing his estate to around 800 acres. Not long after in 1854 his horse shied, he was thrown against a tree and died of head injuries but he died intestate with an estate worth over £10,000. Glen bought out his share of Mayurra; the Beaumont house and property was sold in 1867 as were his race horses and his brother Captain Spencer Vansittart eventually inherited the Mt Gambier property. In accordance with William’s wishes 115 acres were set aside to provide income for a scholarship for boarders at St Peters Boys College which happened from 1859. Later in 1883 Spencer Vansittart offered 20 acres to the Mt Gambier Council for a memorial park at the “nominal” sum of £400 which hardly seems “nominal”. The Council raised a loan and purchased the land and the park is still enjoyed by the city’s residents and visitors. Captain Spencer’s widow sold the last package of 300 acres of land in 1912 thus ending the Vansittart links with Mt Gambier. The Vansittart scholarship is still available for boarders from the South East and is operated by a group of College trustees.

Some Historic Buildings in Mt Gambier and a town walk.
Your town walk is basically straight ahead along Penola Road towards the Mount itself which becomes Bay Road( the bay is at Port MacDonnell) once you cross Commercial Street which is the Main Street. There are just a few diversions to the left as you face the Mount. The coach will collect you at the Mount end of the walk near the Old Courthouse.

If you a good walker check out the fine houses in Jardine Street at numbers 1, 7, 9, 11, 12, 17 and 22. They range from cottages to Gothic and turreted mansions including the home of Jens the hotelier. This detour will add another 10 minutes to the walk if you elect to do it.

1.Catholic Covent. Sisters of Mercy setup a convent school in 1880. This wonderful convent was not built until 1908 in local dolomite stone & limestone quoins. Note the fine stone gables with small niches for statuary, the well proportioned arched colonnades and upstairs oriel windows – the projecting bay windows with stone supports. This is one of the finest buildings in Mt Gambier. The convent closed in 1986. Now Auspine.

2.Wesleyan Methodist Church Hall/Sunday School. Across the street is pink dolomite neo-classical style Wesleyan Methodist Sunday School Hall. Hundreds of children attended Sunday School in those days. It opened in 1904. It is now commercial offices. (If you want to walk up Wyatt Street beside the Sunday School and turn right at second street which is at Gray you will see the old two storey Methodist Manse at 101 Gray St. It was built in 1868 and sold 1941. As you turn into Gray Street the Salvation Army Hall is on your left. Allow 10 minutes for this detour before returning to Penola Road).

3.Methodist Church now Liberty Church. A Gothic large church built in 1862 by the Wesleyans. Opened by minister from Portland. Additions made 1877 with new entrance. The old lecture hall and Sunday School was beneath the church. Note the buttress on corners and sides. Became Uniting Church 1977 and closed 1994 when services moved to St Andrews Presbyterian Church. Behind the church (walk through the car park) in Colhurst Place is LLandovery two storey mansion now a B&B. Built 1878 for a flour and oat miller who had his mill in Percy Street.

4.St Paul’s Catholic Church. This impressive Gothic church with huge tower with crenulations was opened in 1884 and will be open today. There are 1966 extensions to the rear of it. The Presbytery is behind the church facing Alexander St. it was built in 1901 when the church was free of building debt. The first thatched bush church was built in another location in 1855. From 1857 the priest was Father Julian Tenison Woods, explorer, academic, horseman etc. A second church opened in 1861 in Sturt St and is now demolished. It closed in 1885 as this church opened. The bells came from Dublin. The church fence and gates built 1936.

5.The Mount Gambier Club. Across the street is the Club. It was built in 1904 for a local distiller as chambers for lease. The wealthy pastoralists of the South East formed an exclusive men only club in 1913 and it has used the upper floor of Engelbrecht’s chambers ever since. They purchased the whole building in 1920. The Club is a beautifully proportioned classical style building with pediments, balustrades, window entablature, and perfect symmetry. Look down the sides and you can see it is made of Mt Gambier limestone blocks.

6.Mt Gambier Caledonian Hall. Next door is the Scots Club. Its prominence signifies the Scottish links of many Gambier residents. The hall was opened in 1914 and opened by the former Prime Minister Sir George Reid, another Scot. It has classical features but is rather ugly and neglected these days. It is now a night club.

7.The Trustees Building. Next to the Caledonian is the Trustee Building erected in 1958. Its blue and bone tiled façade is typical of 1950s architecture yet the rectangular appearance has a slight classical look about it. It is on the SA Heritage Register. Accountants now occupy it.

8.Turn left into Percy Street and go along here beyond KFC for one town block to the next corner for the Oatmills (now a coffee shop and cinemas). Milling and brewing were two of Mt Gambier’s prime 19th century industries. The 4 storey complex here was started in 1867 for Welsh Thomas Williams who eventually had five flour mills. His mill was called Commercial Flourmills. A new owner converted the mill from wheat milling to oat milling. A new oatmill was built in 1901 and operated until 1975 producing Scottish porridge oats. The mill has now been restored with café, shops and cinemas. Return to Penola Rd.

9. Mt Gambier Hotel. No hotel could have a more remarkable origin than the Mt Gambier. An African American John Byng built a weatherboard hotel near here in 1847. The third licensee Alexander Mitchell, another Scot, took it over and moved the hotel to this corner site in 1862 as an impressive two storey hotel which was unusual at that time. The western wing was added in 1883 and balconies affixed in 1902.

10.Cross towards the Mount with the traffic lights then turn left into Commercial Street East.

11.Mt Gambier Town Hall. Marked as the Riddoch Gallery this fine Venetian Gothic style building is impressive with its coloured stone work contrasting well with cement rendered horizontal lines and vertical panels around windows and doors. The upper windows are mullioned with stone divisions between the glass. It was built in 1882 with the clock tower added in 1883 after a donation. The first Council meeting was in 1863 with Dr Wehl as chairman held in a hotel. Later the Council hired a room at the Foresters Hall and then they purchased this site in 1868 with a weatherboard room. This was used until 1882.

12.Mt Gambier old Institute. The Literary Institute was formed in 1862 and a foundation stone laid for a reading room/hall in 1868 by John Riddoch. The single storey institute opened in 1869. The upper floor was added in 1887, so that it would match the new Town Hall. It is built in a similar style- Venetian Romanesque as the windows and rounded and not arched as with a gothic structure.

13.Captain Gardiner Memorial Fountain 1884. The fountain was presented by Captain Robert Gardiner the grandfather of Sir Robert Helpman (his name was originally Helpmann). The fountain was made in Melbourne .Gardiner was also a benefactor of St Andrew’s Presbyterian -he donated the pipe organ in 1885.

14.Jens Hotel. After demolishing an earlier hotel (the 1847 hotel of John Byng) Johannes Jens had the first section of his Jens Hotel built on this corner in 1884. An almost identical eastern wing was erected in 1904 and the Spanish Art Deco section in 1927. Turn right here and go behind the Town hall to the Cave Gardens.

15.Cave Gardens. This spot was an early water supply. A garden was created in 1893 and then improved and reconstructed in 1925. This sink hole has recently been upgraded again and it is lit at night.

16.Post Office. This important communications centre was erected in 1865 as a telegraph office/post office. This is till one of the finest buildings in Mt Gambier and a rare example of the Georgian style for the city. . The single storey side wings were added in 1906 in a sympathetic style. It is still the main city Post Office.

17.Norris Agency Building. This superb Italianate building was completed in 1900 as chambers for businessmen. Owner was Alexander Norris who died in 1917. The façade is pink dolomite with cement quoins and unusual lined decoration work above the windows and door each contained within a triangular classical pediment.

18.Farmers Union Building. Another classical style building built when this style was out of fashion in 1914.Erected for Farmers Union as a large two storey building. It has none of the grace of the Norris building next door. FU was formed in 1888 in Jamestown by Thomas Mitchell, a Scot and others to provide cheap rates for grains, seeds and superphosphate but in the early 1900s they branched into products for dairy farmers and the marketing of milk products. The Mt Gambier district had plenty of dairy farmers. It is now owned by a Japanese company Kirin but it still markets its chocolate milk drinks as Farmers Union. Upper floor has double pilasters (flattened pillars) with top volutes but little other decoration.

19.Savings Bank Building on the corner. The former Savings Bank in Gothic style is unusual for commercial premises in Mt Gambier. It is constructed of weathered local limestone and was built in 1906. Note the different cut stone for the foundations, simulated turrets on the corners and by the door to break the façade appearance and the stone line above the lower window which then divides the façade into equal thirds.

20.Macs Hotel. This hotel was built in 1864 and is largely unchanged except that the upper floor was added in 1881. The first licensee was a Scot named John MacDonald. The double veranda supports are very elegant.

21.Roller flourmill now a painted hardware store. Built 1885 as a steam flourmill in pink dolomite. Note the small 12 paned windows set in much larger indented niches in the walls on the northern wall. (Sturt St.)

22.Christ Church Anglican Church and hall. Dr Browne of Moorak donated half the money for the construction of Christ Church in pink dolomite and with an unusual gabled tower. Church and tower completed in 1866. Adjacent is the Jubilee Hall built in 1915, destroyed by fire in 1951, and rebuilt exactly the same in weathered local limestone blocks with the original foundation stone still in place. It has the single Gothic window in the street facing gable and a crenulated square tower. Adjoining it is the 1869 Sunday School with the narrow double pointed Gothic windows. It was extended in 1892. The lychgate is more recent as a memorial to a regular church goer, Margaret French who died in 1927.

23.The old railway station just visible along the rail lines to your right. The first rail line was to Beachport in 1879 and the second to Naracoorte (and so to Adelaide) in 1887. Portland and Melbourne line opened 1917. A spur line to Glencoe was completed in 1904. First station was erected in 1879. It was demolished for the erection of the current station in 1918 which is similar in design to those in Tailem Bend, Bordertown, Moonta etc. Bluebird rail cars started on the Mt Gambier run in 1953 when the old 3’6” gauge line to Wolseley was converted to 5’3”. The last passenger service to Adelaide finished in 1990 and the station closed for freight in 1995. The railyards were cleared in 2013 and the future of the station is bleak. The rail lines to Beachport and Glencoe closed in 1956/57.

24.The Old Courthouse, 42 Bay Rd. It has a great low wall suitable for sitting on. This well designed Georgian style Courthouse opened in 1865 and the similarly styled side wings were added in 1877. The front veranda, which is not Georgian in style, was added in 1880. In 1975 the Courthouse was granted to the National Trust for a museum. The adjoining new Courthouse opened in 1975 at the same time. Note the “blind” windows to the façade but the same rounded Georgian shaped, 16 paned windows on the sides.

The Blue Lake, Mt Schank and Volcanoes.
The jewel in the crown of Mt Gambier is undoubtedly the volcanic cone, the crater lakes especially the Blue Lake and the surrounding Botanic Gardens and parklands. The Botanic Garden on the north side was approved in 1872 but nothing happened about plantings and care until 1882. The first pleasure road through the saddle between the Blue Lake and the Valley Lake was created in the 1861 as a more direct road to the then newly created international port named Port MacDonnell. That is why the road is called the Bay road. Surveyor General George Goyder explored the lake surrounds himself in 1876 when he selected the site for the government tree nursery. Later the government established the first sawmill on the edge of the crater reserve near Moorak homestead in the early 1920s. The Centenary Tower was initiated in 1900 to celebrate the centenary of Captain Grant sighting Mt Gambier. It took several years to complete and was opened by the Chief Justice of SA Sir Samuel Way in 1907 but it was completed in 1904. The whole complex is a maar geomorphological formation which originated during a volcanic era about 28,000 years ago but in a second phase of volcanic activity 4,000 to 6,000 years ago the cones and lakes of Mt Gambier were created along with the cones of Mt Schank and Mt Burr near Millicent. Mt Gambier was the most recent volcanic explosion in Australia. The crater lakes are: Blue Lake, Valley Lake, Leg of Mutton Lake and Browne’s Lake (dry). The Blue Lake is linked to the aquifers beneath the deep layers of limestone which underlay the entire South East. Blue Lake is about 72 metres deep and some of the water in it is estimated to be about 500 years old but it is mixed with rain runoff each year as well. The Lake provides the water supply for Mt Gambier. Deep in the lake are examples of the oldest living organisms on earth- stromatalites. The lake changes colour from grey to vivid blue each November and reverts in the following April. The change in colour is related to the position of the sun and reflected light from suspended particles in the lake which reflect blue green light rather than brown grey light. Secondly the suspended matter only occurs because the water near the surface rises in temperature in the spring and it is this which causes the particles to precipitate out of the water. The precipitated matter settles on the bottom of the lake ready for a new cycle the following spring. Like the Blue Lake various sink holes in the district have linkages to the underlying aquifer through the layers of limestone too and they include Cave Gardens, Umpherstone, Piccaninni Ponds, etc.

Moorak Station and Tenison Woods College.
Moorak station as originally known as Mount Gambier Station established by George Glen in the 1840s. The leasehold was later taken over by David Power who in turn sold it to Fisher and Rochford who in turn sold the estate as freehold to the Scottish Dr William Browne who had established Booborowie run with his brother in 1843 north of Burra. The Browne brothers dissolved their partnership around 1865 and John went to live at Buckland Park and William took up residence at Moorak. William had purchased Moorak Station in 1862 and built the grand Moorak homestead in impressive Georgian style onto a smaller house there. William died in 1894 and the Moorak Estate passed to his son Colonel Percival Browne who was to disappear on the ill-fated voyage of the new steamer the Waratah in 1909 which disappeared during a storm off Durban, South Africa. Also on that voyage was Mrs. Agnes Hay (nee Gosse) of Mt Breckan Victor Harbor and Linden Park Estate Adelaide and some 200 other poor souls. Around 1909 the Moorak Station was subdivided for closer settlement and in the 1920s the Marist Brothers purchased the homestead with a little land for their and monastery and opened the Marist Brothers Agricultural College for boys in 1931. That college in turn merged with the Mater Christi College in 1972 to become Tenison College. (Mater Christi College had been formed in 1952 by the merger of the St Josephs Convent School (1880) and St Peters Parish School but the primary section of St Peters broke away in 1969 from Mater Christi College and formed a separate St Peters Primary School. This primary school in turn merged with Tenison College in 2001 to form Tenison Woods College!) The College name commemorates the work of Father Julian Tenison Woods who arrived in Mt Gambier in 1857 to work in Penola and Mt Gambier. It was he who encouraged Mary MacKillop to take her vows and establish her Sisters of St Joseph.

Dr Browne’s manager of Moorak Estate in 1868 introduced hops as a viable crop in the South East and large quantities were grown for about 20 years. Other early experimental crops grown included tobacco, cotton and flax. Dr Browne and Moorak were also important in the potato industry. Dr Browne leased around 830 acres to 20 tenants for the express purpose of growing potatoes. He was keen to emulate the British aristocracy although he was a good Scot with being a manorial style landlord with tenant farmers. Potatoes were also grown from the early years at Yahl, OB Flat and Compton near Mt Gambier. The potatoes were carted down to Port MacDonnell and shipped to Adelaide for consumers. As one of the major wool producers of Australia William Browne contributed roughly half of the funds for the erection of Christ Church Anglican in Mt Gambier. The Moorak estate consisted of around 11,000 acres of the most fertile volcanic soil in SA with another 2,000 acres in a nearby property, German Creek near Carpenter’s Rocks. Dr Browne ran Silky Lincolns on Moorak for their wool as Merinos did not fare well on the damp South East pastures. About 2,000 acres was in wheat, about 2,500 acres was tenanted to other farmers and around 4,000 acres were in lucerne, clover, rye and other pasture grasses. William Browne returned to live in England in 1866 so his sons could attend Eton and military training colleges there. He made regular trips to SA about every second year to oversee his many pastoral properties here. When he died in 1894 he left 100,000 acres of freehold land in SA to his children who all resided here as well as leasehold land. He was an extremely wealthy man. Son Percival took control of Moorak. Before Percival’s death Moorak Estate was partly purchased by the SA government in 1904 for closer settlement when they acquired around 1,000 acres. After Percival’s death a further 6,300 acres was acquired for closer settlement and the remainder of the estate was sold to other farmers. The government paid between £10 and £31 per acre for the land. Percival Browne was highly respected in Mt Gambier and a reserve around the Blue Lake is named after him. The fourth of the crater lakes of Mt Gambier is also named Browne’s Lake after the family but it has been dry for decades. In 1900 Colonel Browne planted the ring of English Oaks around what was to become the oval of the Marist Brothers College.

Moorak.
There is a memorial by the station to William Browne as founder of the Coriadale Sheep Stud. The great Moorak woolshed was demolished in 1939. The Union church which opened in 1920 was used by the Methodists and the Anglicans. It is now a private residence. Moorak hall was opened in 1926. New classrooms were added to the Moorak School in 1928 and the first rooms opened in 1913. The cheese factory in Moorak opened in 1913 as a cooperative and was sold to Farmers Union in 1949. They closed the factory in 1979. Most of the cheese produced at Moorak went to the Melbourne market. The first cheese maker at Moorak was trained at Lauterbach’s cheese factory at Woodside. Moorak was one of a circle of settlements around Mt Gambier that had butter/cheese factories. These towns were: Kongorong; Glencoe East; Glencoe West; Suttontown; Glenburnie; Mil Lel; Yahl; OB Flat; Moorak; Mt Schank; and Eight Mile Creek.

Yahl.
In the 1860s this tiny settlement was a tobacco, hop and potato growing district and it persisted with potatoes up until recent times. Today Yahl is little more than a suburban village of Mt Gambier with a Primary school with approx 120 students. The old government school was erected in 1879. It had a Methodist church built in 1880 which operated as a church until 1977 and it had a large butter factory which had opened in 1888. The butter and cheese factory was taken over by the OB Flat cheese factory in 1939 and the two operated in conjunction with each other. The OB Flat cheese factory closed in 1950 and all production moved to Yahl. The factory finally closed in 1971. The township of Yahl also had a General Store and a Salvation Army Hall which was built in 1919.

Sink Holes: Umpherston Gardens and Cave Gardens.
James Umpherston purchased land near Mt Gambier in 1864 which included a large sink hole or collapsed cavern with a lake in the bottom. He was born in Scotland in 1812 and came to SA in the 1850s with his brother William. William purchased his first land at Yahl in 1859. James Umpherston was a civic minded chap being a local councilor, a parliamentarian in Adelaide for two years and President of the Mt Gambier Agricultural and Horticultural Society for 13 years. When he retired from civic life and farming in 1884 he decided to create a garden in his sinkhole. He beautified it and encouraged visitors and even provided a boat in the lake for boat rides. Access was gained by steps and a path carved into the sinkhole walls. However after he died in 1900 the garden was ignored, became overgrown and was largely forgotten in 1949 when the Woods and Forests Department obtained the land for a new sawmill at Mt Gambier. By then the lake had dried up as the water table had fallen over the decades. In 1976 staff, rather than the government, decided to restore the Umpherstone gardens. The cleared out the rubbish that had been dumped in the sinkhole, restored the path access, trimmed the ivy and replanted the hydrangeas and tree ferns. In 1994 the Woos and Forests Department handed over the land around the sinkhole to the City of Mt Gambier. It was added to the SA Heritage Register in 1995.

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Catholic Convent in Mt Gambier built-in 1907 with oriel windows with rock bases jutting out of the end gables associated with facade.
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Brief reputation for Mt Gambier – the next town of SA after Adelaide (area populace almost 35,000, metropolitan 28,000).
Lieutenant James Grant aboard the woman Nelson sighted and known as Mt Gambier in 1800 after a Lord associated with Admiralty. 1st white man to traverse the location was Stephen Henty of Portland in 1839 when he sighted the Blue Lake. He returned with cattle and stockmen in 1841. He later on reported that had he known the pond and volcano he previously discovered in 1839 was in SA he’d have immediately sent applications for an 1839 Unique research. But Henty thought he was squatting on land in NSW and he wasn’t an official SA settler therefore the federal government bought him from the land in 1844. Thus the first official white settler associated with the south-east plus the Mt Gambier region became Evelyn Sturt, brother to Captain Charles Sturt, whom took up an occupational permit in March 1844 and a property he named Compton simply north regarding the present town. In April 1844 Governor gray and an event of assistants like the Assistant Surveyor General Thomas Burr and artist George French Angas explored the South East naming Robe and performing 1st studies. Evelyn Sturt became the first ever to have an occupational permit to squat while the very first acquisition freehold land near Mt Gambier that he did in 1847- a section of 77 acres whenever 80 miles was typical. He left the district in 1854 offering his freehold land to Hastings Cunningham whom in 1855 subdivided several of this land hence producing town of Gambierton. Town lands had been adjacent to your website for the very first authorities station chosen near understanding now Cave Gardens because of the federal government in 1845. A tiny bush inn additionally operated only at that spot. The initial roads had been known as after early residents eg Evelyn Sturt, Compton, Ferrers and Crouch (built the initial basic shop prior to the town was made) etc. The city grew rapidly due to the mild climate, fertile soils, plentiful water and the increase of settlers from across the border with what would be to end up being the colony of Victoria. Cunningham himself was a fantastic benefactor and donated land the first school in 1856. In 1861 the town title ended up being altered by work of parliament to Mt Gambier. The hundred or so of Mt Gambier (along with three other hundreds) ended up being announced in 1858 and began the better settlement regarding the South East.

Unlike other areas of SA the South East was viewed as paradise for pastoralists together with optimistic pastoralists flocked into the location due to their flocks in 1845. The big works locked up the land and prevented farmers from settling in the area except for the fertile places around Mount Gambier. Here small scale farmers had little properties and expanded potatoes, hops, and later had dairy cows plus growing grain and oats. Land functions in the early 1870s made to split up the top works only partially succeeded when you look at the South East where many section proprietors purchased up their lands freehold. It had been after 1905 ahead of the big pastoral estates had been really split up for farmers and deeper settlement, aside from almost Mt Gambier. Apart from Evelyn Sturt the other early white settlers of south-east in 1845 were Alexander Cameron at Penola, John Robertson at Struan, William Macintosh and George Ormerod at Naracoorte, the Austin brothers at Yallum Park (later John Riddoch), the Arthur brothers (nephews of Governor Arthur of Van Diemen’s Land) at Mt Schanck( today Mt Schank) and also the Leake brothers at Glencoe. Actually in 1845 nineteen leasehold runs had been taken on into the South East with a further thirty works in 1846 and most had a number of 80 miles chapters of freehold land close to the primary homestead. Most had reached the South East from Casterton and Portland in Victoria once the swamps nearby the coast were also difficult to traverse excluding the united states near Robe. Many of the estates had been huge. Evelyn Sturt regarding the Compton/Mt Gambier run had 85 square miles plus their freehold land; Robertson had 135 square miles at Struan; George Glen (and William Vansittart) of Mayurra had 110 square kilometers; the SA business had 159 square kilometers regarding Benara run; the Leake brothers had 194 square miles on Glencoe; Hunter had 56 square miles on Kalangadoo; Neil Ebony of Noorat Victoria had 45 square kilometers on Kongorong run and 101 square miles at Port MacDonnell plus the Arthur brothers had a huge run at Mt Schanck. By 1851 very nearly 5,000 square kilometers associated with South East had been occupied by Occupational License and most licenses were transformed into 14 year leases because 12 months. A third of most leasehold land in SA had been taken on when you look at the south-east because of its greater rain and suitability for pastoralism and a third of sheep in the colony were inside south-east. When Hundreds had been announced in south-east within the late 1850s and early 1860s pastoralists bought within the land. In a single case John Riddoch of Yallum Park possessed the entire Hundred of Monbulla. Another pastoralist W. Clarke who had purchased Mt Schancke section from Arthur brothers in 1861 possessed SA land respected at £1.25 million when he died in 1874 and then he had 120,000 acres freehold in Victoria, 75,000 acres freehold in SA( Mt Schank) and 50,000 acres freehold in every one of NSW and Tasmania! Mt Schanck was altered in Schank in 1917 when German place-names in SA had been changed as Schank without having the 2nd “c” is a vintage English name!

Into the 1850s Mt Gambier had been a shanty village as the South East was an area of huge pastoral properties and small agricultural farming and incredibly reasonable populace numbers. It had been not even close to Adelaide and remote plus it was only after the Princeland event in 1862 because of the risk of feasible secession to a different declare that the Adelaide government begun to purchase the South East and extremely encourage settlement indeed there. The Border Watch magazine was established in 1861, the Mt Gambier resort started in 1862 therefore the Mt Gambier Council was formed in 1863.By the first 1860s Mt Gambier had virtually 1,000 residents which makes it among the biggest cities in SA following the copper mining centres of Burra, Kadina and Moonta. By the 1881 SA census Mt Gambier had 2,500 residents rendering it the biggest city away from Adelaide. In 1865 four iconic historical buildings were erected-the Courthouse, the Gaol, Christ Church Anglican additionally the Post Office and Telegraph Station. The flourmill which later on became the Oat Mill started in 1867 as wheat farmers had now adopted places around the Mount. Mt Gambier was developing into a fine successful hunting city with churches, stores, banks, accommodations and fine residences. Within the 1870s the rural population increased significantly with tenant potato farmers on Browne’s Moorak property and intensive hop growing in many localities such Yahl and OB Flat and Glenburnie an such like. additionally in 1876 the very first commercial forestry had been begun on behest of George Goyder. A tree nursery ended up being set up from the edge of Leg of Mutton Lake in 1876 on a site chosen by George Goyder himself. A stone cottage for the first nurseryman Charles Beale ended up being constructed plus it survived until demolished in 1969 nevertheless nursery closed in 1929. The nursery propagated eucalypts, Oak, Elm, Ash, Sycamore, and united states pines. Pinus radiata was first cultivated at Leg of Mutton Lake and was being dispersed to many other areas by 1878. Pinus canariensis was also grown when you look at the 1880s. Pinus radiata is the most generally grown commercial forest tree in SA and Australian Continent. In addition in 1870s 1st medical center was erected and Dr Wehl, the town’s medical practitioner for quite some time was in residence.

Into the mid 1880s the very first railway line ended up being set due to the fact railway outlines pressed from Mt Gambier to Naracoorte. The service to Naracoorte started in 1887 and linked on using range to Bordertown and Adelaide. By 1897 a railway connected Mt Gambier to Millicent therefore the interface at Beachport. The railway line throughout the border to Heywood and Melbourne had not been finished until 1917 as SA federal government resisted a line that will take products and individuals from Mt Gambier to Port Melbourne in the place of to Port Adelaide. Mt Gambier railroad station was once a hive of activity with day-to-day trains to Adelaide and an overnight sleeper services many times weekly. Traveler trains to Mt Gambier from Adelaide ended in 1990 after Australian nationwide overran the SA railway community. Cargo solutions stopped in 1995 and railway line and station was formally shut. The railyards and other structures had been cleared in 2013.

The Buandik Aboriginal Men And Women.
The Buandik people are commemorated in a town street but by little else. Yet they were resistant and determined fighters opposed to the white settlement associated with the South East. Their particular occupation of Mt Gambier district extends returning to around 20,000+ many years but their dated profession from archaeological web sites extends back to about 11,000 many years using their fables and legends including tales about volcanic activity at Mt Gambier. The past volcanic explosions had been about 4,000 years back. Both Mt Schank and Mt Gambier were important locations towards Buandik for ceremonies, shopping, use of liquid and rock apply making. A government report in 1867 noted the Buandik individuals in federal government attention were few in quantity mainly sickly and elderly. The younger men and women had apparently relocated out to the white community. But back in the 1840s the Buandik were a force to-be reckoned with. There are no typical stories of Aboriginal massacres but white pastoralists definitely retaliated whenever sheep had been taken. On Mt Schank section the Buandik were so problematic that shepherds will never head out to look after sheep alone as well as the Arthur brothers provided this trouble because their reason behind them selling the run in 1845. In 1845 the government established a police section at Mt Gambier, that the Protector of Aboriginals visited, to ensure pastoralists did not massacre the Buandik.

William Vansittart and Vansittart Park.
Vansittart Park has been a focus of Mt Gambier since 1884 for tasks such as for instance family picnics, governmental rallies and speeches, bike race, musical organization rotunda concerts, bowling vegetables, recreation egg-shaped, grandstand (1927) and Anzac memorial solutions. But who was simply William Vansittart? He had been an Anglican reverend from England (Vansittart is a noble and political Anglo-Irish household when you look at the UK) whom found its way to SA in 1847 as a young bachelor. He had been never ever licensed as a minister in SA but he created their interests for making cash and horse race here. He blended with the elite of Adelaide like Sir Samuel Davenport, the Governor and ended up being a pal of Hurtle Fisher in which he had been Master regarding the Hounds. In 1850 he bought 35 miles at Beaumont in which he built Tower House and 80 acres at Mt Gambier. He imported a thoroughbred horse from Hobart called Lucifer. Ironic that a minister of faith could have a horse called Lucifer! Their horses raced in Adelaide, Salisbury, Gawler, Brighton and Clare along with Mt Gambier and Penola. In 1851 he also overran the 110 square mile 14 12 months rent of Mayurra run with George Glen of Millicent. In 1852 he gone back to England for a short while as well as on his return he bought much more freehold land bringing his property to around 800 miles. Soon after in 1854 his horse shied, he was thrown against a tree and died of head injuries but he passed away intestate with an estate worth over £10,000. Glen purchased down their share of Mayurra; the Beaumont home and property had been sold in 1867 as were his race horses and his sibling Captain Spencer Vansittart in the course of time inherited the Mt Gambier property. Prior to William’s wants 115 acres were reserve to provide earnings for a scholarship for boarders at St Peters Boys university which took place from 1859. Later in 1883 Spencer Vansittart offered 20 miles towards the Mt Gambier Council for a memorial playground at the “nominal” amount of £400 which scarcely appears “nominal”. The Council lifted a loan and bought the land therefore the playground remains enjoyed because of the town’s residents and visitors. Captain Spencer’s widow offered the last bundle of 300 miles of land in 1912 therefore closing the Vansittart links with Mt Gambier. The Vansittart grant continues to be available for boarders from the South East and is operated by a small grouping of College trustees.

Some historical structures in Mt Gambier and a town stroll.
Your town walk is actually directly ahead along Penola path to the Mount itself which becomes Bay Road( the bay are at Port MacDonnell) as soon as you cross Commercial Street which is the principal Street. You will find just a few diversions left while you face the Mount. The advisor will gather you within Mount end associated with stroll close to the Old Courthouse.

In the event that you good walker take a look at fine houses in Jardine Street at numbers 1, 7, 9, 11, 12, 17 and 22. They range between cottages to Gothic and turreted mansions like the residence of Jens the hotelier. This detour will include another 10 minutes to the walk in the event that you elect to do it.

1.Catholic Covent. Sisters of Mercy setup a convent school in 1880. This wonderful convent had not been built until 1908 in local dolomite rock & limestone quoins. Note the good rock gables with small markets for statuary, the well proportioned curved colonnades and upstairs oriel house windows – the projecting bay windows with stone supports. This is certainly one of many best structures in Mt Gambier. The convent closed-in 1986. Today Auspine.

2.Wesleyan Methodist Church Hall/Sunday Class. Next door is green dolomite neo-classical style Wesleyan Methodist sunday-school Hall. Hundreds of young ones attended sunday-school in those times. It started in 1904. It is now commercial offices. (If you’d like to walk up Wyatt Street near the sunday-school and switch appropriate at 2nd road which can be at Gray you will observe the old two storey Methodist Manse at 101 Gray St. It absolutely was built-in 1868 and marketed 1941. While you develop into Gray Street the Salvation Army Hall is in your remaining. Allow ten minutes for this detour before time for Penola path).

3.Methodist Church today Liberty Church. A Gothic huge chapel built in 1862 because of the Wesleyans. Established by minister from Portland. Improvements made 1877 with new entry. The old lecture hall and Sunday School had been beneath the church. Note the buttress on sides and edges. Became Uniting Church 1977 and sealed 1994 whenever services relocated to St Andrews Presbyterian Church. Behind the chapel (walk through the car playground) in Colhurst Put is LLandovery two storey mansion today a B&B. Built 1878 for a flour and oat miller who had his mill in Percy Street.

4.St Paul’s Catholic Church. This impressive Gothic church with huge tower with crenulations was established in 1884 and will also be open these days. There are 1966 extensions towards back from it. The Presbytery is behind the church facing Alexander St. it absolutely was built in 1901 whenever chapel ended up being without any creating financial obligation. The very first thatched bush chapel ended up being integrated another area in 1855. From 1857 the priest was Father Julian Tenison Woods, explorer, scholastic, horseman an such like. An extra chapel launched in 1861 in Sturt St and is today demolished. It closed in 1885 as this chapel opened. The bells originated from Dublin. The chapel fence and gates built 1936.

5.The Mount Gambier Club. Next door may be the Club. It had been built in 1904 for a local distiller as chambers for rent. The wealthy pastoralists of South East formed an exclusive males just club in 1913 and possesses used the top of floor of Engelbrecht’s chambers from the time. They purchased the whole building in 1920. The Club is a beautifully proportioned traditional design building with pediments, balustrades, screen entablature, and perfect balance. Look-down the edges and you can notice it is made of Mt Gambier limestone obstructs.

6.Mt Gambier Caledonian Hall. Across the street is the Scots Club. Its prominence signifies the Scottish links of several Gambier residents. The hallway ended up being exposed in 1914 and established by the previous Prime Minister Sir George Reid, another Scot. It offers ancient features but is rather ugly and neglected these days. It is currently a night club.

7.The Trustees Building. Next to the Caledonian is the Trustee Building erected in 1958. Its blue and bone tissue tiled façade is typical of 1950s structure the rectangular look has actually a slight ancient appearance about it. It really is in the SA history Register. Accountants now occupy it.

8.Turn left into Percy Street and complement right here beyond KFC for just one city block to another location place the Oatmills (today a coffee shop and cinemas). Milling and brewing were two of Mt Gambier’s prime nineteenth century industries. The 4 storey complex right here was started in 1867 for Welsh Thomas Williams whom eventually had five flour mills. His mill had been known as Commercial Flourmills. A new owner converted the mill from grain milling to oat milling. A unique oatmill was integrated 1901 and operated until 1975 creating Scottish porridge oats. The mill has already been restored with café, stores and cinemas. Go back to Penola Rd.

9. Mt Gambier Hotel. No resort may have a more remarkable origin as compared to Mt Gambier. An African American John Byng built a weatherboard resort near within 1847. The third licensee Alexander Mitchell, another Scot, took it over and moved the resort to the part web site in 1862 as an extraordinary two storey resort which was strange at that moment. The western wing had been included in 1883 and balconies attached in 1902.

10.Cross towards Mount using the traffic lights after that turn kept into Commercial Street East.

11.Mt Gambier Town Hall. Marked once the Riddoch Gallery this good Venetian Gothic design building is impressive using its coloured rock work contrasting well with cement rendered horizontal outlines and straight panels around doors and windows. The upper windows are mullioned with rock divisions involving the glass. It was built in 1882 using time clock tower added in 1883 after a donation. The first Council conference was at 1863 with Dr Wehl as president held in a hotel. Later on the Council hired an area on Foresters Hall and they purchased this website in 1868 with a weatherboard space. This is made use of until 1882.

12.Mt Gambier old Institute. The Literary Institute ended up being formed in 1862 and a basis stone laid for a reading room/hall in 1868 by John Riddoch. The single storey institute unsealed in 1869. The upper floor was added in 1887, so that it would match the brand new Town Hall. Its built in the same design- Venetian Romanesque as windows and rounded and never curved much like a gothic structure.

13.Captain Gardiner Memorial Fountain 1884. The water fountain had been provided by Captain Robert Gardiner the grandfather of Sir Robert Helpman (their name had been initially Helpmann). The water feature was manufactured in Melbourne .Gardiner has also been a benefactor of St Andrew’s Presbyterian -he donated the pipe organ in 1885.

14.Jens Hotel. After demolishing an earlier resort (the 1847 hotel of John Byng) Johannes Jens had 1st portion of their Jens Hotel built on this part in 1884. An almost identical eastern wing ended up being erected in 1904 therefore the Spanish Art Deco part in 1927. Turn the following and get behind the city hallway towards the Cave Gardens.

15.Cave Gardens. This area ended up being an early water-supply. A garden was made in 1893 and then improved and reconstructed in 1925. This sink hole has already been enhanced once more which is lit through the night.

16.Post Workplace. This crucial communications center had been erected in 1865 as a telegraph office/post company. This will be till one of many finest structures in Mt Gambier and an uncommon exemplory instance of the Georgian style for city. . The solitary storey part wings were included in 1906 in a sympathetic design. It’s still the main city post-office.

17.Norris Department Building. This superb Italianate building was completed in 1900 as chambers for entrepreneurs. Owner ended up being Alexander Norris whom died in 1917. The façade is red dolomite with cement quoins and uncommon lined design work over the windows and home each included within a triangular classical pediment.

18.Farmers Union Building. Another ancient design building built if this design ended up being out-of-fashion in 1914.Erected for Farmers Union as a sizable two storey building. This has none for the grace regarding the Norris building next-door. FU ended up being formed in 1888 in Jamestown by Thomas Mitchell, a Scot yet others to deliver inexpensive rates for grains, seeds and superphosphate in the first 1900s they branched into products for dairy farmers and the advertising of dairy food. The Mt Gambier region had a good amount of milk farmers. It is now had by a Japanese organization Kirin however it nonetheless markets its chocolate milk products as Farmers Union. Upper flooring features dual pilasters (flattened pillars) with top volutes but little other design.

19.Savings Bank Building regarding the part. The former Savings Bank in Gothic style is strange for commercial premises in Mt Gambier. It really is made of weathered neighborhood limestone and ended up being built-in 1906. Note different slice rock the fundamentals, simulated turrets regarding sides by the doorway to-break the façade appearance and the rock range above the lower window which in turn divides the façade into equal thirds.

20.Macs Hotel. This resort had been built in 1864 and it is largely unchanged except your top flooring had been added in 1881. The very first licensee was a Scot named John MacDonald. The double veranda supports are elegant.

21.Roller flourmill now a decorated hardware store. Built 1885 as a steam flourmill in pink dolomite. Note the tiny 12 paned house windows emerge bigger indented niches in wall space regarding the north wall surface. (Sturt St.)

22.Christ Church Anglican Church and hallway. Dr Browne of Moorak donated half the funds for the building of Christ Church in red dolomite sufficient reason for a unique gabled tower. Church and tower finished in 1866. Adjacent may be the Jubilee Hall built in 1915, destroyed by fire in 1951, and rebuilt identical in weathered neighborhood limestone blocks using the initial basis stone-still positioned. This has the solitary Gothic screen in the pub facing gable and a crenulated square tower. Adjoining it is the 1869 Sunday School because of the thin double-pointed Gothic windows. It was extended in 1892. The lychgate is more present as a memorial to a regular chapel goer, Margaret French whom died in 1927.

23.The old railroad place just visible over the train lines to your right. Initial rail line was to Beachport in 1879 and 2nd to Naracoorte (therefore to Adelaide) in 1887. Portland and Melbourne range started 1917. A spur range to Glencoe ended up being completed in 1904. Very first place ended up being erected in 1879. It was demolished the erection regarding the present section in 1918 that will be similar in design to those who work in Tailem Bend, Bordertown, Moonta etc. Bluebird railway automobiles started in the Mt Gambier run-in 1953 if the old 3’6” gauge line to Wolseley had been changed into 5’3”. The past traveler service to Adelaide completed in 1990 plus the section closed for cargo in 1995. The railyards were cleared in 2013 and also the future of the station is bleak. The rail lines to Beachport and Glencoe closed in 1956/57.

24.The Old Courthouse, 42 Bay Rd. It has a great reasonable wall surface suitable for sitting on. This smartly designed Georgian design Courthouse started in 1865 therefore the likewise fashioned side wings had been included in 1877. The leading veranda, which will be perhaps not Georgian however you like, was added in 1880. In 1975 the Courthouse had been issued into nationwide Trust for a museum. The adjoining new Courthouse started in 1975 as well. Note the “blind” house windows into the façade nevertheless same curved Georgian shaped, 16 paned windows in the edges.

The Blue Lake, Mt Schank and Volcanoes.
The jewel inside top of Mt Gambier is undoubtedly the volcanic cone, the crater lakes particularly the Blue Lake and surrounding Botanic Gardens and parklands. The Botanic outdoors on north side was authorized in 1872 but nothing occurred about plantings and treatment until 1882. 1st enjoyment roadway through saddle between the Blue Lake as well as the Valley Lake was created in 1861 as a more direct roadway into the then recently produced intercontinental interface named Port MacDonnell. For this reason the street is called the Bay roadway. Surveyor General George Goyder explored the lake surrounds himself in 1876 as he picked the website when it comes to government tree nursery. Later the us government established initial sawmill regarding the side of the crater reserve near Moorak homestead during the early 1920s. The Centenary Tower was started in 1900 to celebrate the centenary of Captain Grant sighting Mt Gambier. It took a long period to accomplish and had been exposed because of the Chief Justice of SA Sir Samuel Way in 1907 however it ended up being completed in 1904. The complete complex is a maar geomorphological development which began during a volcanic era about 28,000 years back in an additional phase of volcanic activity 4,000 to 6,000 years ago the cones and ponds of Mt Gambier were produced combined with cones of Mt Schank and Mt Burr near Millicent. Mt Gambier was the most recent volcanic surge in Australian Continent. The crater lakes tend to be: Blue Lake, Valley Lake, leg-of-mutton Lake and Browne’s Lake (dried out). The Blue Lake is related on aquifers beneath the deep levels of limestone which underlay the complete South East. Blue Lake is approximately 72 metres deep many of water on it is believed to-be about 500 yrs . old but it is blended with rainfall runoff each year and. The Lake offers the water-supply for Mt Gambier. Deep inside pond tend to be types of the earliest lifestyle organisms on the planet- stromatalites. The pond changes colour from grey to brilliant azure each November and reverts in after April. The alteration in color is related to the career associated with the sunshine and reflected light from suspended particles in lake which reflect blue-green light instead of brown grey light. Subsequently the suspended matter only takes place because the water near the area rises in temperature in the spring and it is this which in turn causes the particles to precipitate out of the liquid. The precipitated matter settles in the bottom regarding the lake prepared for a unique period the next spring. Like Blue Lake different sink holes in area have linkages towards the underlying aquifer through the layers of limestone too plus they include Cave Gardens, Umpherstone, Piccaninni Ponds, an such like.

Moorak Station and Tenison Woods University.
Moorak place as initially known as Mount Gambier facility set up by George Glen in the 1840s. The leasehold had been later bought out by David energy who subsequently offered it to Fisher and Rochford whom consequently offered the property as freehold into the Scottish Dr William Browne who’d founded Booborowie run with his sibling in 1843 north of Burra. The Browne brothers mixed their particular partnership around 1865 and John decided to go to live at Buckland Park and William used residence at Moorak. William had purchased Moorak Station in 1862 and built the grand Moorak homestead in impressive Georgian design onto an inferior household there. William died in 1894 therefore the Moorak home passed to their boy Colonel Percival Browne who was simply to vanish on the ill-fated voyage of this brand new steamer the Waratah in 1909 which vanished during a storm off Durban, South Africa. Also thereon voyage had been Mrs. Agnes Hay (nee Gosse) of Mt Breckan Victor Harbor and Linden Park home Adelaide plus some 200 various other bad souls. Around 1909 the Moorak facility ended up being subdivided for deeper settlement and in the 1920s the Marist Brothers purchased the homestead with some land with their and monastery and started the Marist Brothers Agricultural university for boys in 1931. That college subsequently combined because of the Mater Christi university in 1972 to be Tenison university. (Mater Christi College was in fact formed in 1952 because of the merger associated with the St Josephs Convent class (1880) and St Peters Parish class nevertheless the primary part of St Peters smashed away in 1969 from Mater Christi College and formed an independent St Peters main class. This main school subsequently joined with Tenison College in 2001 to create Tenison Woods university!) The College title commemorates the work of dad Julian Tenison Woods who arrived in Mt Gambier in 1857 to work in Penola and Mt Gambier. It absolutely was he just who encouraged Mary MacKillop to just take her vows and establish her Sisters of St Joseph.

Dr Browne’s supervisor of Moorak home in 1868 introduced hops as a viable crop within the South East and enormous volumes had been grown for about two decades. Various other very early experimental crops grown included tobacco, cotton fiber and flax. Dr Browne and Moorak had been also important in the potato industry. Dr Browne leased around 830 miles to 20 renters for the express function of developing potatoes. He had been keen to emulate the Uk aristocracy although he had been an excellent Scot with being a manorial design landlord with tenant farmers. Potatoes were in addition cultivated from early many years at Yahl, OB Flat and Compton near Mt Gambier. The potatoes had been carted down to Port MacDonnell and sent to Adelaide for customers. As one of the major wool manufacturers of Australian Continent William Browne added around 1 / 2 of the resources the erection of Christ Church Anglican in Mt Gambier. The Moorak property contained around 11,000 acres of the very most fertile volcanic earth in SA with another 2,000 acres in a nearby property, German Creek near Carpenter’s Rocks. Dr Browne ran Silky Lincolns on Moorak for their wool as Merinos failed to fare really in the moist South East pastures. About 2,000 miles was in wheat, about 2,500 miles was tenanted to other farmers and around 4,000 acres had been in lucerne, clover, rye along with other pasture grasses. William Browne gone back to live-in England in 1866 so their sons could go to Eton and army education universities there. He made regular trips to SA about every 2nd 12 months to oversee their numerous pastoral properties right here. When he died in 1894 he left 100,000 miles of freehold land in SA to his children just who all resided right here plus leasehold land. He had been an exceptionally affluent man. Child Percival took control over Moorak. Before Percival’s death Moorak home was partly purchased because of the SA federal government in 1904 for closer settlement when they obtained around 1,000 miles. After Percival’s death a further 6,300 miles was obtained for deeper settlement plus the rest associated with property was sold to other farmers. The us government paid between £10 and £31 per acre the land. Percival Browne ended up being very respected in Mt Gambier and a reserve round the Blue Lake is termed after him. The 4th of this crater lakes of Mt Gambier can be called Browne’s Lake following the household however it has been dry for decades. In 1900 Colonel Browne planted the band of English Oaks around what was to become the egg-shaped associated with Marist Brothers College.

Moorak.
There was a memorial because of the section to William Browne as founder of this Coriadale Sheep Stud. The fantastic Moorak woolshed ended up being demolished in 1939. The Union chapel which unsealed in 1920 had been utilized by the Methodists plus the Anglicans. It is currently a private residence. Moorak hallway was opened in 1926. Brand new classrooms were added to the Moorak class in 1928 as well as the very first rooms established in 1913. The cheese factory in Moorak opened in 1913 as a cooperative and had been sold to Farmers Union in 1949. They closed the factory in 1979. The majority of the cheese created at Moorak went to the Melbourne marketplace. The very first mozzarella cheese manufacturer at Moorak ended up being trained at Lauterbach’s mozzarella cheese factory at Woodside. Moorak had been among a circle of settlements around Mt Gambier which had butter/cheese industrial facilities. These cities were: Kongorong; Glencoe East; Glencoe West; Suttontown; Glenburnie; Mil Lel; Yahl; OB Flat; Moorak; Mt Schank; and Eight Mile Creek.

Yahl.
Inside 1860s this small settlement ended up being a cigarette, hop and potato developing region therefore persisted with potatoes up to recent times. These days Yahl is bit more than a suburban village of Mt Gambier with a Primary college with approx 120 pupils. The old federal government school ended up being erected in 1879. It had a Methodist church built-in 1880 which operated as a church until 1977 therefore had a big butter factory which had opened in 1888. The butter and cheese factory ended up being taken over because of the OB Flat cheese factory in 1939 in addition to two operated together with one another. The OB Flat mozzarella cheese factory closed in 1950 and all sorts of production relocated to Yahl. The factory finally closed-in 1971. The township of Yahl additionally had a General Store and a Salvation Army Hall which was built-in 1919.

Sink Holes: Umpherston Gardens and Cave Gardens.
James Umpherston bought land near Mt Gambier in 1864 which included a large sink-hole or collapsed cavern with a lake into the bottom. He was produced in Scotland in 1812 and came to SA in the 1850s together with his brother William. William purchased his first land at Yahl in 1859. James Umpherston ended up being a civic minded chap being a local councilor, a parliamentarian in Adelaide for 2 years and President associated with Mt Gambier Agricultural and Horticultural Society for 13 many years. When he retired from civic life and agriculture in 1884 he made a decision to produce a garden in his sinkhole. He beautified it and encouraged site visitors as well as offered a boat inside lake for watercraft trips. Access was attained by actions and a path carved into the sinkhole wall space. But after he passed away in 1900 the garden had been ignored, became overgrown and ended up being largely forgotten in 1949 whenever Woods and woodlands division received the land for an innovative new sawmill at Mt Gambier. At that time the lake had dried-up once the water table had dropped throughout the decades. In 1976 staff, as opposed to the government, made a decision to restore the Umpherstone landscapes. The eliminated out the rubbish that had been dumped inside sinkhole, restored the road accessibility, trimmed the ivy and replanted the hydrangeas and tree ferns. In 1994 the Woos and Forests Department handed over the land around the sinkhole into the City of Mt Gambier. It was included with the SA history Register in 1995.

Lisbon Treaty Referendum Venture – 2009
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After 36 several years of account many individuals use the eu for given. The EU is the foremost power for serenity and development into the reputation for both this area together with continent overall. Its record of achievement is unmatched – but it stays as vital that you our future since it has been to your last.

Ireland needs Europe to secure personal development
• In a time when worldwide competitors might have many negative edges, just through the typical principles and security associated with EU can we secure equality and employee security and economic growth – European countries may be the best way to get rid of a worldwide ‘race towards the bottom’.

Ireland needs Europe for international Investment and work
• Ireland’s attractiveness as a destination for foreign investment stems right from our positive method of EU account, which offers both usage of 500 million consumers and an actual wedding with areas of the Union.
• This investment sustains hundreds of thousands of Irish jobs.
• Ireland has actually drawn a vastly disproportionate share of foreign direct investment, specially from US organizations. By 2007 the worthiness of FDI in Ireland through the United States alone had been really worth €20 billion.

Ireland requires Europe for Marketplace Access
• Ireland is considered the most export dependant country in EU. Two away from three jobs in Ireland be determined by exports.
• As a part associated with EU, Ireland has immediate access to 500 million customers.
• ahead of joining the EEC neighborhood in 1973, Britain was the main location for Irish exports. Today 63per cent of most our exports go to the EU.

Ireland requires European countries for banking assistance
• The liquidity offered because of the European Central Bank to Irish financial institutions has been vital throughout the credit crunch.
• 15percent associated with the loans provided by the ECB toward European financial industry went to Irish-based institutions.

Ireland requires the Euro
• Ireland has actually attained considerably from having a number one international currency, the Euro.
• As a member of the Eurzone, the European Central Bank has guaranteed that our interest levels are at an all-time low.

Ireland needs Europe to contend with appearing powers
• Asia and Asia are now actually major players within the international economic climate. Becoming part of the EU shields united states and we can better compete with these economies.

Ireland requires European countries to tackle the Climate crisis
• No nation can deal with the climate disaster on it’s own and, with all the brand-new conditions of Lisbon Treaty, the EU takes the lead role in helping all nations find a way forward to both provide financial development and protect the environment.

Ireland needs European Countries for Energy Security
• Over modern times the threats to Europe’s power safety became clear – together with requirement for collective activity is now daunting.
• In the event that Lisbon Treaty is ratified, the EU can simply take a more active part in guaranteeing power security for Ireland and all sorts of user says.

During the referendum campaign we are going to frequently upgrade this part to react to false statements in regards to the Treaty.

Fiction: Lisbon will pave the way to TAX HARMONISATION
Ireland features guaranteed a legal guarantee that it will stay static in control of a unique tax prices.

Fiction: Lisbon will trigger Ireland’s MILITARISATION
Ireland has actually secured a legal guarantee that its conventional policy of army neutrality will never be impacted in any way. Ireland will retain complete control over its defence and security involvements. There will be no European military with no conscription. Moreover, Ireland features a triple lock system which requires the explicit endorsement associated with Dáil, the Seanad plus the UN for Irish troops becoming implemented. There may be no simply no question that Ireland’s participation in just about any peacekeeping procedure is completely at its discretion.

Fiction: Lisbon will erode WORKERS’ LEGAL RIGHTS
Indeed, the Lisbon Treaty will enhance employees’ rights giving legal condition to your Charter of Fundamental Rights. There are several tips in the Charter to enhance employees’ rights .In inclusion all EU people recently endorsed a Solemn Declaration on Workers’ liberties and Social Policy, staff Rights. EU Membership has actually changed workers’ rights in Ireland as it calls for that people adhere to ab muscles highest standards in areas such equal pay, maternity keep and security in the workplace.

Fiction: Our company is voting from the very same package as last year
Four things have actually altered since this past year causeing this to be an alternate bundle. Firstly, we will keep a permanent Commissioner. Secondly, we now have an appropriate guarantee that protections within constitution regarding to life, education, therefore the family members will not be affected at all because of the Treaty. Thirdly, we a guarantee that Lisbon modifications nothing in the area of taxation. Fourthly, we now have a warranty that Ireland’s standard plan of army neutrality will never be affected. Therefore, the us government today has actually a basis to attend the Irish people and ask them once more with their endorsement for Ireland to ratify the Treaty.

Fiction: Lisbon will pave how you can ABORTION
Ireland has guaranteed an appropriate guarantee that it’ll keep control over sensitive and painful moral issues, regarding the protection for the right to life, the household and education. Actually, Ireland’s domestic position is shielded when you look at the EU framework by the Maastricht Protocol (1992) regarding the to lifetime of the unborn. The only method abortion can come into this country is when the Irish vote for it in a national referendum. For 17 many years the EU features completely respected our sovereignty on this issue and this continues to achieve this.

Fiction: The GUARANTEES tend to be WORTHLESS
The guarantees come to be legitimately binding a single day the Treaty enters into power. They’ll be contained in a Protocol to-be attached to the EU Treaties at the time of another accession treaty. In the reputation for understanding these days known as the EU, the Union has proven that it totally honours these commitments.

Fiction: Lisbon will generate a EU SUPER STATE
The EU is a union of 27 democratic states which have easily plumped for to get results collectively. The treaty improves the democratic nature of EU by providing a bigger say to nationwide parliaments in addition to European Parliament.

How can consumer loan rates go down?

How can consumer loan rates go down?

Credit scores are upon us. Through the efforts of the Credit Information Corporation, we’ll soon see an exhaustive list of our credit and financial activities. But what brought about this need and why was the CIC established?

Sweet Consumer Loan Prices pictures

Sweet Consumer Loan Prices pictures

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Mt Gambier. Christ Church Anglican Mt Gambier Margaret French Memorial lych-gate 1927.
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Brief History of Mt Gambier – the next town of SA after Adelaide (region populace almost 35,000, metropolitan 28,000).
Lieutenant James Grant aboard the Lady Nelson sighted and called Mt Gambier in 1800 after a Lord associated with Admiralty. The very first white man to traverse the location had been Stephen Henty of Portland in 1839 as he sighted the Blue Lake. He came back with cattle and stockmen in 1841. He later on reported that had he understood the lake and volcano he had found in 1839 was in SA he would have straight away requested an 1839 Special research. But Henty believed he was squatting on land in NSW in which he wasn’t an official SA settler therefore the federal government bought him from the land in 1844. Therefore the very first formal white settler of this South East while the Mt Gambier area became Evelyn Sturt, cousin to Captain Charles Sturt, whom took up an occupational license in March 1844 and home he called Compton simply north of present city. In April 1844 Governor gray and a celebration of assistants including the Assistant Surveyor General Thomas Burr and singer George French Angas explored the south-east naming Robe and doing initial surveys. Evelyn Sturt became the first to ever have an occupational permit to squat while the very first buy freehold land near Mt Gambier which he did in 1847- a section of 77 miles when 80 acres was typical. He left the region in 1854 attempting to sell his freehold land to Hastings Cunningham just who in 1855 subdivided a few of this land therefore producing town of Gambierton. The town places had been right beside the website of the very first authorities section selected near understanding now Cave Gardens by the government in 1845. A little bush inn in addition operated at this area. The initial roads were known as after very early locals particularly Evelyn Sturt, Compton, Ferrers and Crouch (built the very first general shop ahead of the town was created) etc. The town expanded rapidly because of the moderate weather, fertile grounds, plentiful liquid while the influx of settlers from across the border with what would be to end up being the colony of Victoria. Cunningham himself had been a great benefactor and donated land the very first college in 1856. In 1861 town title ended up being changed by act of parliament to Mt Gambier. The hundred or so of Mt Gambier (with three other hundreds) had been announced in 1858 and began the closer settlement regarding the south-east.

Unlike areas of SA the South East was regarded as paradise for pastoralists while the positive pastoralists flocked towards the area using their flocks in 1845. The big works locked up the land and stopped farmers from deciding in the region excluding the fertile lands around Mount Gambier. Right here small scale farmers had little properties and expanded potatoes, hops, and later had milk cows as well as growing wheat and oats. Land functions during the early 1870s built to break-up the big runs only partly been successful within the South East where many section proprietors bought up their particular places freehold. It had been after 1905 ahead of the huge pastoral properties were actually split up for farmers and better settlement, excluding near Mt Gambier. Besides Evelyn Sturt another early white settlers of the South East in 1845 were Alexander Cameron at Penola, John Robertson at Struan, William Macintosh and George Ormerod at Naracoorte, the Austin brothers at Yallum Park (later John Riddoch), the Arthur brothers (nephews of Governor Arthur of Van Diemen’s Land) at Mt Schanck( today Mt Schank) plus the Leake brothers at Glencoe. In reality in 1845 nineteen leasehold runs were adopted when you look at the south-east with another thirty runs in 1846 & most had a number of 80 miles chapters of freehold land near the main homestead. Many had surely got to the South East from Casterton and Portland in Victoria due to the fact swamps near the coastline were also difficult to traverse except for the country near Robe. A number of the estates had been huge. Evelyn Sturt on the Compton/Mt Gambier run had 85 square kilometers along with their freehold land; Robertson had 135 square miles at Struan; George Glen (and William Vansittart) of Mayurra had 110 square kilometers; the SA business had 159 square miles on the Benara run; the Leake brothers had 194 square miles on Glencoe; Hunter had 56 square kilometers on Kalangadoo; Neil Black of Noorat Victoria had 45 square kilometers on Kongorong run and 101 square kilometers at Port MacDonnell and Arthur brothers had a large run at Mt Schanck. By 1851 nearly 5,000 square miles associated with the South East had been occupied by Occupational License and a lot of licenses had been changed into 14 year leases in that year. A third of all leasehold land in SA was taken on in the south-east because of its higher rainfall and suitability for pastoralism and a third of sheep within the colony were in the south-east. Whenever Hundreds had been declared when you look at the south-east in the belated 1850s and early 1860s pastoralists purchased within the land. In a single case John Riddoch of Yallum Park owned the whole Hundred of Monbulla. Another pastoralist W. Clarke that has bought Mt Schancke station through the Arthur brothers in 1861 had SA land valued at £1.25 million as he died in 1874 in which he had 120,000 acres freehold in Victoria, 75,000 miles freehold in SA( Mt Schank) and 50,000 acres freehold in each of NSW and Tasmania! Mt Schanck had been changed in Schank in 1917 when German place names in SA were altered as Schank without having the second “c” is an old English title!

Within the 1850s Mt Gambier ended up being a shanty village since the South East ended up being an area of huge pastoral properties and small agricultural agriculture and extremely reduced population figures. It absolutely was definately not Adelaide and remote therefore was just after the Princeland episode in 1862 with the risk of feasible secession to a new suggest that the Adelaide federal government began to invest in the South East and extremely encourage settlement there. The Border Check out newspaper had been created in 1861, the Mt Gambier Hotel launched in 1862 while the Mt Gambier Council ended up being formed in 1863.By the early 1860s Mt Gambier had almost 1,000 residents which makes it one of several largest cities in SA following the copper mining centers of Burra, Kadina and Moonta. By the 1881 SA census Mt Gambier had 2,500 residents rendering it the greatest city away from Adelaide. In 1865 four iconic historical buildings were erected-the Courthouse, the Gaol, Christ Church Anglican and postoffice and Telegraph facility. The flourmill which later on became the Oat Mill exposed in 1867 as grain farmers had now adopted places around the Mount. Mt Gambier was growing into an excellent successful looking town with churches, shops, finance companies, hotels and good residences. Into the 1870s the rural populace increased considerably with tenant potato farmers on Browne’s Moorak property and intensive jump developing in many localities such as Yahl and OB Flat and Glenburnie etc. additionally in 1876 1st commercial forestry had been begun within behest of George Goyder. A tree nursery ended up being established regarding the side of Leg of Mutton Lake in 1876 on a website selected by George Goyder himself. A stone cottage for very first nurseryman Charles Beale ended up being constructed therefore survived until demolished in 1969 nevertheless nursery closed-in 1929. The nursery propagated eucalypts, Oak, Elm, Ash, Sycamore, and united states pines. Pinus radiata was grown at Leg of Mutton Lake and was being dispersed with other places by 1878. Pinus canariensis has also been cultivated in the 1880s. Pinus radiata happens to be the absolute most commonly cultivated commercial forest tree in SA and Australian Continent. In addition inside 1870s initial medical center had been erected and Dr Wehl, the town’s physician for many years was at residence.

Within the middle 1880s initial train line ended up being set while the railroad lines forced from Mt Gambier to Naracoorte. The service to Naracoorte started in 1887 and connected on utilizing the range to Bordertown and Adelaide. By 1897 a railway connected Mt Gambier to Millicent while the interface at Beachport. The railway range over the border to Heywood and Melbourne was not finished until 1917 whilst the SA federal government resisted a line that will simply take products and people from Mt Gambier to Port Melbourne without to Port Adelaide. Mt Gambier railroad section had previously been a hive of activity with day-to-day trains to Adelaide and an overnight sleeper services many times per week. Traveler trains to Mt Gambier from Adelaide stopped in 1990 after Australian National overran the SA railway community. Cargo solutions stopped in 1995 in addition to railroad range and section ended up being officially closed. The railyards along with other structures had been cleared in 2013.

The Buandik Aboriginal Folks.
The Buandik individuals are commemorated in a town road but by little else. Yet these were resistant and determined fighters in opposition to the white settlement regarding the South East. Their particular occupation of this Mt Gambier region stretches back once again to around 20,000+ years but their dated profession from archaeological sites extends back to about 11,000 years with their fables and legends including tales about volcanic task at Mt Gambier. The final volcanic explosions were about 4,000 years ago. Both Mt Schank and Mt Gambier were essential locations to the Buandik for ceremonies, hunting, access to liquid and stone implement making. A government report in 1867 noted your Buandik people in government attention had been couple of in quantity primarily sickly and elderly. The younger men and women had presumably relocated out to the white neighborhood. But in the 1840s the Buandik had been a force to-be reckoned with. There are no typical tales of Aboriginal massacres but white pastoralists certainly retaliated whenever sheep had been taken. On Mt Schank station the Buandik had been so problematic that shepherds wouldn’t venture out to look after sheep alone plus the Arthur brothers offered this trouble as his or her cause for all of them offering the run in 1845. In 1845 the government established a police station at Mt Gambier, that the Protector of Aboriginals visited, to ensure pastoralists couldn’t massacre the Buandik.

William Vansittart and Vansittart Park.
Vansittart Park was a center point of Mt Gambier since 1884 for activities like household picnics, political rallies and speeches, cycle racing, band rotunda concerts, bowling greens, sport egg-shaped, grandstand (1927) and Anzac memorial services. But who was simply William Vansittart? He was an Anglican reverend from The united kingdomt (Vansittart is a noble and political Anglo-Irish household within the UK) who arrived in SA in 1847 as a young bachelor. He was never ever certified as a minister in SA but he created their passions in making cash and horse rushing here. He mixed with the elite of Adelaide like Sir Samuel Davenport, the Governor and had been a friend of Hurtle Fisher and he was Master associated with Hounds. In 1850 he bought 35 miles at Beaumont where he built Tower House and 80 miles at Mt Gambier. He imported a thoroughbred horse from Hobart called Lucifer. Ironic that a minister of faith will have a horse called Lucifer! His ponies raced in Adelaide, Salisbury, Gawler, Brighton and Clare as well as in Mt Gambier and Penola. In 1851 he in addition overran the 110 square mile 14 year lease of Mayurra run with George Glen of Millicent. In 1852 he returned to The united kingdomt for a short while as well as on their return he bought more freehold land taking their property to around 800 miles. Soon after in 1854 his horse shied, he had been tossed against a tree and died of head accidents but he passed away intestate with an estate worth over £10,000. Glen bought completely his share of Mayurra; the Beaumont household and residential property was offered in 1867 as were his race ponies along with his bro Captain Spencer Vansittart fundamentally inherited the Mt Gambier home. Relative to William’s wants 115 acres were set aside to give you income for a scholarship for boarders at St Peters Boys university which happened from 1859. Later on in 1883 Spencer Vansittart provided 20 acres towards Mt Gambier Council for a memorial playground at “nominal” sum of £400 which barely seems “nominal”. The Council raised financing and purchased the land together with playground remains enjoyed because of the city’s residents and visitors. Captain Spencer’s widow offered the past bundle of 300 miles of land in 1912 thus ending the Vansittart links with Mt Gambier. The Vansittart scholarship remains available for boarders through the South East and is run by several College trustees.

Some Historic Buildings in Mt Gambier and a city walk.
Your city stroll is basically straight forward along Penola path towards the Mount itself which becomes Bay Road( the bay are at Port MacDonnell) when you cross Commercial Street the Main Street. You will find just a couple diversions to the left as you face the Mount. The coach will gather you at the Mount end for the walk nearby the Old Courthouse.

In the event that you a good walker take a look at good houses in Jardine Street at numbers 1, 7, 9, 11, 12, 17 and 22. They start around cottages to Gothic and turreted mansions such as the house of Jens the hotelier. This detour will include another 10 minutes into stroll in the event that you elect to get it done.

1.Catholic Covent. Siblings of Mercy setup a convent school in 1880. This excellent convent was not built until 1908 in neighborhood dolomite stone & limestone quoins. Note the good rock gables with small markets for statuary, the well-proportioned curved colonnades and upstairs oriel house windows – the projecting bay windows with rock aids. This might be one of several best buildings in Mt Gambier. The convent closed in 1986. Now Auspine.

2.Wesleyan Methodist Church Hall/Sunday School. Down the street is pink dolomite neo-classical design Wesleyan Methodist Sunday School Hall. A huge selection of children attended Sunday School then though. It launched in 1904. It is now commercial workplaces. (if you wish to walk up Wyatt Street beside the Sunday School and turn appropriate at second street which can be at Gray you’ll see the old two storey Methodist Manse at 101 Gray St. It absolutely was built in 1868 and sold 1941. While you develop into Gray Street the Salvation Army Hall is on your left. Allow ten full minutes with this detour before time for Penola path).

3.Methodist Church now Liberty Church. A Gothic large church integrated 1862 because of the Wesleyans. Established by minister from Portland. Additions made 1877 with brand new entrance. The old lecture hall and Sunday School ended up being underneath the chapel. Note the buttress on corners and edges. Became Uniting Church 1977 and closed 1994 whenever services moved to St Andrews Presbyterian Church. Behind the church (walk-through the automobile playground) in Colhurst Place is LLandovery two storey mansion now a B&B. Built 1878 for a flour and oat miller that has their mill in Percy Street.

4.St Paul’s Catholic Church. This impressive Gothic church with huge tower with crenulations was opened in 1884 and will be open today. You can find 1966 extensions towards the rear of it. The Presbytery is behind the chapel facing Alexander St. it was built in 1901 once the chapel was free from building debt. The first thatched bush chapel had been built-in another area in 1855. From 1857 the priest was Father Julian Tenison Woods, explorer, academic, horseman an such like. Another chapel opened in 1861 in Sturt St and is today demolished. It closed-in 1885 since this church unsealed. The bells originated from Dublin. The church fence and gates built 1936.

5.The Mount Gambier Club. Down the street may be the Club. It absolutely was integrated 1904 for a nearby distiller as chambers for rent. The wealthy pastoralists for the south-east formed a special guys only club in 1913 and it has made use of top of the flooring of Engelbrecht’s chambers since. They purchased the entire building in 1920. The Club is a beautifully proportioned ancient style building with pediments, balustrades, screen entablature, and perfect symmetry. Look-down the sides and you can view it is made of Mt Gambier limestone blocks.

6.Mt Gambier Caledonian Hall. Across the street could be the Scots Club. Its prominence signifies the Scottish links of numerous Gambier residents. The hallway was established in 1914 and established by the former Prime Minister Sir George Reid, another Scot. This has traditional functions it is rather ugly and neglected today. It is now a night club.

7.The Trustees Building. Beside the Caledonian could be the Trustee Building erected in 1958. Its blue and bone tiled façade is typical of 1950s design yet the rectangular appearance has a small traditional look about any of it. Its from the SA Heritage enroll. Accounting firms today take it.

8.Turn left into Percy Street and complement right here beyond KFC for starters city block to a higher spot for Oatmills (now a cafe and cinemas). Milling and brewing were two of Mt Gambier’s prime nineteenth century industries. The 4 storey complex here had been started in 1867 for Welsh Thomas Williams just who eventually had five flour mills. His mill had been called Commercial Flourmills. A brand new owner converted the mill from wheat milling to oat milling. A unique oatmill ended up being built-in 1901 and operated until 1975 making Scottish porridge oats. The mill has now already been restored with café, stores and cinemas. Go back to Penola Rd.

9. Mt Gambier Resort. No resort could have an even more remarkable beginning compared to Mt Gambier. An African United states John Byng built a weatherboard resort near here in 1847. The 3rd licensee Alexander Mitchell, another Scot, took it over and moved the resort to the corner web site in 1862 as an impressive two storey resort that has been uncommon at that moment. The western wing had been included in 1883 and balconies affixed in 1902.

10.Cross to the Mount aided by the traffic lights then turn kept into Commercial Street East.

11.Mt Gambier Town Hall. Marked while the Riddoch Gallery this good Venetian Gothic design building is impressive having its coloured stone work contrasting well with cement rendered horizontal lines and vertical panels around windows and doors. The top of house windows are mullioned with rock divisions between the glass. It had been integrated 1882 using the time clock tower added in 1883 after a donation. 1st Council meeting was in 1863 with Dr Wehl as chairman held in a hotel. Later on the Council hired an area during the Foresters Hall after which they bought this site in 1868 with a weatherboard area. It was utilized until 1882.

12.Mt Gambier old Institute. The Literary Institute ended up being created in 1862 and a basis stone set for a reading room/hall in 1868 by John Riddoch. The solitary storey institute opened in 1869. The upper flooring ended up being included in 1887, such that it would match the latest Town Hall. It really is integrated an identical design- Venetian Romanesque given that house windows and rounded and not arched as with a gothic structure.

13.Captain Gardiner Memorial Fountain 1884. The water feature was provided by Captain Robert Gardiner the grandfather of Sir Robert Helpman (their name ended up being initially Helpmann). The fountain ended up being produced in Melbourne .Gardiner has also been a benefactor of St Andrew’s Presbyterian -he donated the pipe organ in 1885.

14.Jens Hotel. After demolishing a youthful hotel (the 1847 hotel of John Byng) Johannes Jens had initial element of his Jens resort constructed on this part in 1884. An almost identical eastern wing had been erected in 1904 while the Spanish Art Deco area in 1927. Turn here and go behind the city hall towards Cave Gardens.

15.Cave Gardens. This place had been an early water supply. A garden was created in 1893 and then enhanced and reconstructed in 1925. This sink-hole has recently been upgraded again and it is illuminated through the night.

16.Post Workplace. This crucial communications center was erected in 1865 as a telegraph office/post office. This can be till one of many best buildings in Mt Gambier and an uncommon illustration of the Georgian design for the town. . The solitary storey part wings were added in 1906 in a sympathetic style. It’s still the primary city post-office.

17.Norris Department Building. This superb Italianate building had been completed in 1900 as chambers for entrepreneurs. Owner was Alexander Norris which passed away in 1917. The façade is green dolomite with cement quoins and strange lined design work above the house windows and home each contained within a triangular classical pediment.

18.Farmers Union Building. Another ancient style building built when this design ended up being out-of-fashion in 1914.Erected for Farmers Union as a big two storey building. It offers none associated with elegance of this Norris building across the street. FU was formed in 1888 in Jamestown by Thomas Mitchell, a Scot and others to give low priced prices for grains, seeds and superphosphate in early 1900s they branched into items for dairy farmers and the marketing of dairy food. The Mt Gambier region had plenty of milk farmers. It is currently possessed by a Japanese company Kirin nonetheless it still markets its chocolate milk drinks as Farmers Union. Upper floor has double pilasters (flattened pillars) with top volutes but little other decoration.

19.Savings Bank Building regarding spot. The former Savings Bank in Gothic style is strange for commercial premises in Mt Gambier. It is constructed of weathered neighborhood limestone and ended up being built-in 1906. Note the different slice rock the foundations, simulated turrets regarding the corners and also by the entranceway to-break the façade appearance and the stone line above the lower screen which in turn divides the façade into equal thirds.

20.Macs Resort. This resort was built in 1864 and it is largely unchanged except that the top floor had been included in 1881. The initial licensee ended up being a Scot called John MacDonald. The two fold veranda supports are elegant.

21.Roller flourmill today a painted equipment shop. Built 1885 as a steam flourmill in green dolomite. Note the small 12 paned house windows set-in bigger indented niches into the wall space in the north wall. (Sturt St.)

22.Christ Church Anglican Church and hall. Dr Browne of Moorak donated half the cash for building of Christ Church in red dolomite in accordance with a unique gabled tower. Church and tower finished in 1866. Adjacent may be the Jubilee Hall built-in 1915, damaged by fire in 1951, and rebuilt the identical in weathered local limestone blocks with the initial foundation stone still in position. This has the single Gothic window in the street facing gable and a crenulated square tower. Adjoining this is the 1869 sunday-school because of the narrow double-pointed Gothic windows. It was extended in 1892. The lychgate is much more present as a memorial to a consistent church goer, Margaret French whom died in 1927.

23.The old railway section only noticeable along the rail lines to your right. The initial railway range was to Beachport in 1879 plus the 2nd to Naracoorte (so to Adelaide) in 1887. Portland and Melbourne range started 1917. A spur range to Glencoe was completed in 1904. Very first section had been erected in 1879. It had been demolished for hard-on of the current section in 1918 which can be similar in design to those who work in Tailem Bend, Bordertown, Moonta etc. Bluebird train vehicles began in the Mt Gambier run-in 1953 once the old 3’6” gauge range to Wolseley had been changed into 5’3”. The last passenger solution to Adelaide completed in 1990 therefore the place sealed for cargo in 1995. The railyards had been cleared in 2013 and the future regarding the station is bleak. The railway outlines to Beachport and Glencoe closed in 1956/57.

24.The Old Courthouse, 42 Bay Rd. It’s outstanding reduced wall suitable for sitting on. This smartly designed Georgian style Courthouse opened in 1865 and the likewise fashioned side wings were added in 1877. The leading veranda, that is perhaps not Georgian however you like, had been included in 1880. In 1975 the Courthouse ended up being approved on National Trust for a museum. The adjoining brand new Courthouse unsealed in 1975 at precisely the same time. Note the “blind” house windows into the façade nevertheless exact same rounded Georgian shaped, 16 paned windows in the sides.

The Blue Lake, Mt Schank and Volcanoes.
The jewel inside top of Mt Gambier is without question the volcanic cone, the crater lakes particularly the Blue Lake plus the surrounding Botanic Gardens and parklands. The Botanic Garden on the north part was authorized in 1872 but nothing took place about plantings and attention until 1882. 1st satisfaction road through seat amongst the Blue Lake while the Valley Lake is made in the 1861 as a more direct road toward then newly developed international slot known as Port MacDonnell. That’s the reason the trail is known as the Bay road. Surveyor General George Goyder explored the lake encompasses himself in 1876 as he selected the website the federal government tree nursery. Later on the government established 1st sawmill regarding side of the crater reserve near Moorak homestead in the early 1920s. The Centenary Tower was initiated in 1900 to celebrate the centenary of Captain Grant sighting Mt Gambier. It took a long period to accomplish and ended up being established by the Chief Justice of SA Sir Samuel Method in 1907 nonetheless it had been completed in 1904. The complete complex is a maar geomorphological formation which originated during a volcanic era about 28,000 years back but in another stage of volcanic task 4,000 to 6,000 years back the cones and ponds of Mt Gambier had been created combined with cones of Mt Schank and Mt Burr near Millicent. Mt Gambier ended up being the most up-to-date volcanic explosion in Australian Continent. The crater ponds are: Blue Lake, Valley Lake, Leg of Mutton Lake and Browne’s Lake (dried out). The Blue Lake is related towards aquifers beneath the deep layers of limestone which underlay the complete south-east. Blue Lake is approximately 72 metres deep plus some associated with water with it is calculated become about 500 years old but it is mixed with rainfall runoff annually and. The Lake provides the water-supply for Mt Gambier. Deep in the pond are types of the earliest lifestyle organisms in the world- stromatalites. The lake modifications colour from grey to vivid azure each November and reverts in after April. The alteration in colour relates to the position of sunshine and reflected light from suspended particles within the lake which reflect blue-green light in the place of brown grey light. Secondly the suspended matter only takes place because water near the area rises in temperature within the springtime and it’s also this which in turn causes the particles to precipitate from the water. The precipitated matter settles on base for the pond ready for a brand new period listed here springtime. Just like the Blue Lake various sink holes in the area have linkages towards underlying aquifer through the levels of limestone also as well as consist of Cave Gardens, Umpherstone, Piccaninni Ponds, etc.

Moorak Station and Tenison Woods University.
Moorak section as initially generally Mount Gambier facility set up by George Glen into the 1840s. The leasehold had been later taken over by David energy which in turn marketed it to Fisher and Rochford who consequently offered the property as freehold towards Scottish Dr William Browne who’d established Booborowie run together with his bro in 1843 north of Burra. The Browne brothers mixed their cooperation around 1865 and John decided to go to stay at Buckland Park and William took up residence at Moorak. William had bought Moorak facility in 1862 and built the grand Moorak homestead in impressive Georgian design onto an inferior home there. William passed away in 1894 together with Moorak home passed to his child Colonel Percival Browne who had been to go away completely regarding the ill-fated voyage associated with brand new steamer the Waratah in 1909 which vanished during a storm off Durban, South Africa. Additionally on that voyage had been Mrs. Agnes Hay (nee Gosse) of Mt Breckan Victor Harbor and Linden Park home Adelaide and some 200 other poor souls. Around 1909 the Moorak facility was subdivided for closer settlement plus in the 1920s the Marist Brothers purchased the homestead with a little land with their and monastery and exposed the Marist Brothers Agricultural College for males in 1931. That college consequently combined because of the Mater Christi university in 1972 to become Tenison College. (Mater Christi university had been created in 1952 because of the merger regarding the St Josephs Convent class (1880) and St Peters Parish class but the major part of St Peters broke away in 1969 from Mater Christi College and formed an independent St Peters Primary class. This main college subsequently merged with Tenison university in 2001 to form Tenison Woods university!) The College name commemorates the work of dad Julian Tenison Woods which arrived in Mt Gambier in 1857 to function in Penola and Mt Gambier. It absolutely was he which encouraged Mary MacKillop to simply take her vows and establish the woman siblings of St Joseph.

Dr Browne’s manager of Moorak Estate in 1868 introduced hops as a viable crop in the south-east and large quantities had been grown for about 20 years. Various other early experimental crops cultivated included tobacco, cotton and flax. Dr Browne and Moorak had been also important in potato industry. Dr Browne leased around 830 acres to 20 renters for present purpose of developing potatoes. He was keen to imitate the British aristocracy although he had been a Scot with being a manorial style landlord with tenant farmers. Potatoes were additionally grown from very early years at Yahl, OB Flat and Compton near Mt Gambier. The potatoes were carted down to Port MacDonnell and sent to Adelaide for consumers. Among the major wool producers of Australia William Browne added roughly 50 % of the funds when it comes to hard-on of Christ Church Anglican in Mt Gambier. The Moorak property contains around 11,000 acres quite fertile volcanic soil in SA with another 2,000 miles in a nearby home, German Creek near Carpenter’s Rocks. Dr Browne went Silky Lincolns on Moorak for their wool as Merinos would not fare really regarding the wet South East pastures. About 2,000 acres was in wheat, about 2,500 acres had been tenanted to many other farmers and around 4,000 acres were in lucerne, clover, rye also pasture grasses. William Browne gone back to are now living in The united kingdomt in 1866 therefore his sons could go to Eton and armed forces education colleges truth be told there. He made regular trips to SA about every 2nd 12 months to oversee their many pastoral properties here. When he died in 1894 he left 100,000 acres of freehold land in SA to his children just who all resided here in addition to leasehold land. He was an extremely affluent man. Son Percival took control of Moorak. Before Percival’s demise Moorak home ended up being partially purchased by the SA federal government in 1904 for closer settlement if they acquired around 1,000 acres. After Percival’s death another 6,300 acres had been obtained for better settlement and rest regarding the property was offered with other farmers. The us government paid between £10 and £31 per acre the land. Percival Browne ended up being highly respected in Mt Gambier and a reserve around the Blue Lake is termed after him. The fourth for the crater lakes of Mt Gambier is also named Browne’s Lake after the family but it has been dry for a long time. In 1900 Colonel Browne planted the band of English Oaks around that which was to become the oval associated with the Marist Brothers College.

Moorak.
There is certainly a memorial because of the place to William Browne as creator associated with Coriadale Sheep Stud. The great Moorak woolshed was demolished in 1939. The Union church which opened in 1920 was employed by the Methodists while the Anglicans. It is now an exclusive residence. Moorak hallway ended up being opened in 1926. New classrooms were added to the Moorak School in 1928 together with very first spaces established in 1913. The cheese factory in Moorak exposed in 1913 as a cooperative and had been sold to Farmers Union in 1949. They sealed the factory in 1979. A lot of the cheese produced at Moorak went to the Melbourne market. The initial mozzarella cheese maker at Moorak ended up being trained at Lauterbach’s cheese factory at Woodside. Moorak was among a circle of settlements around Mt Gambier that had butter/cheese industrial facilities. These towns were: Kongorong; Glencoe East; Glencoe western; Suttontown; Glenburnie; Mil Lel; Yahl; OB Flat; Moorak; Mt Schank; and Eight Mile Creek.

Yahl.
Within the 1860s this tiny settlement was a tobacco, jump and potato growing area therefore persisted with potatoes up to immediate past. These days Yahl is bit more than a suburban village of Mt Gambier with a Primary college with approx 120 students. The old government school had been erected in 1879. It had a Methodist chapel built in 1880 which operated as a church until 1977 plus it had a sizable butter factory which had opened in 1888. The butter and cheese factory had been bought out because of the OB Flat mozzarella cheese factory in 1939 and two run together with both. The OB Flat cheese factory closed-in 1950 and all manufacturing relocated to Yahl. The factory finally closed in 1971. The township of Yahl also had a broad Store and a Salvation Army Hall that was integrated 1919.

Sink Holes: Umpherston Gardens and Cave Gardens.
James Umpherston bought land near Mt Gambier in 1864 including a large sink-hole or folded cavern with a pond into the base. He was born in Scotland in 1812 and came to SA inside 1850s together with brother William. William bought his first land at Yahl in 1859. James Umpherston ended up being a civic minded chap becoming an area councilor, a parliamentarian in Adelaide for two many years and President of this Mt Gambier Agricultural and Horticultural Society for 13 years. As he retired from civic life and farming in 1884 he decided to produce a yard in his sinkhole. He beautified it and encouraged visitors as well as supplied a boat in the lake for ship rides. Access was attained by measures and a path carved to the sinkhole walls. Nonetheless after he passed away in 1900 the yard had been overlooked, became overgrown and was mostly forgotten in 1949 once the Woods and woodlands division received the land for a brand new sawmill at Mt Gambier. At that time the pond had dried up while the water table had dropped on the years. In 1976 staff, as opposed to the government, made a decision to restore the Umpherstone landscapes. The cleared out of the rubbish that had been dumped in sinkhole, restored the trail accessibility, trimmed the ivy and replanted the hydrangeas and tree ferns. In 1994 the Woos and woodlands Department handed over the land all over sinkhole into City of Mt Gambier. It absolutely was put into the SA Heritage enter in 1995.

Mt Gambier. Caledonian Hall Mt Gambier started in 1913 by George Riddoch
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Brief reputation for Mt Gambier – the next town of SA after Adelaide (region population almost 35,000, urban 28,000).
Lieutenant James Grant aboard the girl Nelson sighted and called Mt Gambier in 1800 after a Lord of the Admiralty. 1st white guy to traverse the region had been Stephen Henty of Portland in 1839 as he sighted the Blue Lake. He came back with cattle and stockmen in 1841. He later advertised which had he known the pond and volcano he previously discovered in 1839 was at SA however have instantly sent applications for an 1839 Special research. But Henty thought he had been squatting on land in NSW and then he wasn’t the official SA settler so the government ordered him off the land in 1844. Hence 1st official white settler of the south-east and also the Mt Gambier area became Evelyn Sturt, cousin to Captain Charles Sturt, whom used an occupational permit in March 1844 and home he called Compton simply north regarding the present city. In April 1844 Governor gray and an event of assistants such as the Assistant Surveyor General Thomas Burr and artist George French Angas explored the South East naming Robe and doing initial surveys. Evelyn Sturt became the first ever to have an occupational license to squat and the first buy freehold land near Mt Gambier that he performed in 1847- a section of 77 miles when 80 miles was typical. He left the area in 1854 selling his freehold land to Hastings Cunningham whom in 1855 subdivided a number of this land thus producing town of Gambierton. The town places were next to the site associated with the first authorities section chosen near what exactly is now Cave Gardens because of the government in 1845. A little bush inn in addition operated at this place. 1st streets had been known as after early residents such as for instance Evelyn Sturt, Compton, Ferrers and Crouch (built 1st basic shop prior to the city was made) etc. The town grew quickly due to the moderate weather, fertile grounds, plentiful water plus the influx of settlers from throughout the border in what was to become the colony of Victoria. Cunningham himself ended up being a fantastic benefactor and donated land for the first college in 1856. In 1861 town name was changed by act of parliament to Mt Gambier. The hundred or so of Mt Gambier (alongside three various other hundreds) had been stated in 1858 and began the better settlement associated with the south-east.

Unlike areas of SA the South East was regarded as paradise for pastoralists therefore the positive pastoralists flocked into the location making use of their flocks in 1845. The large works locked-up the land and prevented farmers from settling in the region with the exception of the fertile lands around Mount Gambier. Right here small-scale farmers had little properties and expanded potatoes, hops, and later had milk cows along with developing wheat and oats. Land acts in the early 1870s designed to break-up the major works only partly succeeded into the South East where most place proprietors purchased up their particular places freehold. It was after 1905 before the huge pastoral properties were actually separated for farmers and better settlement, except for near Mt Gambier. Apart from Evelyn Sturt one other very early white settlers of south-east in 1845 were Alexander Cameron at Penola, John Robertson at Struan, William Macintosh and George Ormerod at Naracoorte, the Austin brothers at Yallum Park (later on John Riddoch), the Arthur brothers (nephews of Governor Arthur of Van Diemen’s Land) at Mt Schanck( today Mt Schank) and Leake brothers at Glencoe. Actually in 1845 nineteen leasehold runs had been taken up within the south-east with another thirty runs in 1846 and a lot of had a number of 80 miles sections of freehold land close to the primary homestead. Many had got to the south-east from Casterton and Portland in Victoria due to the fact swamps nearby the shore were also difficult to traverse aside from the country near Robe. A number of the properties were huge. Evelyn Sturt from the Compton/Mt Gambier run had 85 square kilometers as well as his freehold land; Robertson had 135 square kilometers at Struan; George Glen (and William Vansittart) of Mayurra had 110 square miles; the SA Company had 159 square kilometers in the Benara run; the Leake brothers had 194 square miles on Glencoe; Hunter had 56 square miles on Kalangadoo; Neil Ebony of Noorat Victoria had 45 square kilometers on Kongorong run and 101 square kilometers at Port MacDonnell while the Arthur brothers had a large run at Mt Schanck. By 1851 nearly 5,000 square miles associated with the south-east was occupied by Occupational License and a lot of permits had been converted to 14 12 months leases for the reason that 12 months. A 3rd of leasehold land in SA was adopted within the South East due to its greater rainfall and suitability for pastoralism and a 3rd of all sheep in colony were when you look at the south-east. When Hundreds were announced inside South East within the belated 1850s and early 1860s pastoralists bought within the land. In a single situation John Riddoch of Yallum Park owned the complete hundred or so of Monbulla. Another pastoralist W. Clarke that has purchased Mt Schancke station from Arthur brothers in 1861 possessed SA land appreciated at £1.25 million as he died in 1874 in which he had 120,000 miles freehold in Victoria, 75,000 acres freehold in SA( Mt Schank) and 50,000 miles freehold in every one of NSW and Tasmania! Mt Schanck had been altered in Schank in 1917 whenever German place-names in SA had been changed as Schank minus the second “c” is a classic English name!

Within the 1850s Mt Gambier was a shanty village because the South East was a region of large pastoral estates and small agricultural agriculture and very reduced population figures. It had been far from Adelaide and remote and it was only after the Princeland episode in 1862 with all the threat of possible secession to a different suggest that the Adelaide government started to purchase the south-east and really encourage settlement indeed there. The Border Check out magazine had been created in 1861, the Mt Gambier Hotel exposed in 1862 together with Mt Gambier Council had been created in 1863.By the early 1860s Mt Gambier had very nearly 1,000 residents making it among the biggest towns in SA following the copper mining centres of Burra, Kadina and Moonta. Because of the 1881 SA census Mt Gambier had 2,500 residents rendering it the largest town beyond Adelaide. In 1865 four iconic historical buildings had been erected-the Courthouse, the Gaol, Christ Church Anglican and also the Post Office and Telegraph Station. The flourmill which later on became the Oat Mill launched in 1867 as grain farmers had now adopted lands around the Mount. Mt Gambier ended up being growing into a fine prosperous hunting town with churches, stores, banking institutions, hotels and fine residences. Within the 1870s the rural population increased significantly with tenant potato farmers on Browne’s Moorak estate and intensive hop growing in several localities eg Yahl and OB Flat and Glenburnie etc. In addition in 1876 the first commercial forestry had been begun in the behest of George Goyder. A tree nursery was set up on the edge of Leg of Mutton Lake in 1876 on a website selected by George Goyder himself. A stone cottage for the very first nurseryman Charles Beale ended up being built therefore survived until demolished in 1969 nevertheless nursery closed-in 1929. The nursery propagated eucalypts, Oak, Elm, Ash, Sycamore, and united states pines. Pinus radiata was initially cultivated at leg-of-mutton Lake and had been dispersed with other areas by 1878. Pinus canariensis was also cultivated in 1880s. Pinus radiata has become more commonly cultivated commercial woodland tree in SA and Australia. Additionally inside 1870s 1st hospital had been erected and Dr Wehl, the city’s physician for many years was at residence.

Into the middle 1880s the first railway range ended up being set as railway outlines forced out of Mt Gambier to Naracoorte. The service to Naracoorte started in 1887 and connected on with the line to Bordertown and Adelaide. By 1897 a railway linked Mt Gambier to Millicent and port at Beachport. The railroad line throughout the border to Heywood and Melbourne was not completed until 1917 since the SA government resisted a line that will take items and passengers from Mt Gambier to Port Melbourne without to Port Adelaide. Mt Gambier railroad section had previously been a hive of activity with everyday trains to Adelaide and an overnight sleeper solutions repeatedly weekly. Traveler trains to Mt Gambier from Adelaide stopped in 1990 after Australian National annexed the SA railroad network. Freight services ended in 1995 while the railroad range and station had been officially shut. The railyards also buildings had been cleared in 2013.

The Buandik Aboriginal Individuals.
The Buandik people are commemorated in a town road but by small else. Yet these people were resilient and determined fighters in opposition to the white settlement regarding the South East. Their particular career associated with Mt Gambier area stretches back to around 20,000+ years however their dated occupation from archaeological web sites goes back to about 11,000 many years due to their urban myths and legends including tales about volcanic activity at Mt Gambier. The last volcanic explosions had been about 4,000 years back. Both Mt Schank and Mt Gambier were essential places toward Buandik for ceremonies, hunting, usage of water and rock implement making. A government report in 1867 noted that Buandik individuals in federal government attention were few in quantity mainly sickly and elderly. Younger individuals had apparently relocated out to the white community. But in the 1840s the Buandik were a force is reckoned with. There aren’t any typical stories of Aboriginal massacres but white pastoralists certainly retaliated when sheep had been stolen. On Mt Schank place the Buandik had been therefore problematic that shepherds wouldn’t normally head out to look after sheep alone together with Arthur brothers gave this difficulty as their cause for them offering the run in 1845. In 1845 the federal government established a police section at Mt Gambier, that the Protector of Aboriginals visited, to make sure that pastoralists would not massacre the Buandik.

William Vansittart and Vansittart Park.
Vansittart Park has been a center point of Mt Gambier since 1884 for activities such as for instance family picnics, political rallies and speeches, bike race, musical organization rotunda shows, bowling greens, recreation oval, grandstand (1927) and Anzac memorial services. But who was simply William Vansittart? He had been an Anglican reverend from England (Vansittart is a noble and governmental Anglo-Irish family in UK) which found its way to SA in 1847 as a new bachelor. He was never ever licensed as a minister in SA but he developed their passions to make cash and horse racing right here. He combined with the elite of Adelaide like Sir Samuel Davenport, the Governor and ended up being a pal of Hurtle Fisher and he was Master associated with the Hounds. In 1850 he purchased 35 miles at Beaumont where he built Tower House and 80 miles at Mt Gambier. He imported a thoroughbred horse from Hobart called Lucifer. Ironic that a minister of religion will have a horse called Lucifer! Their ponies raced in Adelaide, Salisbury, Gawler, Brighton and Clare as well as in Mt Gambier and Penola. In 1851 he in addition took over the 110 square mile 14 year lease of Mayurra operate with George Glen of Millicent. In 1852 he returned to England for a short time as well as on his return he purchased much more freehold land bringing his estate to around 800 miles. Soon after in 1854 his horse shied, he had been thrown against a tree and passed away of head injuries but he passed away intestate with an estate well worth over £10,000. Glen purchased away their share of Mayurra; the Beaumont house and home ended up being offered in 1867 as were his battle ponies along with his cousin Captain Spencer Vansittart sooner or later inherited the Mt Gambier residential property. Relative to William’s wants 115 miles had been set aside to deliver income for a scholarship for boarders at St Peters Boys university which took place from 1859. Later in 1883 Spencer Vansittart offered 20 acres toward Mt Gambier Council for a memorial playground in the “nominal” sum of £400 which scarcely seems “nominal”. The Council lifted financing and purchased the land plus the park remains enjoyed because of the city’s residents and visitors. Captain Spencer’s widow offered the final package of 300 acres of land in 1912 therefore ending the Vansittart backlinks with Mt Gambier. The Vansittart scholarship remains readily available for boarders through the south-east and it is operated by a group of College trustees.

Some historical Buildings in Mt Gambier and a town walk.
Your city stroll is actually right forward along Penola Road towards the Mount itself which becomes Bay Road( the bay reaches Port MacDonnell) once you cross Commercial Street which is the Main Street. There are just a couple of diversions to the left as you face the Mount. The advisor will gather you on Mount end regarding the walk close to the Old Courthouse.

In the event that you an excellent walker browse the good houses in Jardine Street at numbers 1, 7, 9, 11, 12, 17 and 22. They cover anything from cottages to Gothic and turreted mansions such as the residence of Jens the hotelier. This detour will add another ten full minutes into stroll in the event that you elect to do it.

1.Catholic Covent. Sisters of Mercy setup a convent school in 1880. This wonderful convent wasn’t built until 1908 in local dolomite rock & limestone quoins. Note the fine stone gables with tiny niches for statuary, the well proportioned curved colonnades and upstairs oriel house windows – the projecting bay house windows with stone supports. This really is one of several finest structures in Mt Gambier. The convent closed-in 1986. Now Auspine.

2.Wesleyan Methodist Church Hall/Sunday School. Down the street is red dolomite neo-classical style Wesleyan Methodist sunday-school Hall. Countless kiddies attended Sunday School in those times. It started in 1904. It is now commercial workplaces. (If you would like walk-up Wyatt Street next to the Sunday School and turn appropriate at 2nd road which will be at Gray you will observe the old two storey Methodist Manse at 101 Gray St. It absolutely was built in 1868 and offered 1941. As you become Gray Street the Salvation Army Hall is on the remaining. Allow 10 minutes with this detour before returning to Penola path).

3.Methodist Church now Liberty Church. A Gothic large church built in 1862 by the Wesleyans. Established by minister from Portland. Improvements made 1877 with brand new entry. The old lecture hallway and sunday-school ended up being under the church. Note the buttress on sides and edges. Became Uniting Church 1977 and sealed 1994 when solutions moved to St Andrews Presbyterian Church. Behind the chapel (walk through the automobile park) in Colhurst Place is LLandovery two storey mansion today a B&B. Built 1878 for a flour and oat miller that has his mill in Percy Street.

4.St Paul’s Catholic Church. This impressive Gothic chapel with huge tower with crenulations ended up being exposed in 1884 and you will be open today. You will find 1966 extensions into rear of it. The Presbytery is behind the church facing Alexander St. it absolutely was integrated 1901 once the church had been free of creating financial obligation. The first thatched bush chapel was integrated another place in 1855. From 1857 the priest ended up being Father Julian Tenison Woods, explorer, academic, horseman an such like. Another church started in 1861 in Sturt St and it is today demolished. It closed-in 1885 because church opened. The bells originated in Dublin. The church fence and gates built 1936.

5.The Mount Gambier Club. Down the street could be the Club. It was built-in 1904 for an area distiller as chambers for lease. The rich pastoralists of the South East formed an exclusive guys just club in 1913 and it has made use of the upper floor of Engelbrecht’s chambers from the time. They bought the whole building in 1920. The Club is a beautifully proportioned classical style building with pediments, balustrades, screen entablature, and perfect balance. Look down the sides and you will view it is made of Mt Gambier limestone blocks.

6.Mt Gambier Caledonian Hall. Nearby could be the Scots Club. Its importance signifies the Scottish backlinks of several Gambier residents. The hall had been established in 1914 and exposed by the previous Prime Minister Sir George Reid, another Scot. This has ancient features but is rather unsightly and ignored these days. It is now every night club.

7.The Trustees Building. Beside the Caledonian is the Trustee Building erected in 1958. Its blue and bone tissue tiled façade is typical of 1950s design yet the rectangular appearance has a small classical appearance about this. Its on SA Heritage Register. Accounting firms now occupy it.

8.Turn left into Percy Street and go along right here beyond KFC for one town block to a higher part the Oatmills (today a coffee shop and cinemas). Milling and brewing had been two of Mt Gambier’s prime nineteenth century sectors. The 4 storey complex right here was were only available in 1867 for Welsh Thomas Williams just who eventually had five flour mills. Their mill was known as Commercial Flourmills. An innovative new owner converted the mill from grain milling to oat milling. An innovative new oatmill ended up being built-in 1901 and operated until 1975 producing Scottish porridge oats. The mill has been restored with café, stores and cinemas. Return to Penola Rd.

9. Mt Gambier Hotel. No hotel may have a far more remarkable origin as compared to Mt Gambier. An African United states John Byng built a weatherboard resort near here in 1847. The 3rd licensee Alexander Mitchell, another Scot, took it over and moved the hotel to the part web site in 1862 as a remarkable two storey hotel that was uncommon in those days. The western wing was included in 1883 and balconies attached in 1902.

10.Cross to the Mount aided by the traffic lights then turn kept into industrial Street East.

11.Mt Gambier Town Hall. Marked as Riddoch Gallery this good Venetian Gothic design building is impressive with its colored stone work contrasting well with cement rendered horizontal lines and vertical panels around doors and windows. The upper house windows are mullioned with stone divisions involving the cup. It had been integrated 1882 aided by the time clock tower added in 1883 after a donation. The first Council meeting was in 1863 with Dr Wehl as chairman held in a hotel. Later on the Council hired a space on Foresters Hall and then they purchased this web site in 1868 with a weatherboard room. This was used until 1882.

12.Mt Gambier old Institute. The Literary Institute ended up being created in 1862 and a foundation stone set for a reading room/hall in 1868 by John Riddoch. The solitary storey institute exposed in 1869. The upper flooring ended up being included in 1887, such that it would match the latest Town Hall. It is integrated an equivalent design- Venetian Romanesque while the house windows and rounded rather than curved just like a gothic structure.

13.Captain Gardiner Memorial Fountain 1884. The water fountain ended up being presented by Captain Robert Gardiner the grandfather of Sir Robert Helpman (their name was originally Helpmann). The water fountain had been produced in Melbourne .Gardiner was also a benefactor of St Andrew’s Presbyterian -he donated the pipe organ in 1885.

14.Jens Resort. After demolishing an earlier hotel (the 1847 hotel of John Byng) Johannes Jens had the very first part of their Jens Hotel constructed on this place in 1884. An almost identical east wing was erected in 1904 and Spanish Art Deco part in 1927. Turn below and get behind the city hall into Cave Gardens.

15.Cave Gardens. This area had been an earlier water-supply. A garden was created in 1893 and then improved and reconstructed in 1925. This sink-hole has already been upgraded again and it is lit during the night.

16.Post Office. This essential communications centre ended up being erected in 1865 as a telegraph office/post company. That is till one of many finest structures in Mt Gambier and a rare example of the Georgian style when it comes to city. . The single storey side wings were included in 1906 in a sympathetic style. It’s still the key town post-office.

17.Norris Agency Building. This superb Italianate building was finished in 1900 as chambers for entrepreneurs. Owner was Alexander Norris just who died in 1917. The façade is green dolomite with cement quoins and uncommon lined design work above the house windows and door each included within a triangular ancient pediment.

18.Farmers Union Building. Another ancient style building built when this design was out-of-fashion in 1914.Erected for Farmers Union as a big two storey building. It’s none of this elegance of the Norris building nearby. FU had been formed in 1888 in Jamestown by Thomas Mitchell, a Scot as well as others to produce cheap rates for grains, seeds and superphosphate in the early 1900s they branched into items for dairy farmers therefore the marketing and advertising of milk products. The Mt Gambier region had many dairy farmers. It is now had by a Japanese organization Kirin nonetheless it still markets its chocolate milk beverages as Farmers Union. Upper flooring features two fold pilasters (flattened pillars) with top volutes but small other design.

19.Savings Bank Building in the part. The previous Savings Bank in Gothic style is unusual for commercial premises in Mt Gambier. It’s made of weathered neighborhood limestone and ended up being built-in 1906. Note the various cut stone for foundations, simulated turrets regarding corners and by the entranceway to break the façade look together with rock range above the lower window which then divides the façade into equal thirds.

20.Macs Resort. This hotel had been built-in 1864 and it is mostly unchanged except your upper flooring ended up being added in 1881. Initial licensee ended up being a Scot called John MacDonald. The two fold veranda aids are particularly elegant.

21.Roller flourmill today a decorated equipment store. Built 1885 as a steam flourmill in green dolomite. Note the small 12 paned house windows emerge much bigger indented markets within the wall space regarding north wall surface. (Sturt St.)

22.Christ Church Anglican Church and hall. Dr Browne of Moorak donated half the income when it comes to construction of Christ Church in red dolomite and with a silly gabled tower. Church and tower finished in 1866. Adjacent could be the Jubilee Hall built in 1915, damaged by fire in 1951, and rebuilt identical in weathered local limestone blocks using original foundation stone-still positioned. This has the solitary Gothic screen in the street dealing with gable and a crenulated square tower. Adjoining it is the 1869 Sunday School utilizing the slim double-pointed Gothic house windows. It had been extended in 1892. The lychgate is more present as a memorial to an everyday chapel goer, Margaret French whom passed away in 1927.

23.The old railroad place only visible over the train lines towards right. The first railway range was to Beachport in 1879 while the second to Naracoorte (and thus to Adelaide) in 1887. Portland and Melbourne range started 1917. A spur range to Glencoe ended up being finished in 1904. First section was erected in 1879. It was demolished for hard-on of the present place in 1918 that is comparable in design to those who work in Tailem Bend, Bordertown, Moonta etc. Bluebird rail automobiles began from the Mt Gambier run in 1953 whenever old 3’6” gauge range to Wolseley was changed into 5’3”. The last traveler service to Adelaide completed in 1990 and the place sealed for freight in 1995. The railyards had been cleared in 2013 and future of the place is bleak. The railway outlines to Beachport and Glencoe closed in 1956/57.

24.The Old Courthouse, 42 Bay Rd. It’s a good reasonable wall surface ideal for sitting on. This smartly designed Georgian design Courthouse started in 1865 together with similarly fashioned part wings were included in 1877. The front veranda, that will be maybe not Georgian any way you like, was included in 1880. In 1975 the Courthouse ended up being granted towards the nationwide Trust for a museum. The adjoining brand-new Courthouse opened in 1975 simultaneously. Note the “blind” windows to your façade nevertheless the exact same rounded Georgian shaped, 16 paned house windows in the edges.

The Blue Lake, Mt Schank and Volcanoes.
The jewel in the crown of Mt Gambier is without question the volcanic cone, the crater lakes particularly the Blue Lake and surrounding Botanic Gardens and parklands. The Botanic Garden on north side ended up being approved in 1872 but absolutely nothing occurred about plantings and treatment until 1882. 1st enjoyment road through saddle amongst the Blue Lake in addition to Valley Lake was made into the 1861 as a more direct road to your then recently developed worldwide interface named Port MacDonnell. Which is why the road is named the Bay road. Surveyor General George Goyder explored the pond encompasses himself in 1876 as he picked your website for federal government tree nursery. Later the federal government established initial sawmill regarding the edge of the crater book near Moorak homestead during the early 1920s. The Centenary Tower was started in 1900 to celebrate the centenary of Captain give sighting Mt Gambier. It took years to complete and was opened because of the Chief Justice of SA Sir Samuel Method in 1907 but it ended up being completed in 1904. Your whole complex is a maar geomorphological formation which originated during a volcanic age about 28,000 years ago but in another period of volcanic activity 4,000 to 6,000 years back the cones and lakes of Mt Gambier were produced together with the cones of Mt Schank and Mt Burr near Millicent. Mt Gambier ended up being the most up-to-date volcanic explosion in Australian Continent. The crater ponds tend to be: Blue Lake, Valley Lake, Leg of Mutton Lake and Browne’s Lake (dry). The Blue Lake is related to the aquifers under the deep levels of limestone which underlay the complete south-east. Blue Lake is mostly about 72 metres deep many of this liquid in it is projected to-be about 500 yrs . old but it is blended with rain runoff each year also. The Lake supplies the water-supply for Mt Gambier. Deep into the pond tend to be samples of the oldest lifestyle organisms on earth- stromatalites. The pond changes colour from grey to brilliant azure each November and reverts into the after April. The change in colour relates to the positioning for the sunshine and reflected light from suspended particles inside pond which mirror blue-green light in the place of brown grey light. Subsequently the suspended matter just takes place as the water nearby the area rises in temperature inside springtime and it is this which causes the particles to precipitate out from the water. The precipitated matter settles in the bottom of this lake ready for a brand new period the following spring. Like Blue Lake different sink holes in region have linkages towards the underlying aquifer through the layers of limestone also and they consist of Cave Gardens, Umpherstone, Piccaninni Ponds, etc.

Moorak Facility and Tenison Woods College.
Moorak place as initially known as Mount Gambier facility set up by George Glen into the 1840s. The leasehold was later on bought out by David Power who consequently sold it to Fisher and Rochford whom consequently marketed the estate as freehold towards the Scottish Dr William Browne who had set up Booborowie run along with his bro in 1843 north of Burra. The Browne brothers mixed their particular relationship around 1865 and John went to stay at Buckland Park and William took up residence at Moorak. William had purchased Moorak facility in 1862 and built the grand Moorak homestead in impressive Georgian design onto a smaller residence there. William died in 1894 therefore the Moorak home passed to his child Colonel Percival Browne who was simply to fade on ill-fated voyage of the brand new steamer the Waratah in 1909 which vanished during a storm off Durban, South Africa. Additionally on that voyage had been Mrs. Agnes Hay (nee Gosse) of Mt Breckan Victor Harbor and Linden Park Estate Adelaide and some 200 various other bad souls. Around 1909 the Moorak facility was subdivided for deeper settlement plus in the 1920s the Marist Brothers bought the homestead with some land for his or her and monastery and unsealed the Marist Brothers Agricultural College for young men in 1931. That college subsequently merged using the Mater Christi university in 1972 in order to become Tenison university. (Mater Christi College was in fact created in 1952 by the merger of St Josephs Convent class (1880) and St Peters Parish class although primary section of St Peters smashed away in 1969 from Mater Christi university and formed a separate St Peters main School. This primary school in turn merged with Tenison university in 2001 to make Tenison Woods university!) The school title commemorates the work of dad Julian Tenison Woods who found its way to Mt Gambier in 1857 working in Penola and Mt Gambier. It had been he whom encouraged Mary MacKillop to simply take the woman vows and establish the woman Sisters of St Joseph.

Dr Browne’s manager of Moorak home in 1868 introduced hops as a viable crop within the South East and enormous volumes had been cultivated for around 20 years. Various other very early experimental crops cultivated included cigarette, cotton and flax. Dr Browne and Moorak had been also important into the potato business. Dr Browne leased around 830 acres to 20 tenants when it comes to present purpose of developing potatoes. He had been keen to emulate the Uk aristocracy although he had been a great Scot with being a manorial style landlord with tenant farmers. Potatoes were in addition grown from very early many years at Yahl, OB Flat and Compton near Mt Gambier. The potatoes were carted down seriously to Port MacDonnell and transported to Adelaide for consumers. As one of the significant wool manufacturers of Australian Continent William Browne added roughly half the resources the hard-on of Christ Church Anglican in Mt Gambier. The Moorak estate consisted of around 11,000 acres quite fertile volcanic soil in SA with another 2,000 acres in a nearby residential property, German Creek near Carpenter’s Rocks. Dr Browne ran Silky Lincolns on Moorak due to their wool as Merinos did not fare really on wet south-east pastures. About 2,000 miles was at wheat, about 2,500 acres had been tenanted to other farmers and around 4,000 miles were in lucerne, clover, rye along with other pasture grasses. William Browne gone back to reside in England in 1866 therefore their sons could go to Eton and army training colleges truth be told there. He made regular trips to SA about every second year to oversee his numerous pastoral properties here. As he passed away in 1894 he left 100,000 miles of freehold land in SA to his kiddies which all lived right here along with leasehold land. He had been an extremely wealthy guy. Boy Percival took control over Moorak. Before Percival’s death Moorak Estate had been partially bought by the SA government in 1904 for closer settlement once they acquired around 1,000 acres. After Percival’s demise a further 6,300 miles was obtained for better settlement plus the remainder associated with property was sold with other farmers. The government paid between £10 and £31 per acre for land. Percival Browne was highly respected in Mt Gambier and a reserve all over Blue Lake is named after him. The fourth associated with crater ponds of Mt Gambier can be named Browne’s Lake following the family but it happens to be dried out for decades. In 1900 Colonel Browne planted the ring of English Oaks around that which was in order to become the egg-shaped regarding the Marist Brothers university.

Moorak.
There clearly was a memorial by the place to William Browne as creator associated with Coriadale Sheep Stud. The truly amazing Moorak woolshed was demolished in 1939. The Union chapel which launched in 1920 had been utilized by the Methodists while the Anglicans. It is now a personal residence. Moorak hall was opened in 1926. Brand new classrooms were added to the Moorak School in 1928 plus the first spaces established in 1913. The mozzarella cheese factory in Moorak exposed in 1913 as a cooperative and had been sold to Farmers Union in 1949. They shut the factory in 1979. All of the mozzarella cheese produced at Moorak decided to go to the Melbourne market. The initial mozzarella cheese maker at Moorak ended up being trained at Lauterbach’s cheese factory at Woodside. Moorak had been among a circle of settlements around Mt Gambier which had butter/cheese industrial facilities. These cities had been: Kongorong; Glencoe East; Glencoe western; Suttontown; Glenburnie; Mil Lel; Yahl; OB Flat; Moorak; Mt Schank; and Eight Mile Creek.

Yahl.
In 1860s this little settlement was a tobacco, jump and potato growing region also it persisted with potatoes up to recent times. These days Yahl is a bit more than a suburban village of Mt Gambier with a Primary school with approx 120 students. The old federal government college was erected in 1879. It had a Methodist chapel built in 1880 which operated as a church until 1977 plus it had a sizable butter factory which had established in 1888. The butter and mozzarella cheese factory had been taken over by the OB Flat cheese factory in 1939 and two run along with each other. The OB Flat mozzarella cheese factory closed in 1950 and all sorts of manufacturing relocated to Yahl. The factory finally closed-in 1971. The township of Yahl also had an over-all Store and a Salvation Army Hall which was built-in 1919.

Sink Holes: Umpherston Gardens and Cave Gardens.
James Umpherston bought land near Mt Gambier in 1864 including a big sink-hole or collapsed cavern with a lake into the base. He had been created in Scotland in 1812 and came to SA in 1850s with his sibling William. William purchased his first land at Yahl in 1859. James Umpherston had been a civic minded chap being a nearby councilor, a parliamentarian in Adelaide for 2 many years and President regarding the Mt Gambier Agricultural and Horticultural Society for 13 years. When he retired from civic life and agriculture in 1884 he chose to create a yard inside the sinkhole. He beautified it and encouraged site visitors plus provided a boat when you look at the lake for watercraft rides. Access had been gained by steps and a path created to the sinkhole wall space. But after he died in 1900 the yard ended up being ignored, became overgrown and ended up being largely forgotten in 1949 if the Woods and Forests Department received the land for a sawmill at Mt Gambier. At that time the lake had dried-up whilst the water table had fallen throughout the decades. In 1976 staff, as opposed to the government, made a decision to restore the Umpherstone home gardens. The eliminated out the trash that were dumped in the sinkhole, restored the trail accessibility, trimmed the ivy and replanted the hydrangeas and tree ferns. In 1994 the Woos and Forests Department handed over the land across the sinkhole towards the City of Mt Gambier. It had been put into the SA Heritage join in 1995.