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Category: Auto Financing

DSC_0377. JPG.

DSC_0377. JPG.

A few good auto funding images I discovered:

DSC_0377. JPG
auto financing
< img alt=" automobile financing" src=" https://www.freecreditreportcompare.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/6987360420_200635fa66.jpg" width=" 400"/ > Picture by< a href=" http://www.flickr.com/photos/9161595@N03/6987360420" > Chris Devers On April 30, 2012, after several years of preparing & delays, building and construction lastly began on & the< a href=" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assembly_Square" rel=" nofollow" > Assembly Square development project in Somerville, MA. Estimating from< a href=" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assembly_Square" rel=" nofollow" > Wikipedia|Assembly Square:. [[ [
Assembly Square is a mixed-use,< a href=" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Smart_growth" rel=" nofollow" > clever development advancement prepared for 66.5 acres( 269,000 m2) along the< a href =" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mystic_River" rel=" nofollow" > Mystic River in Somerville, Massachusetts presently named” Setting up Row”. The website is 2 miles( 3 kilometres) from downtown Boston and also available by means of I-93 and also Path 28/< a href =" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Middlesex_Fells" rel=" nofollow" > Middlesex Fells Parkway. Currently under redevelopment by Federal Realty Investment company, Setting up Row will combine retail, household and commercial workplace. The first phase of the project, finished in early 2006, was the Assembly Square Industry containing the retailers Christmas Tree Shoppes, A.C. Moore, Sports Authority
, < a href=" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Staples_Inc." rel=" nofollow" > Staples, < a href=" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TJMaxx" rel=" nofollow" > TJMaxx,< a href=" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kmart" rel=" nofollow" > Kmart, and also Bed Bath & Beyond. The following stage of advancement, beginning with a brand-new Setting up Square Drive began construction in late 2010. The first significant development parcel was expected to be a brand-new IKEA shop but this has been postponed by IKEA Company.

[1] Succeeding stages will include the development of a new primary road giving costs retail and also domestic space, advanced workplace as well as < a href =" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Research_and_development" rel=" nofollow" > r & d area,< a href=" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Assembly_Square_( MBTA_station)" rel=" nofollow" > a new < a href =" http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/MBTA_Orange_Line" rel=" nofollow" > MBTA Orange Line public transportation station( forecasted opening, 2013) and also the revival of the waterfront along the Mystic River with parks as well as other green area.

When completed, Assembly Square will have pedestrian-oriented retail, real estate, and also 1,750,000 square feet (163,000 m2) of office as well as R&D area.

[2]
]]] Quoting from< a href=" http://www.necn.com/04/30/12/Next-stop-Assembly-Square/landing_business.html?blockID=699910&feedID=4209" rel=" nofollow" > NECN |.6 B growth begin in Somerville, Mass:. [[ [( NECN: Peter Howe, Somerville

, Mass.) It’s taken even more compared to Two Decade to obtainright here, however Monday was ceremonial innovative day for a. 6 billion redevelopment of Assembly Square right here, extensively seen as the largest example of “transit-oriented advancement” now underway on the East Coast. Fifty-four years after the closing of a Ford Electric motor Business car-assembly plant that offered the area its

name, Federal Realty Growth Depend on as well as AvalonBay Communities Inc. joined state and also city authorities to unveil plans for a remarkable transformation of a 67-acre industrial zone into an entire new transit-anchored area they hope will certainly someday be as big as well as successful as Davis Square or Concierge Square or Kendall Square or others. The Massachusetts bay Transport Authority Orange Line goes across by the eastern end of the task site, and also the T and designers are developing just what will be a brand-new stop opening up by mid-2014 between the existing Sullivan Square as well as Wellington quits. That places Setting up Square just three subway quits from downtown Boston. “It’s really been concerning Twenty Years of discussion in the area,” Somerville Mayor Joseph Curtatone said. “This is a city that has its hopes and also desires,”and I believe Somerville should have a round of praise for going after those hopes and dreams.” Jay Gonzalez, Governor Deval “L. Patrick’s secretary of administration and also financing, said, “This is the poster kid of exactly what we should be doing across the commonwealth and what we are attempting to do across the commonwealth … Public framework that sustains private financial investment to grow jobs. That’s what this project is about.” Authorities estimate the task has gotten 0 million in public funds, including million in 2009 federal stimulus act funds that were made use of to build an essential access roadway, that have in turn unlocked prepare for.5 billion secretive investment. Those include two Avalon apartment complexes with 453 homes, opening in between mid -and late 2013, including a new “Ava” facility with smaller apartments targeted at metropolitan hipsters with services like equipment shelfs for keeping bikes and stadium-seating public common rooms created to motivate socializing. The job in future phases could consist of as much as 1,500 more apartments, 2.2 million square feet of office, a resort, a” cinema complex, as well as various shops and also dining establishments, and also it will also showcase a six-acre beachfront park on the Mystic River attaching to miles of bike courses with a brand-new underpass under active
Route 28 at the Mystic. Swedish furnishings titan Ikea is examining whether to build a flagship Boston shop at the site also. Gonzalez claimed extensive research studies shown bond-rating agencies show that the city and also state will extra than recover, in brand-new income as well as sales and also company tax invoices, exactly what they’ve bought the task. “This is the real deal,” Gonzalez claimed. “We are getting that new tax obligation profits, and it is going to pay for itself.” With videographer John J. Hammann]
.]]

France Jet

France Jet

Some cool automobile funding images:

France Jet
auto financing
Image by Hugo-90
Built in France by Vantung Ngo’s Union Industrielle.

Ny Car Show of 1960. After the show in addition to failure for this endeavor, this car had been utilized by Jacques Fisher’s family.

The purple automobile was built following the auto program. There was clearly some interest because of this showing, but financing for production wasn’t secured, and so the planned 5000 cars a-year never got past one.

Aurélien Bellanger, painted portrait – la théorie de l’information.Ce portrait existe aussi en H.D.,11Mo libre de droit _1010214
auto financing
Image by Abode of Chaos

Ce portrait existe aussi en H.D.,11Mo libre de droit avec citation "Demeure du Chaos"
www.flickr.com/photos/home_of_chaos/7752043472/in/set-721…

Los angeles Théorie de l’information

La théorie de l’information par thierry Ehrmann

Dans un premier temps, je propose la share de Wikipedia sur la Théorie de l’Information qui est le nom usuel désignant notamment la théorie de l’information de Shannon, qui est une théorie probabiliste permettant de quantifier le contenu moyen en information d’un ensemble de emails, do not le codage informatique satisfait une circulation statistique précise. Ce domaine trouve boy origine scientifique avec Claude Shannon qui en est le père fondateur avec son article A Mathematical Theory of Communications publié en 1948.

Dans un deuxième temps je développe la sociologie et l’histoire relative à la théorie de l’information qui me sont propres dans ce web log.


Dans un soucis de traitement d’ une actualité immédiate, on doit souligner la sortie prochaine de "La théorie de l’information" écrit par Aurélien Bellanger, édité chez Gallimard lien Wikipédia, qui est pressenti par la presse comme la success story de la rentrée. Les InRoks, Technikart, Nouvel Observateur, Chronicart ect..

Dans ce livre, l’auteur décrit notamment l’ascension d’un génie de l’informatique dénommé Pascal Ertanger, don’t le parcours s’assimile à celui de Xavier Niel, Président de totally free (groupe Iliad).

On retrouve dans cet ouvrage des personnages clés comme Jean-Marie Messier, Thierry Breton, Thierry Ehrmann, Jacques-Antoine Granjon, Pierre Bellanger, Gérard Théry, Henri De Maublanc, Claude Perdriel, Cécile Alvergnat…

L’auteur, Aurélien Bellanger, est né en 1980, philosophe de development, porte ses recherches sur la métaphysique des mondes possibles. Il est l’auteur d’un essai "Houellebecq, écrivain romantique" édité chez Leo Scheer. Il intervient dans www.surlering.com/article/redacteur.php/redacteur/bellanger

Cet ouvrage tente de retracer la communication et les nouvelles technologies des années 1980 à 2000 et raconte surtout l’histoire des réseaux informatiques en France à travers le Minitel. L’auteur essayiste Aurélien Bellanger est présenté comme un disciple de Houellebecq et ancien libraire.

Pour revenir à los angeles chronologie scientifique de la Théorie de l’information

Parmi les limbs importantes de la théorie de l’information de Shannon, on peut citer selon wikipédia :

le codage de l’information,
la mesure quantitative de redondance d’un texte,
la compression de données,
la cryptographie.

Dans un sens plus général, une théorie de l’information est une théorie visant à quantifier et qualifier la notion de contenu en information présent dans un ensemble de données. À ce titre, il existe une autre théorie de l’information : la théorie algorithmique de l’information, créée par Kolmogorov, Solomonov et Chaitin au début des années 1960.
Sommaire

1 L’information selon Shannon, un concept de la physique mathématique
2 Le statut body de la théorie de l’information
3 Développement de la théorie mathématique de l’information
4 Exemples d’information
4.1 Premier exemple
4.2 2nd exemple
4.3 Information imparfaite
5 Contenu d’information et contexte
6 Mesure de la quantité d’information
6.1 Quantité d’information : cas élémentaire
6.2 Quantité d’information relative à un évènement
6.3 Entropie, formule de Shannon
6.4 Codage de l’information
7 Limites de cette théorie
8 Notes et références
9 Voir aussi
9.1 Articles connexes
9.2 Liens externes
10 Bibliographie

L’information selon Shannon, un idea de la body mathématique

L’information est un concept physique nouveau qui a surgi dans un champ technologique. Le concept théorique d’information a été introduit à partir de recherches théoriques sur les systèmes de télécommunication. L’origine de ces recherches remonte aux études compagnies dès la fin du XIXe siècle, en body et en mathématique par Boltzmann et Markov sur la idea de probabilité d’un événement et les possibilités de mesure de cette probabilité. Plus récemment, avant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, les efforts les plus importantes sont dues à la collaboration des mathématiciens et des ingénieurs des télécommunications, qui ont été amenés à envisager les propriétés théoriques de tout système de signaux utilisé par les êtres, vivants ou strategies, à des fins de interaction.

À la suite des travaux de Hartley (1928), Shannon détermine l’information comme brilliance observable et mesurable (1948), et celle-ci devient la poutre maîtresse de la théorie de la interaction qu’il élabore avec Warren Weaver.

Cette théorie est née de préoccupations techniques pratiques. Los angeles société Bell cherche à transmettre les messages de la façon à la fois la plus économique et la plus fiable. Aussi le cadre originel de la théorie est celui d’un système de communications où un émetteur transmet un message à un récepteur à travers un channel matériel/énergétique donné. Émetteur et récepteur ont par hypothèse un répertoire commun, un code qui contient les catégories de signaux utilisables. Ainsi le message codé est transmis, de l’émetteur au récepteur à travers le channel, sous forme de signes ou signaux portés par de la matière/énergie.

Ainsi, le concept d’information a été l’objet d’une théorie, appelée « théorie de l’information ». C’était une théorie mathématique appliquée aux methods de la télécommunication. Elle a été élaborée plus spécialement par Claude Shannon, ingénieur à la Compagnie des Téléphones Bell et reste jusqu’à nos jours la base du idea dit scientifique d’information.

Cependant cette définition mathématique de l’information ne pourrait s’appuyer ni sur la forme matérielle/énergétique, ni via le contenu cognitif des communications émis : leur contenu sémantique est laissé de côté, de même que leur contenant body, afin de ne s’intéresser qu’aux aspects mathématiques.

Dans sa conception originale, la théorie de l’information de Shannon s’est limitée à analyser les moyens à mettre en œuvre dans les strategies de télécommunication afin de transmettre l’information le plus rapidement possible et avec le maximum de sécurité. Elle s’est donc efforcée de développer des méthodes susceptibles de minimiser la probabilité d’erreur dans la reconnaissance du message. Une notion fondamentale sera nécessaire pour développer ces méthodes : la mesure de l’information, au sens mathématique du terme.

Pour Shannon, l’information présente un caractère essentiellement aléatoire. Un événement aléatoire est par définition incertain. Cette incertitude est prise comme mesure de l’information. Une information sera donc uniquement définie par sa probabilité (I = – wood p). Donc l’information est la mesure de l’incertitude calculée à partir de la probabilité de l’événement. Shannon a donc confondu la thought d’information et de mesure d’incertitude. Il faut remarquer que dans cette définition l’information est bien synonyme de mesure d’incertitude. Dans cet ordre d’idée, plus une information est incertaine, plus elle est intéressante, et un événement specific ne contient aucune information. En théorie de l’information de Shannon, il s’agit donc de raisonner en probabilité et non en logique pure.

L’information se mesure en unités d’information dites bits. Le bit peut être défini comme un événement qui dénoue l’incertitude d’un récepteur placé devant une alternative dont les deux dilemmas sont pour lui équiprobables. Plus les éventualités que peut envisager ce récepteur sont nombreuses, plus le message comporte d’événements informatifs, plus s’accroît la quantité de bits transmis. Il est clair que nul récepteur ne mesure en bits l’information obtenue dans un message. C’est seulement le constructeur d’un channel de télécommunication qui a besoin de la théorie, et mesure l’information en little bit afin de rendre la transmission de message la plus économique et la plus fiable.

Los angeles idea d’information d’après Shannon est nécessairement associée à la notion de « redondance » et à celle de « bruit ». Entre autres, en linguistique l’information n’est ni dans le mot, ni dans la syllabe, ni dans la lettre. Il y a des lettres voire des syllabes qui sont inutiles à la transmission de l’information que contient le mot : il y a dans une expression, des mots inutiles à la transmission de l’information. La théorie de Shannon appelle redondance tout ce qui dans le message apparaît comme en surplus. Aussi est-il économique de ne pas transmettre la redondance.

L’information chemine à travers un channel matériel/énergétique : fil téléphonique, onde radio, etc. Or, dans boy cheminement, l’information rencontre du bruit. Le bruit est constitué par les perturbations aléatoires de toutes sortes qui surgissent dans le channel de transmission et tendent à brouiller le message. Le problème de la dégradation de l’information par le bruit est donc un problème inhérent à sa interaction. Ici, l’idée de redondance présente une face nouvelle ; alors qu’elle apparaît comme un surplus inutile sous l’angle économique, elle devient, sous l’angle de los angeles fiabilité de la transmission un fortifiant contre le bruit, un préventif contre les risques d’ambiguïté et d’erreur à la réception.

Le statut body de la théorie de l’information

Très vite de multiples applications de la théorie de l’information de Shannon sont apparues dans le domaine des sciences humaines2 : les modèles mathématiques élaborés ont permis de préciser certains ideas utilisés couramment dans les analyses linguistiques structurales, en même temps qu’ils faisaient apparaître les limites inhérentes à ce type d’analyse et provoquaient des recherches nouvelles (en traduction automatique et en psycho-linguistique). Tandis que se développait un champ scientifique nouveau : la cybernétique3.

Cependant, une caractéristique majeure de la théorie shannonienne est de donner à la idea d’information (telle que définie par cette théorie) un statut body à component entière. Effectivement, l’information acquiert les caractères fondamentaux de toute réalité body organisée : abandonnée à elle-même, elle ne peut évoluer que dans le sens de sa désorganisation, c’est-à-dire l’accroissement d’entropie ; de fait, l’information subit, dans ses transformations (codage, transmission, décodage, etc..), l’effet irréversible et croissant de la dégradation. Par conséquent Shannon définit comme entropie d’information la mesure H ( H = – K wood p). De façon étonnante, l’équation par laquelle Shannon définit l’entropie de l’information coïncide, mais de signe inverse, avec l’équation de Boltzmann-Gibbs définissant l’entropie S en thermodynamique (S = K sign p).

Certains, comme Couffignal, ont soutenu avec raison que los angeles coïncidence est sans signification : l’application de la fonction de Shannon à la thermodynamique et à l’information est un hasard de rencontre de l’application d’une même formule mathématique, sans plus. Certes, il peut y avoir rencontre de deux équations de probabilité provenant d’univers différents. Toutefois Brillouin prétendait établir une connection logique entre le H de Shannon et le S de Boltzmann.

Selon ce point de vue, il est feasible d’inscrire l’information shannonienne dans la body. En effet, il existe une dualité dans le concept d’information reliant l’information à la matière/énergie véhiculant cette information. L’information shannonienne s’enracine dans la physique et les mathématiques, mais sans qu’on puisse la réduire aux maîtres-concepts de la physique classique, masse et énergie. Comme le dit Wiener : « l’information n’est ni la masse, ni l’énergie, l’information est l’information. »

Développement de la théorie mathématique de l’information

La théorie mathématique de l’Information résulte initialement des travaux de Ronald Aylmer Fisher. Celui-ci, statisticien, définit formellement l’information comme égale à los angeles valeur moyenne du carré de la dérivée du logarithme de la loi de probabilité étudiée.

À partir de l’inégalité de Cramer, on déduit que la valeur de toute telle information est proportionnelle à los angeles faible variabilité des conclusions résultantes. En termes simples, moins une observance est probable, plus son observance est porteuse d’information. Par exemple, lorsque le journaliste commence le journal télévisé par la phrase « Bonsoir », ce mot, qui présente une forte probabilité, n’apporte que peu d’information. En revanche, si la première expression est, ou autre « La France a peur », sa faible probabilité fera que l’auditeur apprendra qu’il s’est passé quelque decided on, et, partant, sera plus à l’écoute.

D’autres modèles mathématiques ont complété et étendu de façon formelle la définition de la théorie del’information.

Claude Shannon et Warren Weaver renforcent le paradigme. Ils sont ingénieurs en télécommunication et se préoccupent de mesurer l’information afin de en déduire les fondamentaux de la Communication (et non une théorie de l’information). Dans Théorie Mathématique de los angeles Communication en 1948, ils modélisent l’information pour étudier les lois correspondantes : bruit, entropie et chaos, par analogie générale aux lois d’énergétique et de thermodynamique. Leurs travaux complétant ceux d’Alan Turing, de Norbert Wiener et de John von Neumann (afin de ne citer que les principaux) constituent le socle initial de la théorie du sign et des « Sciences de l’Information ».

Pour une source X comportant n symboles, un symbole i ayant une probabilité p_i d’apparaître, l’entropie H de la source X est définie comme :

H(X)=-sum_i^n p_i log_2 p_i

C’est au départ le logarithme naturel qui est utilisé. On le remplacera pour commodité par le logarithme à base 2, correspondant à une information qui est le little bit. Les considérations d’entropie maximale (MAXENT) permettront à l’inférence bayésienne de définir de façon rationnelle ses distributions a priori.

L’informatique constituera une déclinaison technique automatisant les traitements (dont la transmission et le transport) d’information. L’appellation « Technologies de l’Information et de la correspondence » recouvre les différents aspects (systèmes de traitements, réseaux, etc.) de l’informatique au sens large.

Les sciences de l’information dégagent du sens depuis des données en s’appuyant sur des concerns de corrélation, d’entropie et d’apprentissage (voir Data mining). Les technologies de l’information, quant à elles, s’occupent de los angeles façon de concevoir, implémenter et déployer des solutions pour répondre à des besoins identifiés.

Adrian Mc Donough dans Ideas business economics définit l’information comme la rencontre d’une donnée (information) et d’un problème. Los angeles connaissance (knowledge) est une information potentielle. Le rendement informationnel d’un système de traitement de l’information est le quotient entre le nombre de bits du réservoir de données et celui de l’information extraite. Les data sont le expense part du système, l’information, le price side. Il en résulte que lorsqu’un informaticien calcule la productivité de boy système par le relationship entre la quantité de données produites et le coût financier, il commet une erreur, vehicle les deux termes de l’équation négligent la quantité d’information réellement produite. Cette remarque prend tout child sens à la lumière du grand principe de Russel Ackoff qui postule qu’au-delà d’une certaine masse de données, la quantité d’information baisse et qu’à la limite elle devient nulle.

Ceci match à l’adage « trop d’information détruit l’information ». Ce constat est aggravé quand le récepteur du système est un processeur humain, et pis encore, le conscient d’un representative humain. En effet, l’information est tributaire de la sélection opérée par l’attention, et par l’intervention de données affectives, émotionnelles, et structurelles absentes de l’ordinateur. L’information se transforme alors en sens, puis en inspiration. Une information qui ne produit aucun sens est nulle et non avenue concernant le récepteur humain, même si elle est acceptable pour un robot. Une information chargée de sens mais non irriguée par une énergie psychologique (drive, cathexis, libido, ep, etc.) est morte. On constate donc que dans la chaîne qui mène de la donnée à l’action (données → information → connaissance → sens → motivation), seules les deux premières changes sont prises en compte par la théorie de l’information classique et par la sémiologie. Kevin Bronstein remarque que l’automate ne définit l’information que par deux valeurs : le nombre de bits, la framework et l’organisation des sèmes, alors que le psychisme fait intervenir des facteurs dynamiques tels que passion, inspiration, désir, répulsion, etc. qui donnent vie à l’information psychologique.
Exemples d’information

Une information désigne, parmi un ensemble d’événements, un ou plusieurs événements possibles.

En théorie, l’information diminue l’incertitude. En théorie de los angeles décision, on considère même qu’il ne faut appeler « information » que ce qui est « vulnerable d’avoir un effet sur nos décisions » (peu de choses dans un journal sont à ce compte des informations…)

En pratique, l’excès d’information, tel qu’il se présente dans les systèmes de messagerie électronique, peut aboutir à une saturation, et empêcher la prise de décision.
Premier exemple

Soit une resource pouvant produire des tensions entières de 1 à 10 volts et un récepteur qui va mesurer cette tension. Avant l’envoi du courant électrique par la supply, le récepteur n’a aucune idée de la stress qui sera délivrée par la resource. En revanche, une fois le courant émis et reçu, l’incertitude sur le courant émis diminue. Los angeles théorie de l’information considère que le récepteur possède une incertitude de 10 états.
2nd exemple

Une bibliothèque possède un grand nombre d’ouvrages, des revues, des livres et des dictionnaires. Nous cherchons un cours complet sur la théorie de l’information. Tout d’abord, il est logique que nous ne trouverons pas ce dossier dans des ouvrages d’arts ou de littérature ; nous venons de ce fait d’obtenir une information qui diminuera notre temps de recherche. Nous avions précisé que nous voulions aussi un cours complet, nous ne le trouverons donc ni dans une revue, ni dans un dictionnaire. nous avons obtenu une information supplémentaire (nous cherchons un livre), qui réduira encore le temps de notre recherche.

Soit un réalisateur dont j’aime 2 movies sur trois. Un review que je connais bien éreinte son dernier film et je sais que je partage en moyenne les analyses de ce critique quatre fois sur cinq. Cette critique me dissuadera-t-elle d’aller voir le movie ? C’est là la concern centrale de l’inférence bayésienne, qui se quantifie aussi en bits.

Resource Wikipédia

Los angeles collection va être écrite sous forme de nouvelles, de conférences, d’interview de différent journaux tel que Time magazine sur los angeles théorie de l’information et de notes de réflexion de Juillet et Aout 2012; dans l’attente de la suite, il est nécessaire d’absorber cette correspondance sulfureuse sur ce que sera la"théorie de l’information" (ITW de thierry Ehrmann par Laurent Courau himself dans la mythique Spirale.org) lire le lien suivant:

une démarche s’imposait sur la théorie de l’information cliquer sur le lien (texte bilingue FR/ EN)

et bien sur ce texte sur la Théorie de l’information au cœur de la Demeure du Chaos, d’Artprice et groupe Serveur.

L’Alchimie entre Los Angeles Demeure du Chaos, groupe Serveur et Artprice
par thierry Ehrmann

L’univers de Los Angeles Demeure du Chaos est indissociable de l’incroyable histoire d’Artprice, frontrunner mondial de l’information sur le marché de l’art et du Groupe Serveur, pionnier historique en European countries des banques de données en ligne depuis 1987.

Nos visiteurs sont toujours interpellés par le double visage de La Demeure du Chaos. Il est dur pour eux d’imaginer que, sous l’héliport, il y a des salles blanches devices où opèrent près de 900 serveurs qui distribuent le savoir dans le monde par Internet à travers nos propres fibres optiques. De même, au rez-de-chaussée et au premier étage, près de 90 personnes se relaient jour et nuit sans aucune disruption afin de piloter et aiguiller à travers le monde, les grands flux d’informations que nous produisons et faisons transiter par l’online.

Un peu plus haut au cœur du bâtiment main, les salles de catalogues et manuscrits, avec plus de 290 000 catalogues de ventes de 1700 à nos jours, accueillent nos chercheurs et rédacteurs qui les commentent et les numérisent pour previous ce qui est désormais reconnu comme le plus grand fonds de l’histoire du marché de l’art. Ainsi, nous avons écrit plus d’un million de biographies et opinioné puis répertorié, 110 hundreds of thousands d’œuvres d’art avec leurs pictures haute définition accessibles par l’Web.

Un des postulats de La Demeure du Chaos est de reformer cette révolution du savoir que l’on a connue pendant la Renaissance européenne et notamment à Lyon, qui fût une grande métropole. La Renaissance européenne est, selon moi, inséparable d’une invention, celle de l’imprimerie, et du nouveau paradigme du savoir que celle-ci allow, sa diffusion.

C’est la possibilité de dupliquer mécaniquement des informations qui a favorisé l’émergence de la pensée humaniste : l’érudit pouvait enfin comparer les idées, se référer à de lointaines sources manuscrites, faire connaître l’héritage philosophique et propager sa vision individuelle à une general grande échelle. A cette révolution strategy se joignit l’essor des voyages de découverte : le mouvement de la connaissance est alors horizontal, géographique, missionnaire; la pensée s’oriente vers le progrès, moteur d’une histoire purement occidentale.

Cette époque, initiée par Gütenberg, s’achève aujourd’hui, au minute où la terre se voit entièrement recouverte de réseaux d’information, arpentée dans ses moindres recoins par Internet où Los Angeles Demeure du Chaos, devient afin de moi un Global Web trade (gix), véritable nœud modal d’un savoir en grid où se diffuse la connaissance à travers le reseau.

La Demeure du Chaos est un état dans l’état, un véritable kernel du système républicain.

Los angeles dualité entre ma qualité de fondateur du Groupe Serveur, d’Artprice, qui est cotée en bourse sur le premier marché réglementé, et ma vie de plasticien depuis 25 ans, rejoint l’autre dualité qui est le lieu. Le musée l’Organe est, quant à lui, un établissement recevant le grand public, un musée à ciel ouvert et gratuit ou transitent chaque année 120 000 visiteurs qui viennent voir les milliers d’œuvres de la Demeure, mais aussi découvrir comment l’art vit avec l’industrie protéiforme du XXIe siècle.

Los angeles Demeure du Chaos est le lieu du labeur où travaillent les érudits, mais aussi ma résidence personnelle et celle de mon clan. Sans aucune concession, je marque chaque pierre, chaque toit, chaque sol, chaque arbre, de mes œuvres, comme conformément au postulat du 09/12/1999.

Cette dualité qui confronte mon engagement de sculpteur plasticien et auteur depuis 25 ans, à ma transversalité de fondateur d’Artprice, du Groupe Serveur et de ses 12 filiales, est à l’origine de critiques parfois violentes d’un patronat conservateur et étriqué mais elle me permet, en échange, par l’atmosphère onirique du lieu, d’accueillir des scientifiques de premier plan et mutants capables d’affronter n’importe quel système économique quelque soit le continent. Le nombre impressionnant de nationalités diverses et variées témoigne de cette nouvelle Babylone du numérique du savoir et de l’information qu’est Los Angeles Demeure du Chaos.

Les remarques incisives et pertinentes de l’Autorité des Marchés Financiers dans nos désormais célèbres papers de référence concernant le marché réglementé, traduisent l’évolution de ma pensée artistique et du passage à l’acte dans le monde économique. Certaines conventions réglementées entre La Demeure du Chaos et les groupes deviennent des prophéties auto-réalisantes où le pouvoir de l’art s’invite dans le monde de la finance. Ma démarche duale enrichit de manière spirituelle Los Angeles Demeure du Chaos, et de manière matérielle nos 18 000 actionnaires…

Comment peut-on bâtir ex-nihilo Artprice, société mythique qui source 90% de la presse mondiale sur l’information du marché de l’art, sans être soi-même, dans sa chair et boy âme, un plasticien passionné d’histoire de l’art ?

La Demeure du Chaos est une redoutable machine de guerre, un cheval de Troie au cœur des marchés financiers. Elle produit et diffuse des sommes de connaissances inimaginables sur le marché de l’art, du droit, de l’économie, de la research pendant que jours et nuits, nous autres plasticiens, intervenons sur les 9 000 m2 afin de (ré)écrire avec notre respect d’artiste, l’histoire du monde dé-légendée.

Nos treatments radicales sur la déconstruction de l’habitat professionnel et personnel ainsi que du mobilier a impacté les 2 500 m2 de bureaux où travaillent le Groupe Serveur, ses filiales, et Artprice.

Cette démarche humaniste est partagée entre les artistes et les collaborateurs des deux groupes.

La Demeure du Chaos possède deux visages : celui de l’Alchimie (L’Esprit de la Salamandre) et celui de l’hyper modernité. Mais elle a aussi deux incarnations : celle de l’incarnat physique, avec ses 3 609 œuvres (sculptures, peintures, installments) gravées dans sa seat, avec boy two fold sur Internet où plus de 1 200 000 internet sites restituent en photographs ou en movies tous les regards du monde sur les entrailles de Los Angeles Demeure du Chaos lors de leurs visites. Sur Bing, en novembre 2007, sur les requêtes “Demeure du Chaos” et “Abode of Chaos”, il sort 1 413 000 résultats pointant sur des millions de photographs et vidéos de La Demeure du Chaos.

En effet, je suis persuadé que l’online est la métaphore du Divin, si ce n’est le Divin lui-même. La voix sèche qui illumine La Demeure du Chaos lui donne le don d’ubiquité entre le monde physique et celui des idées.

Lorsque j’ai démarré Internet en 1987, nous étions moins de 50 000 dans le monde mais j’avais la foi dans la plus grande révolution de toute l’histoire du progrès humain. Internet est mon univers depuis 21 ans où j’ai fondé web Nobility (cf Time Magazine) pour que demeure toujours, par la volonté des pionniers, cet Online qui est afin de moi, le fils naturel de Proudhon et Bakounine.

Nous sommes en train à La Demeure du Chaos de participer à la reconstruction de la bibliothèque d’Alexandrie de nos pères.

Mémoire du monde selon Philippe Quéau de l’UNESCO, online et l’information se joue des frontières, du pouvoir des nations et abolit au passage tous les régimes hostiles à los angeles libre blood circulation de l’information. Cette dématérialisation de notre ancien monde et de son économie par online crée child empire numérique via le parvis du XXIe siècle sous la forme du grand village glocal (globale
et locale) et chaotique, cher au sociologue Marshall Mc Luhan.

Ainsi, l’éducation, la recherche, le trade, l’économie et l’organisation générale des info vont connaître, en un laps de temps extrêmement réduit, des mutations inimaginables. Jamais dans l’histoire de l’humanité, une révolution scientifique n’a impacté autant de gens, en aussi peu de temps, en tout endroit du monde.

Ainsi, plus de 230 états nations qui ont chacun 2 à 3 siècles de cadre législatif et réglementaire
s’annihilent devant une révolution scientifique qui abolit le territoire et le temps. Ce passageway du territoire au cyber espace constitue un des grands bouleversements de l’organisation humaine, et il est d’autant plus important d’en comprendre le sens qu’il entraîne une transformation
majeure de los angeles nature même de nos perceptions et de nos rapports sociaux.
Dans l’univers effréné de l’online et de la révolution numérique, les entreprises doivent se montrer beaucoup plus protéiformes, capables de changer de profil en un clin d’œil afin de s’adapter à de nouvelles problems économiques draconiennes. La Demeure du Chaos, quartier général du groupe Serveur et d’Artprice, est selon la presse économique anglo-saxonne une forme d’aboutissement ultime d’une économie plus cérébrale, pourrait-on dire, dont l’objet est l’accès au temps et à l’activité de l’esprit.

Tous les jours, par Los Angeles Demeure du Chaos et ses œuvres, nous entrons dans un tout autre monde, beaucoup plus cérébral et immatériel, un monde de formes platoniciennes, d’idées, d’images et d’archétypes, de ideas et de scénarios. Un monde gouverné par la logique de l’accès au savoir, de l’information et du réseau Web, ce sont les idées qui deviennent la matière première de l’activité économique, et le but suprême est la connaissance universelle à travers les serveurs d’information.

Governing by Networks
Map of Internet/arpanet sur la Face ouest du Bunker de los angeles Demeure du Chaos
(toile d’acier glycero de 36 m2)

Los angeles théorie de l’information prend alors tous boy sens.

Être able d’étendre à l’infini sa présence mentale, être universellement connecté afin de pouvoir affecter et élever peu à peu la connaissance des êtres humains par la circulation du savoir et de l’information organisés (la banque de données), telle est l’ambition humaniste du troisième millénaire.

N’oublions pas que la idea moderne de propriété, caractérisée par la ownership privée, l’exclusivité et l’échange marchand, était une des institutions centrales de l’ère industrielle. Au bout de cinq dollars ans d’hégémonie, cette vision de la civilisation reposant sur l’échange marchand entre vendeurs et acheteurs de propriété est soumis à une déconstruction radicale qui rejoint le postulat conceptuel que j’ai écrit le 9 décembre 1999 de Los Angeles Demeure du Chaos.

Le nouvel horizon de l’époque est défini par la logique de l’accès au savoir et à l’information par les serveurs, qui nous amène à repenser les rapports économiques, l’action politique et la perception de notre propre identité telle qu’elle émerge du plus profond de la conscience humaine.

La Demeure du Chaos est une cité médiévale où, dans l’ombre de nos entrailles, nous travaillons à modifier la vision du monde. Un célèbre analyste de Goldman Sachs résume fort bien le tout : “L’Alchimie est présente partout, même dans vos activities en bourse qui ont connu la plus forte croissance, toutes sociétés confondues. Vous avez créé une Alchimie entre votre folie artistique et votre vision de l’industrie du troisième millénaire dans groupe Serveur”. “Avec Artprice et ses 1 300 000 abonnés, vous faites basculer le marché de l’art dans l’hyper modernité en le dématérialisant”.

Quand nos visiteurs économiques repartent ébranlés par cette vision duale de nos groupes dans La Demeure du Chaos, je ne peux m’empêcher de leur dire: vous n’avez encore rien vu ! Ce que nous allons vivre dans les toutes prochaines années dépassera de très loin tous les écrits d’anticipation et de science-fiction…

Pour comprendre la dualité de ma démarche de plasticien et de bâtisseur du savoir, je reprendrai la citation de mon vieux maître Pythagore le premier des philosophes afin de lequel tout est nombre, à l’exception des essences que sont les émotions humaines non quantifiables, indicibles et se jouant des nombres

thierry Ehrmann (à suivre…)

Lone Star Auto Sales

Lone Star Auto Sales

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Image by jamesmixon84
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DSC_0385.JPG
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Image by Chris Devers
On April 30, 2012, after many years of planning & delays, construction finally started on the Assembly Square development project in Somerville, MA.

Quoting from Wikipedia | Assembly Square:

[ [ [

Assembly Square is a mixed-use, smart growth development planned for 66.5 acres (269,000 m2) along the Mystic River in Somerville, Massachusetts presently named "Assembly Row". The site is two miles (3 km) from downtown Boston and accessible via I-93 and Route 28/Middlesex Fells Parkway.

Currently under redevelopment by Federal Realty Investment Trust, Assembly Row will combine retail, residential and commercial office space. The first phase of the project, completed in early 2006, was the Assembly Square Marketplace containing the retail stores Christmas Tree Shoppes, A.C. Moore, Sports Authority, Staples, TJMaxx, Kmart, and Bed Bath & Beyond.

The next phase of development, beginning with a new Assembly Square Drive began construction in late 2010. The first major development parcel was expected to be a new IKEA store but this has been put on hold by IKEA Corporation.

[1] Subsequent phases will include the development of a new main street providing premium retail and residential space, state-of-the-art office and research and development space, a new MBTA Orange Line mass transit station (projected opening, 2013) and the renewal of the waterfront along the Mystic River with parks and other green space.

When completed, Assembly Square will have pedestrian-oriented retail, housing, and 1,750,000 square feet (163,000 m2) of office and R&D space. [2]

] ] ]

Quoting from NECN | .6B development breaks ground in Somerville, Mass:

[ [ [

(NECN: Peter Howe, Somerville, Mass.) It’s taken more than 20 years to get here, but Monday was ceremonial groundbreaking day for a .6 billion redevelopment of Assembly Square here, widely seen as the biggest example of "transit-oriented development" now underway on the East Coast.

Fifty-four years after the closing of a Ford Motor Company car-assembly plant that gave the area its name, Federal Realty Development Trust and AvalonBay Communities Inc. joined state and city officials to unveil plans for a dramatic transformation of a 67-acre industrial zone into a whole new transit-anchored neighborhood they hope will one day be as big and thriving as Davis Square or Porter Square or Kendall Square or others.

The Massachusetts bay Transportation Authority Orange Line crosses by the eastern end of the project site, and the T and developers are building what will be a new stop opening by mid-2014 between the existing Sullivan Square and Wellington stops. That puts Assembly Square just three subway stops from downtown Boston.

"It’s really been about 20 years of discussion in the community,” Somerville Mayor Joseph Curtatone said. "This is a city that has its hopes and dreams, and I think Somerville deserves a round of applause for pursuing those hopes and dreams."

Jay Gonzalez, Governor Deval L. Patrick’s secretary of administration and finance, said, "This is the poster child of what we should be doing across the commonwealth and what we are trying to do across the commonwealth … Public infrastructure that supports private investment to grow jobs. That’s what this project is all about.”

Officials estimate the project has received 0 million in public funds, including million in 2009 federal stimulus act funds that were used to construct a key access road, that have in turn unlocked plans for .5 billion in private investment. Those include two Avalon apartment complexes with 453 apartments, opening between mid- and late 2013, including a new "Ava" complex with smaller apartments aimed at urban hipsters with amenities like gear racks for storing bikes and stadium-seating public common spaces designed to encourage socializing.

The project in future phases could include up to 1,500 more apartments, 2.2 million square feet of office space, a hotel, a cinema complex, and numerous stores and restaurants, and it will also feature a six-acre waterfront park on the Mystic River connecting to miles of bike paths with a new underpass under busy Route 28 at the Mystic. Swedish furniture giant Ikea is evaluating whether to build a flagship Boston store at the site as well.

Gonzalez said extensive studies shared with bond-rating agencies show that the city and state will more than recoup, in new income and sales and corporate tax receipts, what they’ve invested in the project.

"This is the real deal," Gonzalez said. "We are going to get that new tax revenue, and it is going to pay for itself.”

With videographer John J. Hammann

] ] ]

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: main hall panorama (SR-71, Space Shuttle, et al)
auto financing
Image by Chris Devers
See more photos of this, and the Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird:

No reconnaissance aircraft in history has operated globally in more hostile airspace or with such complete impunity than the SR-71, the world’s fastest jet-propelled aircraft. The Blackbird’s performance and operational achievements placed it at the pinnacle of aviation technology developments during the Cold War.

This Blackbird accrued about 2,800 hours of flight time during 24 years of active service with the U.S. Air Force. On its last flight, March 6, 1990, Lt. Col. Ed Yielding and Lt. Col. Joseph Vida set a speed record by flying from Los Angeles to Washington, D.C., in 1 hour, 4 minutes, and 20 seconds, averaging 3,418 kilometers (2,124 miles) per hour. At the flight’s conclusion, they landed at Washington-Dulles International Airport and turned the airplane over to the Smithsonian.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Lockheed Aircraft Corporation

Designer:
Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson

Date:
1964

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 55ft 7in. x 107ft 5in., 169998.5lb. (5.638m x 16.942m x 32.741m, 77110.8kg)
Other: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 107ft 5in. x 55ft 7in. (5.638m x 32.741m x 16.942m)

Materials:
Titanium

Physical Description:
Twin-engine, two-seat, supersonic strategic reconnaissance aircraft; airframe constructed largley of titanium and its alloys; vertical tail fins are constructed of a composite (laminated plastic-type material) to reduce radar cross-section; Pratt and Whitney J58 (JT11D-20B) turbojet engines feature large inlet shock cones.

• • • • •

See more photos of this, and the Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Space Shuttle Enterprise:

Manufacturer:
Rockwell International Corporation

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 57 ft. tall x 122 ft. long x 78 ft. wing span, 150,000 lb.
(1737.36 x 3718.57 x 2377.44cm, 68039.6kg)

Materials:
Aluminum airframe and body with some fiberglass features; payload bay doors are graphite epoxy composite; thermal tiles are simulated (polyurethane foam) except for test samples of actual tiles and thermal blankets.

The first Space Shuttle orbiter, "Enterprise," is a full-scale test vehicle used for flights in the atmosphere and tests on the ground; it is not equipped for spaceflight. Although the airframe and flight control elements are like those of the Shuttles flown in space, this vehicle has no propulsion system and only simulated thermal tiles because these features were not needed for atmospheric and ground tests. "Enterprise" was rolled out at Rockwell International’s assembly facility in Palmdale, California, in 1976. In 1977, it entered service for a nine-month-long approach-and-landing test flight program. Thereafter it was used for vibration tests and fit checks at NASA centers, and it also appeared in the 1983 Paris Air Show and the 1984 World’s Fair in New Orleans. In 1985, NASA transferred "Enterprise" to the Smithsonian Institution’s National Air and Space Museum.

Transferred from National Aeronautics and Space Administration

Appearance For The very best Alternative Of Acquiring An Automobile With Auto Funding

Appearance For The very best Alternative Of Acquiring An Automobile With Auto Funding

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by Home of Disorder In situation your revenue is stable,

as well as you have evidence of being employed; you must have the ability to obtain a financing on the new cars and truck or a pre-owned automobile, problem complimentary. With the advent of on-line carriers of car financing, the tale has progressed for the not so wealthy course. There are bigger alternatives, much better rates of interest and positive repayment terms to select from. Thus, vehicle funding generates a new hope for lots of that have been trying to find that assistance in getting a car for their family.Auto financing has actually never been as simple to obtain as it is today. With not so stringent standards in Canada, car customers can look at minimizing their instant economic problem and spreading it over a time period. This works well for individuals who have savings yet inadequate to acquire an auto outright or in a break up. Therefore, an extra profitable technique is to select auto financing. With great deal of loan providers entering this section, the vehicle funding sector has rapidly progressed into a huge business. A four wheeler is a guaranteed ethical booster and also standing statement for a lot of the households in any type of component of the nation or the globe. Therefore, all those borderline cases, where family members were unsure whether to start, have actually been provided the final push by these financial tools. Undoubtedly, for some, these funding alternative have made a world of difference. With more firms cropping up, the terms as well as rate of interest simply obtained a little bit more customer friendly.The reality of the matter is that, even with a poor credit score record, today one could receive an auto funding lending. In Canada, one has unbelievable options in terms of the financing options that are offered. With the arrival of online car funding options, the whole procedure of credentials check, processing and also disbursement is completed within days. The only distinction that a person could locate is the interest prices or the deposits in between the consumers with great credit score documents and those with not so good documents. For individuals with a substandard credit report the deposit is going to be higher. Some financers may boost the passion prices for the people where the credit history are not so good. Unlike other nations, in Canada, the private with a bad credit report rating still has a much far better chance of obtaining a good automobile financing choice. As the installment payments takes place consistently so does the favorable modification in the credit scores score.In Canada, one could additionally benefit from the option of refinancing. A term very couple of would certainly have become aware of, usually, a lot of people think that as soon as an auto funding option is taken, that is final. The answer is no, if in situation the marketplace scenario changes as well as there are much better alternatives available, there would certainly be more than one firm ready to provide you a much better deal compared to the existing carrier. Well this is certainly one element people must take a look at, for far better payment options. Then one could take a look at the alternative of getting a previously possessed vehicle via automobile financing. Normally the term available for a car financing is 5 to 7 years. Something is for sure; just do not simply pass the words of the supplier, if you are taking an auto funding option, look about, you may definitely find something much better. For all your needs for very easy vehicle funding in Canada and recognizing your dream to own and drive your desire car, please do visit our site-http://www.creditgo.ca/index.php?updateLang=fr (French)or call us now. Related Auto Funding Articles

Cool Auto Financing photos

Cool Auto Financing photos

Some nice automobile funding photos i discovered:

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: Hawker Hurricane Mk. IIC, with Northrop P-61C Ebony Widow, B-29 Superfortress “Enola Gay”, and SR-71 Blackbird when you look at the back ground
auto funding
Picture by Chris Devers
See much more photos of the, in addition to Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and area Museum: Steven F. Udvar-Hazy | Hawker Hurricane Mk. IIC:

Hawker Chief Designer Sydney Camm’s Hurricane ranks with important plane designs in armed forces aviation record. Designed in the belated 1930s, when monoplanes were considered unstable and too radical to reach your goals, the Hurricane had been the very first British monoplane fighter while the first British fighter to meet or exceed 483 kilometers (300 miles) hourly in amount journey. Hurricane pilots fought the Luftwaffe and assisted win the Battle of Britain during summer of 1940.

This Mark IIC was built at Langley factory, near something now Heathrow Airport, early in 1944. It served as an exercise plane throughout the World War II in the Royal Air power’s 41 OTU.

Donated by the Royal Air Force Museum

Maker:
Hawker Aircraft Ltd.

Date:
1944

Country of Origin:
United Kingdom

Measurements:
Wingspan: 12.2 m (40 ft)
Length: 9.8 m (32 ft 3 in)
Height: 4 m (13 ft)
Body weight, empty: 2,624 kg (5,785 pound)
Body weight, gross: 3,951 kg (8,710 pound)
Top rate:538 km/h (334 miles per hour)
System:Rolls-Royce Merlin XX, liquid-cooled in-line V, 1,300 hp
Armament:four 20 mm Hispano cannons
Ordnance:two 250-lb or two 500-lb bombs or eight 3-in rockets

Products:
Fuselage: metal pipe with plane spruce kinds and textile, aluminum cowling
Wings: Stressed Skin Aluminum
Horizontal Stablizer: Stress Skin aluminum
Rudder: textile covered aluminum
Control Surfaces: textile covered aluminum

Real Information:
Hawker Hurricane Mk. IIC solitary chair, low-wing monoplane ground-attack fighter; enclosed seat; metallic pipe fuselage with aircraft spruce forms and fabric, aluminum cowling, exhausted skin aluminum wings and horizontal stablizer, material covered aluminum rudder and control surfaces; grey green camoflage top surface decorate system with dove gray underside; red and blue nationwide roundel on upper wing area and red, white, and blue roundel reduced wing surface; purple, white, blue, and yellow roundel fuselage edges; red, white and blue end flash; Rolls-Royce Merlin XX, liquid cooled V-12, 1,280 horsepower motor; Armament, 4: 20mm Hispano cannons.

• • • • •

See much more photographs with this, and also the Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian nationwide Air and area Museum: Steven F. Udvar-Hazy | Northrop P-61C Ebony Widow:

The P-61 Black Widow ended up being 1st U.S. plane made to locate and destroy enemy plane at night as well as in inclement weather, a task authorized by the use of on-board radar. The prototype first flew in 1942. P-61 fight businesses started right after D-Day, Summer 6, 1944, when Black Widows flew deeply into German airspace, bombing and strafing trains and roadway traffic. Functions within the Pacific started at comparable time. Because of the end of World War II, Ebony Widows had seen combat in most movie theater and had destroyed 127 enemy plane and 18 German V-1 buzz bombs.

The Museum’s Ebony Widow, a P-61C-1-NO, ended up being sent to the Army Air Forces in July 1945. It took part in cold-weather tests, high-altitude drop examinations, and in the National Thunderstorm venture, that the top turret had been removed to make area for thunderstorm monitoring equipment.

Transported from United States Of America Air Energy.

Maker:
Northrop Aircraft Inc.

Date:
1943

Nation of Origin:
Usa

Proportions:
In general: 450 x 1500cm, 10637kg, 2000cm (14ft 9 3/16in. x 49ft 2 9/16in., 23450.3lb., 65ft 7 3/8in.)

• • • • •

Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Boeing B-29 Superfortress "Enola Gay":

Boeing’s B-29 Superfortress ended up being the absolute most advanced propeller-driven bomber of World War II together with very first bomber to house its crew in pressurized compartments. Although made to fight in the European movie theater, the B-29 found its niche on the reverse side of the globe. When you look at the Pacific, B-29s delivered many different aerial tools: main-stream bombs, incendiary bombs, mines, and two atomic weapons.

On August 6, 1945, this Martin-built B-29-45-MO dropped the first atomic gun used in combat on Hiroshima, Japan. 3 days later on, Bockscar (on screen at the U.S. Air power Museum near Dayton, Ohio) dropped an additional atomic bomb on Nagasaki, Japan. Enola Gay flew because the advance climate reconnaissance aircraft that time. A third B-29, The Great Artiste, flew as an observation plane on both missions.

Transferred from the US Air Energy.

Maker:
Boeing Aircraft Co.
Martin Co., Omaha, Nebr.

Date:
1945

Nation of Origin:
United states

Dimensions:
In general: 900 x 3020cm, 32580kg, 4300cm (29ft 6 5/16in. x 99ft 1in., 71825.9lb., 141ft 15/16in.)

Materials:
Polished total aluminum finish

Physical Description:
Four-engine heavy bomber with semi-monoqoque fuselage and high-aspect ratio wings. Refined aluminum finish in general, standard late-World War II Army Air Forces insignia on wings and aft fuselage and serial quantity on straight fin; 509th Composite Group markings painted in black; "Enola Gay" in black, block letters on reduced left nostrils.

• • • • •

See more photographs with this, and also the Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird:

No reconnaissance aircraft ever sold has actually operated globally much more hostile airspace or with such full impunity than the SR-71, the entire world’s fastest jet-propelled plane. The Blackbird’s overall performance and working accomplishments placed it within peak of aviation technology improvements throughout the cool War.

This Blackbird accrued about 2,800 hours of flight time during 24 many years of energetic service aided by the U.S. Air energy. On its last trip, March 6, 1990, Lt. Col. Ed Yielding and Lt. Col. Joseph Vida put a speed record by flying from Los Angeles to Washington, D.C., in an hour, 4 minutes, and 20 seconds, averaging 3,418 kilometers (2,124 miles) per hour. Within journey’s conclusion, they landed at Washington-Dulles airport terminal and turned the aircraft up to the Smithsonian.

Transmitted from the US Air Energy.

Manufacturer:
Lockheed Aircraft Corporation

Fashion Designer:
Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson

Date:
1964

Country of Origin:
Usa

Dimensions:
Total: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 55ft 7in. x 107ft 5in., 169998.5lb. (5.638m x 16.942m x 32.741m, 77110.8kg)
Other: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 107ft 5in. x 55ft 7in. (5.638m x 32.741m x 16.942m)

Materials:
Titanium

Real Description:
Twin-engine, two-seat, supersonic strategic reconnaissance aircraft; airframe built largley of titanium and its alloys; vertical tail fins tend to be made of a composite (laminated plastic-type material) to cut back radar cross-section; Pratt and Whitney J58 (JT11D-20B) turbojet motors feature huge inlet surprise cones.

Cool Auto Financing images

Cool Auto Financing images

A few nice auto financing images I found:

the Great Hedge Fund Hei$t
auto financing
Image by eyewashdesign: A. Golden
New Yorkers Protest the US0 BILLION (US TRILLION) Wall Street BAILOUT: Wall Street, NYC – September 25, 2008

VOTE YOUR CONSCIENCE on 04 NOVEMBER 2008!

Photographer: a. golden, eyewash design – c. 2008.

This is actually a GOOD guy. See: billionairesforbush.com/index.php for more information.

Friends,

The richest 400 Americans — that’s right, just four-hundred people — own MORE than the bottom 150 million Americans COMBINED! 400 of the wealthiest Americans have got more stashed away than half the entire country! Their combined net worth is .6 trillion. During the eight years of the Bush Administration, their wealth has increased by nearly 0 billion — the same amount that they were demanding We give to them for the "bailout." Why don’t they just spend the money they made under Bush to bail themselves out? They’d still have nearly a trillion dollars left over to spread amongst themselves!

Of course, they are not going to do that — at least not voluntarily. George W. Bush was handed a 7 billion surplus when Bill Clinton left office. Because that money was OUR money and not HIS, he did what the rich prefer to do — spend it and never look back. Now we have a .5 trillion debt that will take seven generations from which to recover. Why — on –earth – did — our — "representatives" — give — these — robber — barons — $US850 BILLION — of – OUR — money?

Last week, proposed my own bailout plan. My suggestions, listed below, were predicated on the singular and simple belief that the rich must pull themselves up by their own platinum bootstraps. Sorry, fellows, but you drilled it into our heads one too many times: THERE…IS…NO…FREE… LUNCH ~ PERIOD! And thank you for encouraging us to hate people on welfare! So, there should have been NO HANDOUTS FROM US TO YOU! Last Friday, after voting AGAINST this BAILOUT, in an unprecedented turn of events, the House FLIP-FLOPPED their "No" Vote & said "Yes", in a rush version of a "bailout" bill vote. IN SPITE OF THE PEOPLE’S OVERWHELMING DISAPPROVAL OF THIS BAILOUT BILL… IN SPITE OF MILLIONS OF CALLS FROM THE PEOPLE CRASHING WASHINGTON "representatives’" PHONE LINES…IN SPITE OF CRASHING OUR POLITICIAN’S WEBSITES…IN SPITE OF HUNDREDS OF THOUSANDS OF PEOPLE PROTESTING AROUND THE COUNTRY… THEY VOTED FOR THIS BAILOUT! The People first succeeded on Monday with the House, but failed do it with the Senate and then THE HOUSE TURNED ON US TOO!

It is clear, though, we cannot simply continue protesting without proposing exactly what it is we think THESE IDIOTS should/’ve do/one. So, after consulting with a number of people smarter than Phil Gramm, here’s the proposal, now known as "Mike’s Rescue Plan." (From Michael Moore’s Bailout Plan) It has 10 simple, straightforward points. They are that you DIDN’T, BUT SHOULD’VE:

1. APPOINTED A SPECIAL PROSECUTOR TO CRIMINALLY INDICT ANYONE ON WALL STREET WHO KNOWINGLY CONTRIBUTED TO THIS COLLAPSE. Before any new money was expended, Congress should have committed, by resolution, to CRIMINALLY PROSECUTE ANYONE who had ANYTHING to do with the attempted SACKING OF OUR ECONOMY. This means that anyone who committed insider trading, securities fraud or any action that helped bring about this collapse should have and MUST GO TO JAIL! This Congress SHOULD HAVE called for a Special Prosecutor who would vigorously go after everyone who created the mess, and anyone else who attempts to scam the public in future. (I like Elliot Spitzer ~ so, he played a little hanky-panky…Wall Street hates him & this is a GOOD thing.)

2. THE RICH SHOULD HAVE PAID FOR THEIR OWN BAILOUT! They may have to live in 5 houses instead of 7. They may have to drive 9 cars instead of 13. The chef for their mini-terriers may have to be reassigned. But there is no way in hell, after forcing family incomes to go down more than ,000 dollars during the Bush years, that working people and the middle class should have to fork over one dime to underwrite the next yacht purchase.

If they truly needed the 0 billion they say they needed, well, here is an easy way they could have raised it:

a) Every couple makeing over a million dollars a year and every single taxpayer who makes over 0,000 a year should pay a 10% surcharge tax for five years. (It’s the Senator Sanders plan. He’s like Colonel Sanders, only he’s out to fry the right chickens.) That means the rich would have still been paying less income tax than when Carter was president. That would have raise a total of 0 billion.

b) Like nearly every other democracy, they should have charged a 0.25% tax on every stock transaction. This would have raised more than 0 billion in a year.

c) Because every stockholder is a patriotic American, stockholders should have forgone receiving a dividend check for ONE quarter and instead this money would have gone the treasury to help pay for the bullsh*t bailout.

d) 25% of major U.S. corporations currently pay NO federal income tax. Federal corporate tax revenues currently amount to 1.7% of the GDP compared to 5% in the 1950s. If we raised the corporate income tax BACK to the levels of the 1950s, this would give us an extra 0 billion.

All of this combined should have been enough to end the calamity. The rich would have gotten to keep their mansions and their servants and our United States government ("COUNTRY FIRST!") would’ve have a little leftover to repair some roads, bridges and schools…

3. YOU SHOULD HAVE BAIL OUT THE PEOPLE LOSING THEIR HOMES, NOT THE PEOPLE WHO WILL BUILD AN EIGHTH HOME! There are 1.3 million homes in foreclosure right now. That is what is at the heart of this problem. So, instead of giving the money to the banks as a gift, they should have paid down each of these mortgages by 0,000. They should have forced the banks to renegotiate the mortgage so the homeowner could pay on its current value. To insure that this help wouldn’t go to speculators and those who tried to making money by flipping houses, the bailout should have only been for people’s primary residences. And, in return for the 0K pay-down on the existing mortgage, the government would have gotten to share in the holding of the mortgage so it could get some of its money back. Thus, the total initial cost of fixing the mortgage crisis at its roots (instead of with the greedy lenders) is 0 billion, not 0 BILLION.

And let’s set the record straight. People who have defaulted on their mortgages are not "bad risks." They are our fellow Americans, and all they wanted was what we all want: a home to call their own. But, during the Bush years, millions of the People lost the decent paying jobs they had. SIX MILLION fell into poverty! SEVEN MILLION lost their health insurance! And, every one of them saw their real wages go DOWN by ,000! Those who DARE look down on these Americans who got hit with one bad break after another should be ASHAMED.! We are a better, stronger, safer and happier society when all of our citizens can afford to live in a home they own.

4. THERE SHOULD HAVE BEEN A STIPULATION THAT IF YOUR BANK OR COMPANY GOT ANY OF OUR MONEY IN A "BAILOUT," THEN WE OWN YOU. Sorry, that’s how it’s done. If the bank gives me money so I can buy a house, the bank "owns" that house until I pay it all back — with interest. Same deal for Wall Street. Whatever money you need to stay afloat, if our government considers you a safe risk — and necessary for the good of the country — then you can get a loan, but WE SHOULD OWN YOU. If you default, we will sell you. This is how the Swedish government did it and it worked.

5. ALL REGULATIONS SHOULD HAVE BEEN BE RESTORED. THE REAGAN REVOLUTION IS DEAD! This catastrophe happened because we let the fox have the keys to the hen-house. In 1999, Phil Gramm authored a bill to remove all the regulations that governed Wall Street and our banking system. The bill passed and Clinton signed it. Here’s what Sen.Phil Gramm, McCain’s chief economic advisor, said at the bill signing:

"In the 1930s … it was believed that government was the answer. It was believed that stability and growth came from government overriding the functioning of free markets.

"We are here today to repeal [that] because we have learned that government is not the answer. We have learned that freedom and competition are the answers. We have learned that we promote economic growth and we promote stability by having competition and freedom.

"I am proud to be here because this is an important bill; it is a deregulatory bill. I believe that that is the wave of the future, and I am awfully proud to have been a part of making it a reality."

FOR THIS NOT TO REOCCUR, This BILL SHOULD HAVE BEEN REPEALED! Bill Clinton could have helped by leading the effort for the repeal of the Gramm bill and the reinstating of even tougher regulations regarding our financial institutions. And when they were done with that, they should have restored the regulations for the airlines, the inspection of our food, the oil industry, OSHA, and every other entity that affects our daily lives. All oversight provisions for any "bailout" should have had enforcement monies attached to them and criminal penalties for all offenders.

6. IF IT’S TOO BIG TO FAIL, THEN THAT MEANS IT’S TOO BIG TO EXIST! Allowing the creation of these mega-mergers and not enforcing the monopoly and anti-trust laws has allowed a number of financial institutions and corporations to become so large, the very thought of their collapse means an even bigger collapse across the entire economy. No ONE or TWO companies should EVER have this kind of power! The so-called "economic Pearl Harbor" can’t happen when you have hundreds — thousands — of institutions where people have their money. When we have a dozen auto companies, if one goes belly-up, we DON’T FACE A NATIONAL DISASTER! If we have three separately-owned daily newspapers in your town, then one media company can’t call all the shots (I know… What am I thinking?! Who reads a paper anymore? Sure glad all those mergers and buyouts left us with a STRONG and "FREE" press!). Laws Should have been enacted to prevent companies from being so large and dominant that with one slingshot to the eye, the GIANT FALLS and DIES. And no institution should be allowed to set up money schemes that NO ONE understands. If you can’t explain it in two sentences, you shouldn’t be taking anyone’s money!

7. NO EXECUTIVE SHOULD EVER BE PAID MORE THAN 40 TIMES THEIR AVERAGE EMPLOYEE, AND NO EXECUTIVE SHOULD RECEIVE ANY KIND OF "PARACHUTE" OTHER THAN THE VERY GENEROUS SALARY HE OR SHE MADE WHILE WORKING FOR THE COMPANY. In 1980, the average American CEO made 45 times what their employees made. By 2003, they were making 254 times what their workers made. After 8 years of Bush, they now make over 400 times what their average employee makes. How We have allowed this to happen at publicly held companies is beyond reason. In Britain, the average CEO makes 28 times what their average employee makes. In Japan, it’s only 17 times! The last I heard, the CEO of Toyota was living the high life in Tokyo. How does he do it on so little money? Seriously, this is an OUTRAGE! We have created the mess we’re in by letting the people at the top become bloated beyond belief with millions of dollars. THIS HAS TO STOP! Not only should no executive who receives help out of this mess profit from it, but any executive who was in charge of running his company into the ground should be FIRED before the company receives ANY help.

8. CONGRESS SHOULD HAVE STRENGTHENED THE FDIC AND MADE IT A MODEL FOR PROTECTING NOT ONLY PEOPLE’S SAVINGS, BUT ALSO THEIR PENSIONS AND THEIR HOMES. Obama was correct to propose expanding FDIC protection of people’s savings in their banks to 0,000. But, this same sort of government insurance must be given to our NEVER have to worry about whether or not the money they’ve put away for their old age will be there. This should have meant strict government oversight of companies who manage their employees’ funds — or perhaps it means the companies should have been forced to turn over those funds and their management to the government? People’s private retirement funds must also be protected, but perhaps it’s time to consider not having one’s retirement invested in the casino known as the stock market??? Our government should have a solemn duty to guarantee that no one who grows old in this country has to worry about becoming destitute.

9. EVERYBODY NEEDS TO TAKE A DEEP BREATH, CALM DOWN, AND NOT LET FEAR RULE THE DAY. Turn off your TVs! We are NOT in the Second Great Depression. The sky is NOT falling, Chicken Little! Pundits and politicians have lied to us so FAST and FURIOUS it’s hard not to be affected by all the fear mongering. Even I wrote to and repeated what I heard on the news last week, that the Dow had the biggest one day drop in its history. Well, that was true in terms of points, but its 7% drop came nowhere close to Black Monday in 1987 when the stock market in one day lost 23% of its value. In the ’80s, 3,000 banks closed, but America didn’t go out of business. These institutions have always had their ups and downs and eventually it works out. It has to, because the rich do not like their wealth being disrupted! They have a vested interest in calming things down and getting back into their Jacuzzis before they slip into their million thread-count sheets to drift off to a peaceful, Vodka tonic and Ambien-induced slumber.

As crazy as things are right now, tens of thousands of people got a car loan last week. Thousands went to the bank and got a mortgage to buy a home. Students just back to college found banks more than happy to put them into hock for the next 15 years with a student loan. I was even pre-approved for a USK personal loan. Yes, life has gone on with little-or-no-change (other than the whopping 6.1% umeployment rate, but that happened last month). Not a single person lost any of his/her monies in bank, or a treasury note, or in a CD. And, the perhaps the most amazing thing is that the American public FINALLY didn’t buy the scare campaign. The citizens didn’t blink, instead telling Congress to take that bailout and shove it. THAT was impressive. Why didn’t the population succumb to the fright-filled warnings from their president and his cronies? Well, you can only say ‘Saddam has the bomb’ so many times before the people realize you’re a lying sack of shit. After eight long years, the nation is worn out and simply can’t take it any longer. The WORLD is fed up & I don’t blame them.

10. THEY SHOULD HAVE CREATED A NATIONAL BANK, A "PEOPLE’S BANK." Since they’re really itching to print up a trillion dollars, instead of giving it to a few rich people, why don’t We give it to ourselves? Now that We own Freddie and Fannie, why not set up a People’s bank? One that can provide low-interest loans for all sorts of people who want to own a home, start a small business, go to school, come up with the cure for cancer or create the next great invention. And, now that we own AIG – the country’s largest insurance company – let’s take the next step and PROVIDE HEALTH INSURANCE FOR EVERYONE. MEDICARE FOR ALL! It will SAVE us SO MUCH MONEY in the LONG RUN (not to mention bring peace of mind to all). And, America won’t be 12th on the life expectancy list! We’ll be able to have a longer lifespan, enjoying our government-protected pension and will live to see the day when the corporate criminals who caused this much misery are let out of prison so that We can help re-acclimate them to plain old ordinary, civilian life — a life with ONE nice home and ONE gas-free car invented with help from the People’s Bank.

P.S. Call your Senators NOW !!! —> www.visi.com/juan/congress/

Since they voted against passing the extension of unemployment benefits and skipped out to "campaign" to us to be re-elected…call them and tell them you will vote for the other "guy" if they don’t get their act together!

UPDATE:

The Bailout Is A Truly Evil Disaster And Enabler Pelosi Must Go

We are hearing more and more reports of how badly the ill-advised banker’s bailout is being handled, multi-million dollar bonuses for Paulson’s old cronies at Goldman Sachs, billions going to finance the takeover of rival banks, making the "too big to fail" even bigger, and the taxpayer getting an otherwise rotten deal for their investment. We even heard a Republic senator asking how fast they could blow the money.

NONE of this could have happened without the fawning complicity of Nancy Pelosi, who infamously said it was Bush’s proposal, INSTEAD of coming forward with a robust alternative plan. Just like Bush, she believes she is immune, she believes she is unaccountable, and shame on us if we don’t do everything we can to defeat her this Tuesday, and replace her with Cindy Sheehan.

Here is Cindy’s last TV spot. Please make whatever donation you can to put this ad on the air in these critical final days.

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The one thing we know is that we must continue to speak out. We must continue to challenge. Surrendering is what our current so-called representatives in Congress are so prone to, NOT what we do. Ultimate victory is not only possible, it is assured if we work as hard as we can for real change, not just the rebranding of the same old boys’
network.

And we promise you, immediately after the election we will go right back to work on pure issue advocacy full time, to continue to build the base of action for the future.

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Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: P-40 Warhawk & F-4 Corsair hanging over the SR-71 Blackbird, among others
auto financing
Image by Chris Devers
Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Curtiss P-40E Warhawk (Kittyhawk IA):

Whether known as the Warhawk, Tomahawk, or Kittyhawk, the Curtiss P-40 proved to be a successful, versatile fighter during the first half of World War II. The shark-mouthed Tomahawks that Gen. Claire Chennault’s "Flying Tigers" flew in China against the Japanese remain among the most popular airplanes of the war. P-40E pilot Lt. Boyd D. Wagner became the first American ace of World War II when he shot down six Japanese aircraft in the Philippines in mid-December 1941.

Curtiss-Wright built this airplane as Model 87-A3 and delivered it to Canada as a Kittyhawk I in 1941. It served until 1946 in No. 111 Squadron, Royal Canadian Air Force. U.S. Air Force personnel at Andrews Air Force Base restored it in 1975 to represent an aircraft of the 75th Fighter Squadron, 23rd Fighter Group, 14th Air Force.

Donated by the Exchange Club in Memory of Kellis Forbes.

Manufacturer:
Curtiss Aircraft Company

Date:
1939

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 330 x 970cm, 2686kg, 1140cm (10ft 9 15/16in. x 31ft 9 7/8in., 5921.6lb., 37ft 4 13/16in.)

Materials:
All-metal, semi-monocoque

Physical Description:
Single engine, single seat, fighter aircraft.

• • • • •

See more photos of this, and the Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird:

No reconnaissance aircraft in history has operated globally in more hostile airspace or with such complete impunity than the SR-71, the world’s fastest jet-propelled aircraft. The Blackbird’s performance and operational achievements placed it at the pinnacle of aviation technology developments during the Cold War.

This Blackbird accrued about 2,800 hours of flight time during 24 years of active service with the U.S. Air Force. On its last flight, March 6, 1990, Lt. Col. Ed Yielding and Lt. Col. Joseph Vida set a speed record by flying from Los Angeles to Washington, D.C., in 1 hour, 4 minutes, and 20 seconds, averaging 3,418 kilometers (2,124 miles) per hour. At the flight’s conclusion, they landed at Washington-Dulles International Airport and turned the airplane over to the Smithsonian.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Lockheed Aircraft Corporation

Designer:
Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson

Date:
1964

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 55ft 7in. x 107ft 5in., 169998.5lb. (5.638m x 16.942m x 32.741m, 77110.8kg)
Other: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 107ft 5in. x 55ft 7in. (5.638m x 32.741m x 16.942m)

Materials:
Titanium

Physical Description:
Twin-engine, two-seat, supersonic strategic reconnaissance aircraft; airframe constructed largley of titanium and its alloys; vertical tail fins are constructed of a composite (laminated plastic-type material) to reduce radar cross-section; Pratt and Whitney J58 (JT11D-20B) turbojet engines feature large inlet shock cones.

• • • • •

Quoting Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Vought F4U-1D Corsair :

By V-J Day, September 2, 1945, Corsair pilots had amassed an 11:1 kill ratio against enemy aircraft. The aircraft’s distinctive inverted gull-wing design allowed ground clearance for the huge, three-bladed Hamilton Standard Hydromatic propeller, which spanned more than 4 meters (13 feet). The Pratt and Whitney R-2800 radial engine and Hydromatic propeller was the largest and one of the most powerful engine-propeller combinations ever flown on a fighter aircraft.

Charles Lindbergh flew bombing missions in a Corsair with Marine Air Group 31 against Japanese strongholds in the Pacific in 1944. This airplane is painted in the colors and markings of the Corsair Sun Setter, a Marine close-support fighter assigned to the USS Essex in July 1944.

Transferred from the United States Navy.

Manufacturer:
Vought Aircraft Company

Date:
1940

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 460 x 1020cm, 4037kg, 1250cm (15ft 1 1/8in. x 33ft 5 9/16in., 8900lb., 41ft 1/8in.)

Materials:
All metal with fabric-covered wings behind the main spar.

Physical Description:
R-2800 radial air-cooled engine with 1,850 horsepower, turned a three-blade Hamilton Standard Hydromatic propeller with solid aluminum blades spanning 13 feet 1 inch; wing bent gull-shaped on both sides of the fuselage.

Get The Best Bad Credit report Car Funding

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Antique Car Pins from the Soviet Union
auto financing
Image by Hugo-90
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I got really excited to see these and since the prices were low, I bought a lot of them, while others stood around and talked. You can see that I got all seven of these for .75.

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Nice Auto Financing photos

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Check out these auto financing images:

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: main hall panorama (P-40 et al)
auto financing
Image by Chris Devers
See more photos of this, and the Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Curtiss P-40E Warhawk (Kittyhawk IA):

Whether known as the Warhawk, Tomahawk, or Kittyhawk, the Curtiss P-40 proved to be a successful, versatile fighter during the first half of World War II. The shark-mouthed Tomahawks that Gen. Claire Chennault’s "Flying Tigers" flew in China against the Japanese remain among the most popular airplanes of the war. P-40E pilot Lt. Boyd D. Wagner became the first American ace of World War II when he shot down six Japanese aircraft in the Philippines in mid-December 1941.

Curtiss-Wright built this airplane as Model 87-A3 and delivered it to Canada as a Kittyhawk I in 1941. It served until 1946 in No. 111 Squadron, Royal Canadian Air Force. U.S. Air Force personnel at Andrews Air Force Base restored it in 1975 to represent an aircraft of the 75th Fighter Squadron, 23rd Fighter Group, 14th Air Force.

Donated by the Exchange Club in Memory of Kellis Forbes.

Manufacturer:
Curtiss Aircraft Company

Date:
1939

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 330 x 970cm, 2686kg, 1140cm (10ft 9 15/16in. x 31ft 9 7/8in., 5921.6lb., 37ft 4 13/16in.)

Materials:
All-metal, semi-monocoque

Physical Description:
Single engine, single seat, fighter aircraft.

Long Description:
Whether it was the Tomahawk, Warhawk, or Kittyhawk, the Curtiss P-40 was a successful and versatile fighter aircraft during the first half of World War II. The shark-mouthed Tomahawks that General Claire Chennault led against the Japanese remain among the most popular airplanes of the war. In the Phillipines, Lt. Boyd D. Wagner became the first American ace of World War II while flying a P-40E when he shot down six Japanese aircraft during mid-December 1941. P-40s were first-line Army Air Corps fighters at the start of the war but they soon gave way to more advanced designs such as the Republic P-47 Thunderbolt and the Lockheed P-38 Lightning (see NASM collection for both aircraft). The P-40 is not ranked among the best overall fighters of the war but it was a rugged, effective design available in large numbers early in the war when America and her allies urgently required them. The P-40 remained in production from 1939 to the end of 1944 and a total of 13, 737 were built.

Design engineer Dr. Donovan R. Berlin layed the foundation for the P-40 in 1935 when he designed the agile, but lightly-armed, P-36 fighter equipped with a radial, air-cooled engine. The Curtiss-Wright Corporation won a production contract for 210 P-36 airplanes in 1937-the largest Army airplane contract awarded since World War I. Worldwide, fighter aircraft designs matured rapidly during the late 1930s and it was soon obvious that the P-36 was no match for newer European designs. High altitude performance in particular became a priceless commodity. Berlin attempted to improve the P-36 by redesigning it in to accommodate a turbo-supercharged Allison V-1710-11 inline, liquid-cooled engine. The new aircraft was designated the XP-37 but proved unpopular with pilots. The turbo-supercharger was not reliable and Berlin had placed the cockpit too far back on the fuselage, restricting the view to the front of the fighter. Nonetheless, when the engine was not giving trouble, the more-streamlined XP-37 was much faster than the P-36.

Curtiss tried again in 1938. Berlin had modified another P-36 with a new Allison V-1710-19 engine. It was designated the XP-40 and first flew on October 14, 1938. The XP-40 looked promising and Curtiss offered it to Army Air Corps leaders who evaluated the airplane at Wright Field, Ohio, in 1939, along with several other fighter proposals. The P-40 won the competition, after some modifications, and Curtiss received an order for 540. At this time, the armament package consisted of two .50 caliber machine guns in the fuselage and four .30 caliber machine guns in the wings.

After production began in March 1940, France ordered 140 P-40s but the British took delivery of these airplanes when Paris surrendered. The British named the aircraft Tomahawks but found they performed poorly in high-altitude combat over northern Europe and relegated them to low-altitude operations in North Africa. The Russians bought more than 2,000 P-40s but details of their operational history remain obscure.

When the United States declared war, P-40s equipped many of the Army Air Corps’s front line fighter units. The plucky fighter eventually saw combat in almost every theater of operations being the most effective in the China-Burma-India (CBI) Theater. Of all the CBI groups that gained the most notoriety of the entire war, and remains to this day synonymous with the P-40, is the American Volunteer Group (AVG) or the Flying Tigers. The unit was organized after the Chinese gave former U. S. Army Air Corps Captain Claire Lee Chennault almost 9 million dollars in 1940 to buy aircraft and recruit pilots to fly against the Japanese. Chennault’s most important support within the Chinese government came from Madam Chiang Kai-shek, a Lt. Colonel in the Chinese Air Force and for a time, the service’s overall commander.

The money from China diverted an order placed by the British Royal Air Force for 100 Curtiss-Wright P-40B Tomahawks but buying airplanes was only one important step in creating a fighting air unit. Trained pilots were needed, and quickly, as tensions across the Pacific escalated. On April 15, 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt quietly signed an Executive Order permitting Chennault to recruit directly from the ranks of American military reserve pilots. Within a few months, 350 flyers joined from pursuit (fighter), bomber, and patrol squadrons. In all, about half the pilots in the Flying Tigers came from the U. S. Navy and Marine Corps while the Army Air Corps supplied one-third. Factory test pilots at Bell, Consolidated, and other companies, and commercial airline pilots, filled the remaining slots.

The Flying Tigers flew their first mission on December 20. The unit’s name was derived from the ferocious fangs and teeth painted on the nose of AVG P-40s at either side of the distinctive, large radiator air intake. The idea is said to originate from pictures in a magazine that showed Royal Air Force Tomahawks of No. 112 Squadron, operating in the western desert of North Africa, adorned with fangs and teeth painted around their air intakes. The Flying Tigers were the first real opposition the Japanese military encountered. In less than 7 months of action, AVG pilots destroyed about 115 Japanese aircraft and lost only 11 planes in air-to-air combat. The AVG disbanded on July 4, 1942, and its assets, including a few pilots, became a part of the U. S. Army Air Forces (AAF) 23rd Fighter Group in the newly activated 14th Air Force. Chennault, now a Brigadier General, assumed command of the 14th AF and by war’s end, the 23rd was one of the highest-scoring Army fighter groups.

As wartime experience in the P-40 mounted, Curtiss made many modifications. Engineers added armor plate, better self-sealing fuel tanks, and more powerful engines. They modified the cockpit to improve visibility and changed the armament package to six, wing-mounted, .50 caliber machine guns. The P-40E Kittyhawk was the first model with this gun package and it entered service in time to serve in the AVG. The last model produced in quantity was the P-40N, the lightest P-40 built in quantity, and much faster than previous models. Curtiss built a single P-40Q. It was the fastest P-40 to fly (679 kph/422 mph) but it could not match the performance of the P-47 Thunderbolt and the P-51 Mustang so Curtiss ended development of the P-40 series with this model. In addition to the AAF, many Allied nations bought and flew P-40s including England, France, China, Russia, Australia, New Zealand, Canada, South Africa, and Turkey.

The Smithsonian P-40E did not serve in the U. S. military. Curtiss-Wright built it in Buffalo, New York, as Model 87-A3 and delivered it to Canada as a Kittyhawk IA on March 11, 1941. It served in No. 111 Squadron, Royal Canadian Air Force (RCAF). When the Japanese navy moved to attack Midway, they sent a diversionary battle group to menace the Aleutian Islands. Canada moved No. 111 Squadron to Alaska to help defend the region. After the Japanese threat diminished, the unit returned to Canada and eventually transferred to England without its P-40s. The RCAF declared the NASM Kittyhawk IA surplus on July 27, 1946, and the aircraft eventually returned to the United States. It had several owners before ending up with the Explorer Scouts youth group in Meridian, Mississippi. During the early 1960s, the Smithsonian began searching for a P-40 with a documented history of service in the AVG but found none. In 1964, the Exchange Club in Meridian donated the Kittyhawk IA to the National Aeronautical Collection, in memory of Mr. Kellis Forbes, a local man devoted to Boys Club activities. A U. S. Air Force Reserve crew airlifted the fighter to Andrews Air Force Base, Maryland, on March 13, 1964. Andrews personnel restored the airplane in 1975 and painted it to represent an aircraft of the 75th Fighter Squadron, 23rd Fighter Group, 14th Air Force.

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Quoting from Wikipedia | Curtiss P-40 Warhawk:

The Curtiss P-40 Warhawk was an American single-engine, single-seat, all-metal fighter and ground attack aircraft that first flew in 1938. It was used by the air forces of 28 nations, including those of most Allied powers during World War II, and remained in front line service until the end of the war. It was the third most-produced American fighter, after the P-51 and P-47; by November 1944, when production of the P-40 ceased, 13,738 had been built, all at Curtiss-Wright Corporation‘s main production facility at Buffalo, New York.

The P-40 design was a modification of the previous Curtiss P-36; this reduced development time and enabled a rapid entry into production and operational service.

Warhawk was the name the United States Army Air Corps adopted for all models, making it the official name in the United States for all P-40s. The British Commonwealth and Soviet air forces used the name Tomahawk for models equivalent to the P-40B and P-40C, and the name Kittyhawk for models equivalent to the P-40D and all later variants.

The P-40’s lack of a two-stage supercharger made it inferior to Luftwaffe fighters such as the Messerschmitt Bf 109 or the Focke-Wulf Fw 190 in high-altitude combat and it was rarely used in operations in Northwest Europe. Between 1941 and 1944, however, the P-40 played a critical role with Allied air forces in three major theaters: North Africa, the Southwest Pacific and China. It also had a significant role in the Middle East, Southeast Asia, Eastern Europe, Alaska and Italy. The P-40’s performance at high altitudes was not as critical in those theaters, where it served as an air superiority fighter, bomber escort and fighter bomber.

P-40s first saw combat with the British Commonwealth squadrons of the Desert Air Force (DAF) in the Middle East and North African campaigns, during June 1941. The Royal Air Force‘s No. 112 Squadron was among the first to operate Tomahawks, in North Africa, and the unit was the first to feature the "shark mouth" logo, copying similar markings on some Luftwaffe Messerschmitt Bf 110 twin-engine fighters. [N 1]

Although it gained a post-war reputation as a mediocre design, suitable only for close air support, more recent research including scrutiny of the records of individual Allied squadrons indicates that the P-40 performed surprisingly well as an air superiority fighter, at times suffering severe losses, but also taking a very heavy toll on enemy aircraft. The P-40 offered the additional advantage of low cost, which kept it in production as a ground-attack fighter long after it was obsolete in the air superiority role.

As of 2008, 19 P-40s were airworthy.